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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailPRACE Best Practice Guide 2020: Modern Processors
Saastad, O. W.; Kapanova, K.; Markov, S. et al

Report (2020)

This Best Practice Guide (BPG) extends the previously developed series of BPGs by providing an update on new technologies and systems for the further support of European High Performance Computing (HPC ... [more ▼]

This Best Practice Guide (BPG) extends the previously developed series of BPGs by providing an update on new technologies and systems for the further support of European High Performance Computing (HPC) user community in achieving a remarkable performance of their large-scale applications. It covers existing systems and aims to provide support for scientists to port, build and run their applications on these systems. While some benchmarking is part of this guide, the results provided are mainly an illustration of the different systems characteristics, and should not be used as guides for the comparison of systems presented nor should be used for system procurement considerations. Procurement and benchmarking are well covered by other PRACE work packages and are out of this BPG's discussion scope. This BPG document has grown to be a hybrid of field guide and a textbook approach. The system and processor coverage provide some relevant technical information for the users who need a deeper knowledge of the system in order to fully utilise the hardware. While the field guide approach provides hints and starting points for porting and building scientific software. For this, a range of compilers, libraries, debuggers, performance analysis tools, etc. are covered. While recommendation for compilers, libraries and flags are covered we acknowledge that there is no magic bullet as all codes are different. Unfortunately there is often no way around the trial and error approach. Some in-depth documentation of the covered processors is provided. This includes some background on the inner workings of the processors considered; the number of threads each core can handle; how these threads are implemented and how these threads (instruction streams) are scheduled onto different execution units within the core. In addition, this guide describes how the vector units with different lengths (256, 512 or in the case of SVE - variable and generally unknown until execution time) are implemented. As most of HPC work up to now has been done in 64 bit floating point the emphasis is on this data type, specially for vectors. In addition to the processor executing units, memory in its many levels of hierarchy is important. The different implementations of Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) are also covered in this BPG. The guide gives a description of the hardware for a selection of relevant processors currently deployed in some PRACE HPC systems. It includes ARM64(Huawei/HiSilicon and Marvell) and x86-64 (AMD and Intel). It provides information on the programming models and development environment as well as information about porting programs. Furthermore it provides sections about strategies on how to analyze and improve the performance of applications. While this guide does not provide an update on all recent processors, some of the previous BPG releases do cover other processor architectures not discussed in this guide (e.g. Power architecture) and should be considered as a staring point for work. This guide aims also to increase the user awareness on energy and power consumption of individual applications by providing some analysis on usefulness of maximum CPU frequency scaling based on the type of application considered (e.g. CPU-bound, memory-bound, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Learning to Predict the Feasibility of Priority-Based Ethernet Network Configurations
Mai, Tieu Long UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

Report (2020)

This study is a contribution towards leveraging deep learning to further automate the design of communication architectures used in critical systems and, ultimately, design systems that are more efficient ... [more ▼]

This study is a contribution towards leveraging deep learning to further automate the design of communication architectures used in critical systems and, ultimately, design systems that are more efficient in terms of resource usage. Two well identified use-cases of deep-learning, and AI at large, in the design of critical systems are 1) fast prediction techniques that can replace, at some stages of the design, exact approaches, and 2) technology-agnostic configuration algorithms, {\it i.e.} algorithms not relying on extensive domain knowledge. This paper contributes to the first use-case and presents what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first deep learning model for feasibility prediction of real-time Ethernet networks. Machine learning has been recently applied in real-time systems to predict whether Ethernet network configurations are feasible in terms of meeting deadline constraints without executing conventional schedulability analysis. However, the existing prediction techniques require domain expertise to choose the relevant input features and may perform poorly when topologies or traffic patterns differ significantly from the ones in the training data. To overcome these problems, we propose a Graph Neural Network (GNN) prediction model that synthesizes relevant features directly from the raw data. This deep learning model possesses the ability to exploit relations among flows, links, and queues in switched Ethernet networks, and, over the 13 testing sets used in this work, has proven an ability to generalize beyond the training data that is significantly superior to traditional ML algorithms. We also explore the use of ensembles of GNNs and show that it enhances the robustness of the predictions. An evaluation on heterogeneous testing sets comprising actual automotive networks, shows that ensembles of 32 GNN models features a prediction accuracy ranging from 79.3% to 90% for Ethernet networks using priorities as the Quality-of-Service mechanism. The use of ensemble models provides a speedup factor ranging from 77 to 1715 compared to schedulability analysis. Such speed-up factors unlock new possibilities for design-space exploration and the development of near-interactive design tools. A practical advantage of our model is that it automates the feature engineering process, and does not require domain expertise. In that regard, the model could potentially be efficient in other areas of real-time computing. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in Southern and Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Richardson, Dominic; Cebotari, Victor UL; Carraro, Alessandro et al

Report (2020)

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See detailCoronavirus pandemic in the EU – Fundamental Rights Implications in Luxembourg -July2020
Vukovich, Lilla UL; Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The state of emergency which was declared for three months in Luxembourg came to its end on 24 June 2020. After three weeks of intense legislative work, on 22 June 2020 the parliament adopted two “COVID ... [more ▼]

The state of emergency which was declared for three months in Luxembourg came to its end on 24 June 2020. After three weeks of intense legislative work, on 22 June 2020 the parliament adopted two “COVID-19 laws” to provide a continuous legislative framework addressing the COVID-19 situation after the end of the state of emergency. The first piece of legislation contains measures with respect to individuals. They revolve around the limitation of mass gatherings, the application of protective measures such as wearing face masks or social distancing, and the identification, follow-up and removal of infected and potentially infected people. The second piece of legislation targets measures relating to economic, sporting or cultural activities and welcoming the public. It reinforces the current health restrictions and rules, for example in restaurants, bars, and cafes. [less ▲]

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See detailPraxistagebücher aus der Sozialen Arbeit in Zeiten von Covid-19 – Möglichkeiten, Herausforderungen und Grenzen der digitalen Kommunikation
Flammang, Manou Laure UL; Böwen, Petra UL

Report (2020)

In this publication, representatives from 8 different practical fields of social work describe how communication and interaction with their target groups changed during the confinement measures due to ... [more ▼]

In this publication, representatives from 8 different practical fields of social work describe how communication and interaction with their target groups changed during the confinement measures due to Covid-19 and how they deal with this exceptional situation. The focus is on digital communication with the addressees. The publication is rounded off by a comprehensive analysis of the practice diaries and considerations for the future of digitisation in social work. It contains contributions in German and in French. [less ▲]

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See detailLe bilan de l'évaluation systémique de l'éducation au Luxembourg
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Schmit, Paul; Ugen, Sonja UL

Report (2020)

Dans le domaine de l'éducation, le Luxembourg participe depuis 20 ans régulièrement à des études d’évaluation systémique, menées à l’échelle nationale et internationale, afin de pouvoir fonder ses ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine de l'éducation, le Luxembourg participe depuis 20 ans régulièrement à des études d’évaluation systémique, menées à l’échelle nationale et internationale, afin de pouvoir fonder ses décisions politiques sur des données empiriques solides. La présente rétrospective comprend une vue d’ensemble des types de données et de rapports disponibles sur le Luxembourg ainsi que de leurs principaux constats transversaux (chapitre 2). La publication des résultats des premières études PISA menées au début des années 2000 (MENFP & SCRIPT, 2000, 2004) avait entraîné un choc, car le pays et les parties prenantes avaient été confrontés à un ranking mitigé concernant la performance du système scolaire luxembourgeois, comparée aux autres pays participants. Les principaux constats ont été corroborés de manière cohérente dans d’autres études également (p.ex. ICCS en 2009, ICILS en 2018). Des performances faibles généralisées ont été rapportées dans tous les domaines évalués. Les caractéristiques des élèves (contexte socio-économique, migratoire et linguistique) ont un effet important sur leur performance dans le système scolaire luxembourgeois. L’équité en matière de réussite scolaire est jugée faible et constitue un véritable défi. Ces constats relatifs à l’importance des caractéristiques des élèves dans leur réussite n’étaient pas tout à fait nouveaux, car ils avaient déjà été documentés, dans les grandes lignes, dans le cadre de l’étude Magrip de 1968 (Brunner & Martin, 2011; Kerger & Schrobildgen, 1986). En revanche, ce qui est surprenant, c’est que, d’une part, ces constats ont peu évolué au fil des différents cycles d’évaluation et que, d’autre part, les facteurs déterminants menant à ces résultats se sont encore renforcés au fil du temps. Ainsi, depuis leur introduction en 2009, les épreuves standardisées (« ÉpStan »), le programme de monitoring scolaire continu adapté au système scolaire luxembourgeois, ont confirmé les défis inhérents. Les principaux constats des évaluations systémiques effectuées au cours de ces 20 dernières années ont permis d’identifier 8 domaines thématiques prioritaires sur lesquels l'Observatoire national de la qualité scolaire (ONQS) désire concentrer son action au cours des années à venir (chapitre 3). En vue d’une mise en perspective internationale, les approches de plusieurs pays sont présentées, afin de recenser des constats partagés et des enseignements à tirer. Toutefois, les limites d’un tel exercice de comparaison sont également examinées, car le contexte socio-culturel et socio-politique spécifique à un pays détermine, de manière considérable, le choix et le développement du modèle éducatif national (chapitre 4). L’utilisation des évaluations systémiques ainsi que l’impact de celles-ci sur la définition de la politique éducative sont analysés sur ces 20 dernières années. Le rôle du monitoring scolaire présente deux différences importantes sur la période examinée. Ainsi, au cours de la première décennie étudiée, les évaluations systémiques avaient servi d’éléments déclencheurs pour motiver une politique volontariste de réformes. Ensuite, au cours de la seconde décennie étudiée, la stratégie a mué, pour diverses raisons, vers des axes de développement ayant guidé et structuré des actions de réforme plus ciblées, mais de moindre envergure (chapitre 5). L’ONQS conclut le présent rapport en formulant trois recommandations, fondées sur le bilan des évaluations systémiques auxquelles a participé le Luxembourg, adressées aux acteurs politiques, sur base de l’article 4 de la loi du 13 mars 2018 (chapitre 6). L’ONQS promeut une cohérence renforcée en matière de gouvernance à deux niveaux. D’une part, une formulation d’objectifs du système éducatif (Bildungsziele) intelligibles et mesurables et, d’autre part, l’établissement d’une procédure transparente de prise de décision en matière d’éducation. L’ONQS recommande d’établir une stratégie à long terme en matière d’évaluation systémique afin de pouvoir mesurer l’impact des mesures ou réformes mises en oeuvre à l’échelle nationale ou locale. L’ONQS recommande de clarifier les principes de gestion et d’exploitation des données disponibles, provenant d’évaluations systémiques nationales et internationales ou issues du fonctionnement administratif et organisationnel - et cela tant pour l’éducation formelle que pour l’éducation non-formelle - afin d’optimiser l’utilisation des données, d’améliorer la qualité des analyses et d’élargir l’envergure des études dans le but d’améliorer la qualité scolaire. Recommandation En guise de conclusion, le présent rapport insiste sur le constat persistant de l'inertie et de la capacité limitée du système éducatif luxembourgeois à trouver des réponses adéquates et durables à des problèmes fondamentaux, à savoir l’impact du contexte socio-économique du milieu familial sur les chances de réussite des élèves, aggravé par un modèle de ségrégation horizontal et vertical très marqué et d’un modèle d’apprentissage et d’usage des langues inadapté à des élèves ne maîtrisant pas les langues usuelles du pays depuis leur plus jeune âge. L’ONQS propose de mettre en oeuvre une stratégie concertée en vue d’élaborer un curriculum national susceptible de mieux tenir compte des éléments suivants : contraintes du multilinguisme à différents niveaux du système éducatif, meilleure coordination entre l’éducation formelle et l’éducation non-formelle afin d’améliorer l’égalité des chances en début de scolarisation, appréciation de l’allocation de ressources dédiées à l’accompagnement et au soutien des élèves qui ne possèdent pas les mêmes chances de départ. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport RIAL 2019
Bernard Gottlieb; Meyers, Christian UL

Report (2020)

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See detailQUALINET White Paper on Definitions of Immersive Media Experience (IMEx)
Perkis, Andrew; Timmerer, Christian; Baraković, Sabina et al

Report (2020)

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See detailAttracting and Protecting Seasonal Workers from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is a country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. In Luxembourg, 296.500 residents (47,4%) of a total population of 626.100 are foreigners. 247.900 are EU citizens representing 39.6% of the total population of the country and 83,6% of the foreign population of the country. The 48.600 third-country nationals represent only 7,8% of the total population and 16.4% of the foreign population. Due to its size and geographic location, Luxembourg has an access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial center was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centers and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which, up until now, the country has found within the Greater Region. With regards to the labour market: the number of salaried workers on 31 December 2019 shows that Luxembourgish residents represented only 26,5%, EU citizens (other than Luxembourgish) 23,4% and third-country national residents only 4,2%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 46% of the workforce. The Luxembourgish labour market is not a national labour market but rather a labour market of the Greater Region with a trend to become an international labour market. This situation can be explained in the context of the free movement of services and the posted workers coming from other Member States to Luxembourg. The need of workforce must be placed in this particular context, taking into account the “internal reserves”, the free movement of persons from which EU citizens, who reside in the country, benefit and the large majority of cross-border workers. To this framework one must add a range of measures that were introduced by the Luxembourgish authorities in order to regulate the labour market. Some of these measures did not have labour market needs as their only objective, but were also foreseen to manage integration processes. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to implement an economic diversification policy, focused on attracting high added value activities such as ICT, health technologies, space, logistics, industry and FinTech. In consequence and taking into consideration the specificities of Luxembourg’s labour market, third-country national seasonal workers are not a priority of the Luxembourgish government. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2019
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2020)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced by the figures on net migration, which remains the main reason for the demographic growth of the Luxembourgish resident population. Net immigration of third-country nationals remains high (7 336) and exceeds that of citizens of the European Union (EU; 4 806). The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2019 (2 047 applications) compared to the levels registered pre-‘migration crisis’ (1 091 in 2014). Family reunification remains the principal reason for third-country nationals to immigrate to Luxembourg, followed by economic reasons and international protection. Several major developments occurred in the field of legal migration. The introduction of a new long-term visa simplifies the entry and stay of third-country nationals for a period of up to one year, without having to apply for a residence permit. In order to guarantee the rights of British citizens working and residing in Luxembourg before the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU (Brexit) four laws were adopted, most of them were supposed to enter into force if there was a non-deal Brexit. Other important changes related to migration result from the adoption of the law of 4 December 2019 amending the law of 29 August 2009 on the free movement of persons and immigration (hereinafter Immigration Law). This law takes into account the expert’s comments during the evaluation in 2016 of the application of Schengen. [less ▲]

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See detailVarieties of Democracy (V-DEM) Report "Autocratization Surges - Resistance Grows" (2020)
Danescu, Elena UL

Report (2020)

Main findings 2020. Autocratization – the decline of democratic traits – accelerates in the world: for the first time since 2001, autocracies are in the majority: 92 countries – home to 54% of the global ... [more ▼]

Main findings 2020. Autocratization – the decline of democratic traits – accelerates in the world: for the first time since 2001, autocracies are in the majority: 92 countries – home to 54% of the global population. Almost 35% of the world’s population live in autocratizing nations – 2.6 billion people. EU has its first non-democracy as a member: Hungary is now classed as an electoral authoritarian regime. Major G20 nations and all regions of the world are part of the “third wave of autocratization”: autocratization is affecting Brazil, India, the United States of America, and Turkey, which are major economies with sizeable populations, exercising substantial global military, economic, and political influence. Latin America is back to a level last recorded in the early 1990s while Eastern Europe and Central Asia are at post-Soviet Union lows. India is on the verge of losing its status as a democracy due to the severely shrinking of space for the media, civil society, and the opposition under Prime Minister Modi’s government. Pro-democracy resistance grows from 27% in 2009 to 44% in 2019 amidst the autocratization surge. During 2019, citizens in 29 democracies mobilized against autocratization, such as in Bolivia, Poland, and Malawi. Citizens staged mass protests in 34 autocracies, among them Algeria, Hong Kong, and Sudan. [less ▲]

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See detailHOW DO EU MEMBER STATES TREAT CASES OF MISSING UNACCOMPANIED MINORS?
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2020)

The phenomenon of migrant children going missing has recently received increased attention from the media in several Member States and the European Parliament. The debate focusses on unaccompanied minors ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of migrant children going missing has recently received increased attention from the media in several Member States and the European Parliament. The debate focusses on unaccompanied minors who go missing. There is concern that the disappearance of unaccompanied minors is not addressed yet in an effective manner, as reflected in several recent publications by international organisations2 and European NGOs. In response to this concern, the EMN, at the request of the European Commission, has mapped how cases of unaccompanied children going missing are being treated in the Member States, and respectively, how data on missing children is collected. NGOs have been asked to reflect on the outcomes of this mapping exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailDraft prEN 1994-1-1: 042020 + comments, Document
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hicks, Stephen; Banfi, Mike et al

Report (2020)

Development of second generation for Eurocode 4, part 1: prEN 1994-1-1: April 2020

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See detailCountry study - Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak in the EU - Fundamental Rights Implications - Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Vukovich, Lilla UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning ... [more ▼]

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning pharmaceutical supplies and testing, situation of employees and families in this specific situation, as well as several other socio-political concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicidal Behaviour in Youth in Luxembourg - Findings from the HBSC 2014 Luxembourg Study
Catunda, Carolina UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL et al

Report (2020)

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young people worldwide. In order to prevent suicides, early identification of groups at risk is needed. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study, data on ... [more ▼]

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among young people worldwide. In order to prevent suicides, early identification of groups at risk is needed. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study, data on suicidal behaviours among adolescents were collected in 2006, 2010 and 2014. These can be used to identify suicide risk factors and to develop comprehensive suicide prevention programs. In Luxembourg, the suicide rate has fluctuated around 15 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants per year, for more than ten years. In the period 2006 – 2016, 20 deaths were registered as suicide in the age group of 10 to 19-year-olds. These suicides represent approximately 19% of all deaths registered in this age group. In the Luxembourgish HBSC study conducted in 2014, 875 adolescents indicated to have contemplated suicide in the last 12 months, which amounts to 15.1% of the adolescents in the study. In the same year, 811 adolescents (14.0%) indicated to have made a suicide plan in the last 12 months, and 448 adolescents (7.7%) to have attempted suicide (at least once) in the last year. In first instance, bivariate logistic regressions analyses were conducted for 24 independent variables with three suicidal behaviours (contemplation of suicide, planning of suicide and suicide attempt) and sadness as dependent variables in order to identify potential risk factors. These risk factors were further tested in multivariate logistic regressions, in order to make a statement about the relevance of these factors for suicidal behaviour of adolescents in Luxembourg, while taking into account the dependence between the risk factors. Results from multivariate logistic regressions indicate that subjective health complaints are the most important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Adolescents who have recurrent multiple health complaints are at higher risk for suicidal behaviour than adolescents who do not have health complaints. Life satisfaction is the second most important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Adolescents with lower levels of life satisfaction are at higher risk for suicidal behaviour than adolescents who have higher levels of life satisfaction. Gender-specific analyses show that the risk factors differ between girls and boys for suicidal behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends from 2006-2018 in Health, Health Behaviour, Health Outcomes and Social Context of Adolescents in Luxembourg
Heinz, Andreas UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Kern, Matthias Robert UL et al

Report (2020)

This report shows how 30 health indicators developed in the four Luxembourg HBSC surveys conducted in 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. There were positive trends especially in the health behaviour of the pupils ... [more ▼]

This report shows how 30 health indicators developed in the four Luxembourg HBSC surveys conducted in 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. There were positive trends especially in the health behaviour of the pupils: they smoke less and drink less alcohol. They also report more frequently that they brush their teeth regularly, eat more fruit and fewer sweets and consume fewer soft drinks. From 2006-2018, however, there were also deteriorations. For example, more pupils feel stressed from school and rate the climate among classmates worse. In addition, there are more pupils who are overweight and exercise less and more pupils report having psychosomatic health complaints. [less ▲]

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See detailNetzWerk 3
Böwen, Petra UL; Flammang, Manou Laure UL

Report (2020)

"NetzWerk- Wissenschaft trifft Praxis, Politik und Oeffentlichkeit" ist eine regelmäßig ersccheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro- die ... [more ▼]

"NetzWerk- Wissenschaft trifft Praxis, Politik und Oeffentlichkeit" ist eine regelmäßig ersccheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro- die nationale Plattform der Sozialen Arbeit in Luxemburg- bietet allen Akteuren Vernetzung, Austausch, Veranstaltungen und Informationen aus Luxemburg und der Großregion. Das Schwerpunktthema dieser Ausgabe: "Soziale Arbeit und Digitalisierung"; der Praxis- und Kontakttag am 24.10.2019 [less ▲]

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See detailWärmemarktstudie für das Großherzogtum Luxemburg - Eine Analyse des Wärmemarktes im Kontext nationaler Rahmenbedingungen und energiepolitischer Zielsetzungen
Bechtel, Steffen UL; Scholzen, Frank UL

Report (2020)

Die im Klimaplan (PNEC) festgehaltenen Klimaziele Luxemburgs erfordern einen erfolgreichen Roll-Out von Wärmepumpen. Über die Marktposition der Wärmepumpe ist jedoch wenig bekannt. Diese Studie entstand ... [more ▼]

Die im Klimaplan (PNEC) festgehaltenen Klimaziele Luxemburgs erfordern einen erfolgreichen Roll-Out von Wärmepumpen. Über die Marktposition der Wärmepumpe ist jedoch wenig bekannt. Diese Studie entstand in Kooperation mit nationalen Herstellern, Großhändlern und Distributoren und zeigt wesentliche Trends im Wärmemarkt, die auch auf energiepolitische Gesetzgebung zurückzuführen sind. [less ▲]

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See detailStatelessness in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2020)

Statelessness is a global phenomenon which is also present in the European Union. At the end of 2018, UNHCR estimated the total number of stateless persons in the European Union plus Norway at 399 283 ... [more ▼]

Statelessness is a global phenomenon which is also present in the European Union. At the end of 2018, UNHCR estimated the total number of stateless persons in the European Union plus Norway at 399 283 individuals. This includes both stateless individuals and persons of undetermined nationality. UNHCR and UNICEF also estimate that, in 2017, there were 2 100 children registered stateless in Europe, a fourfold increase since 2010. Article 1 of the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons defines a stateless person as ‘a person who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law’. Statelessness is a legal anomaly, which can prevent those concerned from accessing fundamental human, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. As a result, such persons often live in conditions of protracted marginalisation and discrimination, facing numerous difficulties, such as the inability to receive medical assistance, enrol in educational programmes, acquire property, obtain legal employment, marry or open a bank account. Even though statelessness can occur in various contexts, its most common causes include state succession, ill-defined or discriminatory nationality laws, and arbitrary deprivation of nationality. Statelessness can also be a consequence of forced displacement and forced migration and can result when people face difficulties accessing civil registration documents, including birth certificates, necessary to acquire or confirm nationality. [less ▲]

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See detailYouth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019
Sozio, Maria Eugenia; Procopio, Alessandro UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Report (2020)

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See detailYAC – Young People and COVID-19. Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg
Residori, Caroline UL; Sozio, Maria Eugenia; Schomaker, Léa UL et al

Report (2020)

Overall, the preliminary results of the representative survey of adolescents and young adults in Luxembourg paint a complex picture. In general, young people seem to be aware of their responsibility to ... [more ▼]

Overall, the preliminary results of the representative survey of adolescents and young adults in Luxembourg paint a complex picture. In general, young people seem to be aware of their responsibility to contain the coronavirus. The majority have the necessary information and opportunities to act in a way that reflects this responsibility. There are suggestions of negative impacts stemming from COVID-19 and measures to combat COVID-19, but these do not appear to be the prevailing dynamic at the time of completing the survey. However, it is likely that negative effects will increase the longer the COVID-19 pandemic lasts and the more individual and social resources are depleted. There are already detectable beginnings of sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in how people are coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. It is therefore important to continue to provide young people with support for mastering the transition between childhood and adulthood despite COVID-19 and to responsibly provide them with the opportunities and spaces this requires. This process must pay particular attention to inequalities that are developing and being reinforced. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging Trends in Gender Equality in Ethiopia
Elezaj, Erëblina; Cebotari, Victor UL; Ramful, Nesha et al

Report (2020)

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See detailWomen’s Empowerment and Child Wellbeing in Ethiopia
Cebotari, Victor UL; Ramful, Nesha; Elezaj, Erëblina et al

Report (2020)

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See detailGerman Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS): Methodology and Data Manual of the Baseline Survey (Wave 1)
Ette, Andreas; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Erlinghagen, Marcel et al

Report (2020)

International migration between economically highly developed countries is a central component of global migration flows. Still, surprisingly little is known about the international mobility of the ... [more ▼]

International migration between economically highly developed countries is a central component of global migration flows. Still, surprisingly little is known about the international mobility of the populations of these affluent societies. The aim of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) is to collect data to analyse the individual consequences of international migration as well as the consequences for the country of origin. GERPS is based on an origin-based multistage probability sample using the German population registers as a sampling frame. The realised net sample includes more than 11,000 persons who recently moved abroad from Germany and persons returning to Germany after having lived abroad. The study follows a multi-destination country design and allows comparative analyses of migrants and non-migrants who stayed in the country of origin. GERPS is a panel study with at least four waves during a period of at least 24 months. This documentation, however, presents the methodology and the data for the first wave providing the baseline survey. Detailed information is provided to invite external researchers to apply the new data infrastructure to their own research and to disseminate the innovative research design to construct migrant samples. [less ▲]

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See detailArgumentation Label Functions - Technical Report
Cramer, Marcos; Dauphin, Jérémie UL

Report (2020)

An important approach to abstract argumentation is the labeling-based approach, in which one makes use of labelings that assign to each argument one of three labels: in, out or und. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

An important approach to abstract argumentation is the labeling-based approach, in which one makes use of labelings that assign to each argument one of three labels: in, out or und. In this paper, we address the question, which of the twenty-seven functions from the set of labels to the set of labels can be represented by an argumentation framework. We prove that in preferred, complete and grounded semantics, eleven labeling functions can be represented in this way while sixteen labeling functions cannot be represented by any argumentation framework. We show how this analysis of labeling functions can be applied to prove an impossibility result: Argumentation frameworks extended with a certain kind of weak attack relation cannot be flattened to the standard Dung argumentation frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailPandemic Simulation and Forecasting of exit strategies:Convergence of Machine Learning and EpidemiologicalModels
Ghamizi, Salah UL; Rwemalika, Renaud UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

Report (2020)

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a public health emergency unprecedented in this century. The lack ofaccurate knowledge regarding the outcomes of the virus has made it challenging for policymakers to ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a public health emergency unprecedented in this century. The lack ofaccurate knowledge regarding the outcomes of the virus has made it challenging for policymakers to decideon appropriate countermeasures to mitigate its impact on society, in particular the public health and the veryhealthcare system.While the mitigation strategies (including the lockdown) are getting lifted, understanding the current im-pacts of the outbreak remains challenging. This impedes any analysis and scheduling of measures requiredfor the different countries to recover from the pandemic without risking a new outbreak.Therefore, we propose a novel approach to build realistic data-driven pandemic simulation and forecastingmodels to support policymakers. Our models allow the investigation of mitigation/recovery measures andtheir impact. Thereby, they enable appropriate planning of those measures, with the aim to optimize theirsocietal benefits.Our approach relies on a combination of machine learning and classical epidemiological models, circum-venting the respective limitations of these techniques to allow a policy-making based on established knowl-edge, yet driven by factual data, and tailored to each country’s specific context. [less ▲]

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See detailMetaheuristics for the Online Printing Shop Scheduling Problem - Supplementary Material
Tessaro Lunardi, Willian UL; Birgin, Ernesto G.; Ronconi, Débora P. et al

Report (2020)

This document presents further numerical results of the experiments concerning the classical instances of the flexible job shop scheduling problem, performed in (Lunardi et al., Metaheuristics for the ... [more ▼]

This document presents further numerical results of the experiments concerning the classical instances of the flexible job shop scheduling problem, performed in (Lunardi et al., Metaheuristics for the Online Printing Shop Scheduling Problem, submitted). Additionally, this document gathers the best makespan values (upper bounds and lower bounds) found by state-of-the-art algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailGesund Altern - Ergebnisse einer Repräsentativumfrage zu Altersbildern junger Erwachsener
Blawert, Anne; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Schröder, Helmut et al

Report (2020)

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See detailData Centric Engineering and Data-Driven Modelling - Computational Engineering Lab Report 2019
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Peters, Bernhard UL; Viti, Francesco UL et al

Report (2019)

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/data-centric-engineering

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See detailThe funding of the online press: from its origin to the temporary state subsidies.
Kies, Raphaël UL; Hamdi, Mohamed Amin UL

Report (2019)

Following the objectives of the Media Pluralism Monitor, this section aims to analyse to what extent the introduction of public funding dedicated to the online journalism contributes to reinforce the ... [more ▼]

Following the objectives of the Media Pluralism Monitor, this section aims to analyse to what extent the introduction of public funding dedicated to the online journalism contributes to reinforce the independence, plurality and the quality of the journalistic offer in the country. We will first provide an overview of the issues online media face in Luxembourg before dealing more in detail withthe new national regulation on online media funding. Specifically, we will analyse how it differs from the existing public subsidies for the print media and to what extend online media have benefited from these fundings. This analysis should allow us to evaluate whether the introduction of the subsidies for online journalism positively affects the media concentration, the linguistic and ideological plurality and whether it contributes to improving the quality of the media production. [less ▲]

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See detailRAPPORT TRAVAIL ET COHÉSION SOCIALE − L'ÉTAT SOCIAL ET LE BIEN-ÊTRE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ LUXEMBOURGEOISE
Ametepe, Fofo; Franziskus, Anne; Hartung, Anne UL et al

Report (2019)

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See detailEN/FR/DE Bericht über die "Demenzforschungstage" 2019. Einbezug von Betroffenen in die Forschung zu kognitivem Altern und Demenz
Leist, Anja UL

Report (2019)

On 19 and 20 September 2019, the first "Dementia Research Forum" took place on the Belval campus of the University of Luxembourg. People living with dementia were invited to the university to discuss the ... [more ▼]

On 19 and 20 September 2019, the first "Dementia Research Forum" took place on the Belval campus of the University of Luxembourg. People living with dementia were invited to the university to discuss the research questions of the ERC-CRISP project and to advise the researchers on the dissemination of the research results. The idea of giving people affected by dementia a voice in research projects is already being successfully implemented in other countries such as the UK. The report presents some information on the research project for the general public. After that, the contributions of the participants are summarised. [less ▲]

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See detailEmployers’ hiring decisions in relation to young people in Luxembourg (EDYPOLU)
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Report (2019)

In this report, we present a selection of preliminary descriptive results from the EDYPOLU research project funded by the University of Luxembourg (2017-2020). The research project examines the labour ... [more ▼]

In this report, we present a selection of preliminary descriptive results from the EDYPOLU research project funded by the University of Luxembourg (2017-2020). The research project examines the labour market for young people in Luxembourg with an interest in operational staffing needs, general human resource requirements and selection processes of recruiters. The main objective of the project is to identify possible obstacles for a successful entry into the labor market for young job seekers in Luxembourg by studying the general mechanisms in recruiters’ evaluation of young job candidates. To this end, we conducted an online survey among recruiters working in different occupational fields in Luxembourg between November 2018 and January 2019. A pilot study was conducted in spring 2018. The EDYPOLU recruiter survey builds on the Horizon 2020 project NEGOTIATE (https://negotiate-research.eu/). In the context of NEGOTIATE, a recruiter survey was conducted in four countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, and Switzerland. EDYPOLU surveys a number of topics that have also been examined in NEGOTIATE. This makes it possible to draw some comparisons between the results of both studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual Report on Migration and Asylum - Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Report (2019)

This report summarises the main debates and major developments concerning migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2018. 2018 was marked by the parliamentary elections in October 2018, which led to the ... [more ▼]

This report summarises the main debates and major developments concerning migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2018. 2018 was marked by the parliamentary elections in October 2018, which led to the renewal of the former Government coalition. The coalition agreement provides for a number of changes related to migration policies in Luxembourg. Luxembourg remains a country with significant immigration. The population growth is largely a result of migratory movements. Family and economic migration remains at a high level. The inflow of certain nationalities is stagnating or decreasing, whileothers are progressing. This is above all the result of two phenomena: firstly, a slowdown of overall migratory flows to the country and, secondly, high rates of naturalisation. The number of residence permits issued for economic reasons increased by more than 23% year-on-year compared to 2017, continuing the clear upward trend observed in recent years. This overall increase is due in particular to the larger numbers of residence permits issued to the "salaried worker", "European Blue Card" and "intra-corporate transferee" categories. The Law of 1st August 2018 introduced significant changes in the admission policy for international students and researchers in Luxembourg. This law transposes Directive 2016/801/EU, which allows students and researchers to stay for nine months after successfully completing their master's or doctoral studies in order to find a job or start a business. The Government elected in the parliamentary elections of October 2018 intends to organise legal immigration taking into account the needs of the economy. The 2018 political agenda also saw a large debate regarding Luxembourg signing the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM). This debate, both in Luxembourg and internationally, gave rise to suspicious and negative reactions, particularly in nationalist circles in some European countries. However, there was broad support for the GCM in Luxembourg with most of the political class (6 of the 7 political parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies) defending the GCM alongside the Government The number of people seeking international protection remained high but relatively stable in 2018 compared to the previous two years. The refugee recognition rate has continued to increase. Many beneficiaries of international protection (BIPs) remain in applicants for international protection (AIP) homes as they have difficulty finding housing in the private market or social housing. This in turn increases the pressure on accommodation facilities and it is one of the priorities of the national authorities, as reflected by the coalition agreement. Reception and accommodation conditions for AIPs and BIPs have sparked a number of debates and reflections within civil society. They were discussed in most political party manifestos for the 2018 parliamentary elections. It should be noted that the new multiannual National Action Plan on Integration (Integration NAP) has these as central themes, the reception and management of AIPs is one of the two main areas of action. A major institutional development is the extension, following the 2018 legislative elections, of the powers of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs to include the "Reception of applicants for international protection" portfolio. Previous this belonged to the Ministry for Family and Integration. Finally, at the European level the new Government confirmed its commitment to the Common European Asylum System, which emphasises European solidarity. Unaccompanied minors were another area of concern in 2018. A Bill was published, which aims to establish a multidisciplinary team to assess the best interests of the child in the context of a return procedure. In addition, there was a widely publicised debate around the practice of age assessment. The new Government has indicated that it intends to focus on unaccompanied minor AIPs, particularly in terms of improving care for these young people. In the area of integration, the Integration NAP was drafted. This document is the result of a wide consultation process with the different stakeholders involved in the reception and integration of non-Luxembourg nationals. The Integration NAP provides a general, strategic and sustainable framework to firstly develop programmes and tools to promote the integration of all non-Luxembourgers residents in the country, and secondly, to promtoe social cohesion between Luxembourgers and non-Luxembourgers. The Law of 8 March 2017 on Luxembourg nationality has had consequences for the number of individuals gaining citizenship. The impact of this law explains the stagnation, or even slight decline in the foreign population in Luxembourg and, in particular, of certain specific nationalities, as well as the increased electorate in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg since the law was introduced. Two advisory bodies representing the interests of foreign residents in Luxembourg are in operation: at the national level, the National Council for Foreigners (CNE), and, at the municipal level, Advisory Committees on Integration (CCCI) were renewed following the 2017 municipal elections. The new Government has stated that it intends to further increase the powers of these two bodies. Moreover, it intends to decentralise its Welcome and Integration Contracts (CAI), and to support the municipalities in their local integration work. The education system continues to face major challenges resulting from the heterogeneity of the school population. The second National Report on Education noted inequalities in the educational system caused by social origin and the migratory context of pupils. In order to cope with this situation, the authorities have focused on several measures such as expansion of the number of international and European schools; the development of specific classes for young migrants; the establishment of a mediator service for support, inclusion and school integration; and the introduction of the plurilingual education programme at nursery level. Knowledge of Luxembourgish as an integration factor was another concern throughout the year. The Law of 20 July 2018 presents a number of measures to promote the Luxembourgish language. The objectives of the Luxembourgish language policy, which aim to reinforce the importance of Luxembourgish, are to support the use and study of Luxembourgish, encourage the learning of the Luxembourgish language and culture, and promote culture in the Luxembourgish language. Several bodies have been set up to implement this action plan. The language question was ubiquitous during the election campaign. Most political parties emphasised the importance of the Luxembourgish language as an integration factor in their manifestos, while highlighting the advantage of multilingualism. Finally, there are some changes to note in the return policy of Luxembourg. There were two proposals to amend the Immigration Law: one, which authorises the police to enter residential premises to enforce removal orders in the case of forced return; and a second one, which provides for systematic oversight by the courts of prolonged detention beyond the 4-month period. The new Government has stated that it is committed to improving the current detention system through the creation of a specific detention structure for women, families and vulnerable persons. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel sur les migrations et l'asile Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2019)

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives ... [more ▼]

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives d’octobre 2018 qui ont débouché sur la reconduction de l’ancienne coalition gouvernementale. L’accord de coalition prévoit un certain nombre de mesures relatives aux politiques migratoires. Le Luxembourg reste un pays d’immigration important. Les mouvements migratoires expliquent en grande partie la croissance de la population. Les migrations pour raisons familiales et économiques demeurent à un niveau élevé. Si certaines nationalités stagnent ou reculent tandis que d’autres progressent, cela est avant tout dû à la conjonction de deux phénomènes : d’une part, le ralentissement des flux migratoires et d’autre part, la naturalisation. Le nombre de titres de séjour délivrés pour des raisons économiques a augmenté de plus de 23% par rapport à 2017, confirmant ainsi la nette tendance à la hausse observée depuis ces dernières années. Cette progression est notamment due à l’augmentation de titres de séjour accordés aux catégories « travailleur salarié », « carte bleue européenne » et « travailleur transféré intragroupe » pour experts et cadres. La loi du 1er août 2018 qui transpose la directive n° 2016/801/UE a introduit des modifications significatives dans la politique d’admission des étudiants et des chercheurs internationaux au Luxembourg. Cette loi permet aux étudiants et aux chercheurs de séjourner au Luxembourg pendant neuf mois s’ils ont terminé leurs études de master ou de doctorat et s’ils disposent de ressources suffisantes. Le Gouvernement issu des élections législatives d’octobre 2018 entend organiser l’immigration légale en tenant compte des besoins de l’économie. L’agenda politique de l’année 2018 a également été marqué par le débat autour de la signature du Luxembourg au Pacte mondial pour une migration sûre, ordonnée et régulière (PMM). Ce débat, tant au Luxembourg qu’à l’international, a suscité un certain nombre de réactions de suspicion et de rejet, en particulier dans les milieux nationalistes de certains pays européens. Toutefois, la majorité de la classe politique luxembourgeoise ainsi que le Gouvernement ont défendu le Pacte. Le nombre de personnes demandant une protection internationale est resté élevé en 2018 et demeure relativement stable par rapport aux deux années précédentes. Le taux de reconnaissance des demandes a continué à progresser. De nombreux BPI restent hébergés dans les structures d’accueil prévues pour les DPI en raison de leurs difficultés à trouver un logement sur le marché privé ou un logement social, ce qui augmente la pression exercée sur les structures d’hébergement. Cette question problématique figure parmi les priorités des autorités nationales, comme en témoigne l’accord de coalition. Les conditions d’accueil et d’hébergement ont suscité un certain nombre de débats et de réflexions au sein de la société civile. Elles ont été abordées dans la plupart des programmes des partis politiques dans le cadre des élections législatives de 2018 et occupent une place centrale dans le nouveau plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (PAN), l’accueil et l’encadrement des DPI constituant l’un des deux grands domaines d’action de ce plan. Une évolution institutionnelle majeure a eu lieu à la suite des élections législatives de 2018 : il s’agit de l’extension des compétences du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes qui reprend le volet « Accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale », qui relevait jusque-là du ministère de la Famille et de l’Intégration. Enfin, sur le plan européen, le nouveau gouvernement confirme son engagement en faveur du Régime d’Asile Européen Commun qui tient notamment compte de la solidarité europenne. Les mineurs non accompagnés (MNA) ont été un autre sujet de préoccupation au cours de l’année 2018 comme en témoignent le projet de loi qui vise à instaurer une équipe pluridisciplinaire pour évaluer l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant dans le contexte d’une procédure de retour, le débat largement médiatisé autour de la pratique des examens pour la détermination de l’âge des MNA DPI, ou encore l’accent particulier que le nouveau gouvernement entend donner au renforcement de la prise en charge de ces personnes. Dans le domaine de l’intégration, il convient de souligner l’établissement d’un plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (ou PAN Intégration). Ce document est le résultat d’un large processus de consultation mené par les autorités avec les différentes parties prenantes impliquées dans l'accueil et l'intégration des ressortissants non luxembourgeois. Le PAN Intégration fournit un cadre général, stratégique et durable en vue de développer des programmes et outils en faveur de l’intégration de tous les non-Luxembouregois résidant sur le territoire et de la cohésion sociale entre Luxembourgeois et non-Luxembourgeois. La loi du 8 mars 2017 sur la nationalité luxembourgeoise a généré des conséquences sur le nombre d’acquisitions de nationalité et explique la stagnation, voire le léger recul de la population étrangère au Luxembourg (et en particulier de certaines nationalités) ainsi que l’augmentation du corps électoral au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Les deux organes consultatifs chargés de la défense des intérets des résidents étrangers au Luxembourg ont commencé à fonctionner avec, au niveau national, le Conseil national pour étrangers (CNE) et, au niveau communal, les Commissions consultatives communales d’Intégration (CCCI), renouvelées à la suite des élections communales de 2017. Le nouveau gouvernement entend valoriser ces deux organes. Il propose d’offrir le Contrat d’accueil et d’intégration (CAI) de façon décentralisée et soutenir les communes au niveau de leur travail d’intégration locale. Le système éducatif reste confronté à des défis majeurs résultant de l’hétérogénéité de la population scolaire. Le deuxième rapport national sur l’éducation a permis de mettre en évidence les inégalités du système éducatif dues aux facteurs sociaux et au contexte migratoire des élèves. Pour faire face à cette situtaion, les autorités ont développé plusieurs mesures telles que l’élargissement de l’offre scolaire internationale et européenne, le développement de classes spécifiques pour jeunes migrants, l’établissement d’un service de médiateur au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaire ainsi que l’introduction du programme d’éducation plurilingue au niveau des mini-crèches. La question de la langue luxembourgeoise, en tant que facteur d’intégration, a également fait l’objet de débats tout au long de l’année. La loi du 20 juillet 2018 relative à la promotion de la langue luxembourgeoise a introduit un certain nombre de mesures visant à renforcer l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise, à soutenir son utilisation, son étude et son apprentissage. Plusieurs organes ont été institués afin de mettre en œuvre ce plan d’action de promotion de la langue et de la culture luxembourgeoises. La question linguistique fut également omniprésente lors de la campagne électorale. La plupart des partis politiques ont souligné dans leurs programmes électoraux l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise comme facteur d’intégration tout en mettant en évidence l’atout du multilinguisme pour le pays. Enfin, quelques évolutions sont à signaler au niveau de la politique de retour, en particulier deux propositions de modification de la loi sur l’immigration : l’une autorisant la police à pénétrer dans des locaux d’habitation afin de procéder plus facilement à l’exécution d’une décision d’éloignement en cas de retour forcé ; l’autre prévoyant un contrôle systématique par les juridictions d’une rétention prolongée au-delà de la durée de 4 mois. Le nouveau gouvernement s’engage à compléter le dispositif actuel de rétention à travers la création d’une structure spécifique de rétention pour femmes, familles et personnes vulnérables. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of continuously variable bicycle transmission
Kolb, Jean; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

Report (2019)

As the people’s needs develop, so does the technology. Bicycles exist already for a long time, and ever since the appearance of electrically driven ones, the necessity to change their drivetrain and ... [more ▼]

As the people’s needs develop, so does the technology. Bicycles exist already for a long time, and ever since the appearance of electrically driven ones, the necessity to change their drivetrain and transmission started getting more important. What makes the development of bicycles even more impressive is the fact that their efficiency ranks first among travelling animals and machines, if we consider the energy consumed by moving a certain distance as a function of body weight. Different bicycle drivetrains are researched and explained in this report, especially CVT hubs. A continuously variable transmission based on a patent of Hiroyuki Urabe has been designed with the CAD method, and their main parts were analysed using the FEA method. The final construction has a theoretical total ratio of 400% and a mass of about 2.7kg (without lubricant). This transmission is using the principles of frictional traction to transfer torque. In general, this work shows how the designing process proceeded and gives an idea, how this type of gearbox could be constructed. [less ▲]

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See detailMigratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs in the EU and Norway (Country report Luxembourg)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Report (2019)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about migratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about migratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to Luxembourg. Fostering start-ups and innovative enterprises is a national policy priority for Luxembourg as providing support to entrepreneurship and start-ups has been on the Luxembourgish governments’ agenda since 2013. It has been a part of a more general diversification policy of existing economic structures in order to increase economic growth of the country and reduce dependence on the financial sector, which remains the dominant economic pillar. The current Governmental programme 2018–2023 encourages support to start-ups, the acceleration of the development of the start-up ecosystem in Luxembourg as well as the promotion of Luxembourg as a ‘start-up nation’ both at national and international level. What should be pointed out is that this policy is not specifically targeted at third-country start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs, but aims to attract international investment, (innovative) enterprises and researchers in general. Thus, the mainstream immigration policy established by the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on free movement of persons (hereafter referred to as ‘Immigration Law’) for ‘self-employed worker’ or ‘investor’ residence permits is applied. The conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to be issued either a ‘self-employed worker’ or ‘investor’ residence permit as well as the conditions for the renewal of the residence permits are explained in detail in Section 3.3 and in Section 5, respectively. Several of the stakeholders involved in the context of this study reported that the existing regulations are sufficient and there is no need to introduce new ones or ones that would specifically target third-country nationals. Several initiatives have implemented in order to support the development of innovation in Luxembourg. Luxinnovation, the National Agency for the promotion of Research, Development and Innovation, was established already in 1985 and currently is reinforcing Government’s economic development objectives by providing support to companies and researchers in order to foster innovation. One of these initiatives, launched by the Ministry of the Economy in 2015 and implemented by Luxinnovation, is the Fit4Start acceleration programme which is particularly aimed at innovative ICT start-ups and recently also at start-ups from the health technologies. This programme provides coaching, business development support and funding to innovative projects or young innovative start-ups from around the world. Another important policy in the context of this study is the amended Law of 17 May 2017 on the Promotion of Research, Development and Innovation which provides a national funding scheme for Young Innovative Enterprises. Under this scheme, unlisted small enterprises that are registered for a maximum of five years can apply for State aid at the Ministry of the Economy’s Research and Innovation Directorate. Furthermore, Luxinnovation also animates the Luxembourg Cluster Initiative established by the Government in 2002. The objective of this initiative is to encourage communication and exchange of knowledge between cluster members (involving both the public and private sector) as well as to encourage use of new technologies and identification of possible business opportunities. This study further presents a table of rights and incentive measures in place to attract start-up founders and particularly highlights the access to special funding and investments, the co-working spaces as well as the access to incubation/accelerator support programmes, among others. In addition to the elements presented above, this study also elaborates on the following questions: What is the process and what are the requirements for starting up a business in Luxembourg? What are the main sectors and industries in which Luxembourg aims to attract start-ups? What is the role of local and regional authorities in creating and supporting entrepreneurial ecosystems? What role can actors such as local authorities, the private sector or higher education institutions play in attracting start-ups? Are there factors/conditions in place that incentivise start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to use specific immigration routes? Lastly, with the use of fictional scenarios, four case studies aim to provide an understanding of the possible admission options of different types of start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs. [less ▲]

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See detailBest Practices for Cloud Migration and Service Level Agreement Compliances
Ibrahim, Abdallah Ali Zainelabden Abdallah UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Niessen, Frederic

Report (2019)

Dell Technologies is one of the oldest Information Technology (IT) companies that involved in ICT transformation. ICT transformation is the process of modifying and adjusting the companies IT systems and ... [more ▼]

Dell Technologies is one of the oldest Information Technology (IT) companies that involved in ICT transformation. ICT transformation is the process of modifying and adjusting the companies IT systems and infrastructure. IT transformation is a multi-layer interdisciplinary process which involves typically changes to network architecture, hardware, software, data protection, i.e how data is stored and accessed. The transformation of the business workload and IT systems is the process of rip and replace and Dell is now aiming at guiding their customers in this challenging process. Indeed, Dell Technologies is providing a broad range of IT solutions and services such as data storage, protection, servers and infrastructure, networking, and cloud solutions. Concerning the last type of offer, Dell is providing public, private and hybrid cloud solutions and also coupled with cloud consulting and management services. In this context, the main objective of this work is to help Dell Technologies to come up with a guidelines document for its customers detailing the standards, migration procedures and the importance of smart Information and Communications Technology (ICT) (Cloud Computing (CC)) involved in business transition towards cloud-based solutions. Of course, it is intended for this document to serve as a fair basis to evaluate the offers of multiple cloud providers, while helping to understand the provided Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and the way they are enforced and evaluated by using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards’ such as ISO/IEC DIS 19086, Information Technology (IT)- CC Service Level Agreement (SLA) framework and ISO/IEC DIS 22624, IT- CC taxonomy based data handling for cloud services [less ▲]

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See detailInvestor Schemes "Golden Passports" and "Golden Visas"
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2019)

For the last 10 years, the EU Member States have been developing schemes to attract wealthy third-country national investors. To this end, Member States have facilitated the granting of visas or residence ... [more ▼]

For the last 10 years, the EU Member States have been developing schemes to attract wealthy third-country national investors. To this end, Member States have facilitated the granting of visas or residence permits and even implemented fast-track procedures for the acquisition of citizenship. The Commission’s report identified the following areas of concern: 1) Security: checks run on applicants are not sufficiently robust and the EU’s own centralised information systems, such as the Schengen Information System (SIS), are not being used as systematically as they should be; 2) Money laundering: enhanced checks (‘due diligence’) are necessary to ensure that rules on anti-money laundering are not circumvented; 3) Tax evasion: monitoring and reporting is necessary to make sure that individuals do not take advantage of these schemes to benefit from privileged tax rules; 4) Transparency and information: the report finds a lack of clear information on how the schemes are run, including on the number of applications received, granted or rejected and the origins of the applicants; and 5) In addition, Member States do not (routinely) exchange information on applicants for such schemes, nor do they inform each other of rejected applicants. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative overview of national protection statuses in the EU and Norway (Country report Luxembourg)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2019)

Luxembourg has integrated in the protection system the European legal framework on protection. However, besides the international protection (refugee status and subsidiary protection status) and the ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has integrated in the protection system the European legal framework on protection. However, besides the international protection (refugee status and subsidiary protection status) and the temporary protection statuses, the Luxembourgish legal system foresees two humanitarian statuses which are: a) residence permit for private reasons based on serious humanitarian grounds; b) the postponement of removal based on medical reasons. In regard to the latter, there are the following steps: 1) the postponement of removal can be granted and renewed for up to 24 months; 2) after 2 years, if the medical condition persists, an authorisation of stay for medical reasons may be granted and a residence permit for private reasons may be issued. However, it is important to stress at this point that the Luxembourgish authorities do not consider the two aforementioned residence permits issued according to articles 78 (3) and 131 (2) of the Immigration Law as “protection statuses” as such, but precisely as residence permits issued to the applicant. The granting of these two “protection statuses” are based on the discretionary power of the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum. The residence permit for private reasons based on humanitarian grounds (Status A of this report) allows for the Minister to grant an authorisation to stay in the country to an irregular migrant if s/he is in in need to stay based on humanitarian reasons of exceptional circumstances. There is not an exhaustive list of reasons on which the Minister can base his/her decision. However, there is an exhaustive analysis of the reasons advance by the applicant. Any third country national irregularly staying on the territory can apply for this residence permit. However, in the case of rejected asylum seekers, the application will be rejected if the applicant advances the same reasons that s/he advanced during the international protection procedure. On the contrary, the residence permit for medical reasons requires that, in the first stage, the applicant had received a return decision and an order to leave the territory. In order to obtain the residence permit, he/she has to obtain first a decision for a postponement of removal for medical reasons that has to be renewed for two years before the applicant can file the application for the residence permit based on medical reasons. This residence permit is not granted automatically and if the applicant does not file his/her application after expiration of the postponement of removal for medical reasons after two years, s/he will be precluded and the return decision will be executed, except if s/he proves that s/he cannot be returned for medical reasons. In this case, the entire procedure will have to start again. [less ▲]

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See detailVarieties of Democracy (V-DEM) Annual Report 2019 - "Democracy Facing Global Challenges”
Danescu, Elena UL

Report (2019)

Democracy in decline in more countries than ever before. The 2019 Democracy Report is titled “Democracy Facing Global Challenges”. Democratic declines now affect more countries than ever before. Still ... [more ▼]

Democracy in decline in more countries than ever before. The 2019 Democracy Report is titled “Democracy Facing Global Challenges”. Democratic declines now affect more countries than ever before. Still, most democracies remain resilient despite challenges such as the financial crises and the rampant spread of fake news on social media. Yet, we show that government manipulation of the media, weakening of civil society, the rule of law and even elections is increasing. There are also some positive stories to report from 2018. Central Asia recorded its first ever peaceful handover of power from one democratically elected leader to another in Kyrgyzstan. In Malaysia, an autocrat surprisingly lost in the elections despite electoral manipulation – showing that even in autocratic settings, elections can be a force for change. Pro-democratic movements have also mobilized masses of people across the globe in 2018 and 2019, for instance in Algeria, Armenia, Slovakia, and Sudan. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EPA Alzette-Belval: A National Tool to Address Spatial Disparities at the Lorraine-Luxembourg Border
Evrard, Estelle UL

Report (2019)

Since 2012, the EPA Alzette-Belval has embedded the strategy developed by public actors from all levels to trigger development and regain strategic room for manoeuvre in the context of steady growth in ... [more ▼]

Since 2012, the EPA Alzette-Belval has embedded the strategy developed by public actors from all levels to trigger development and regain strategic room for manoeuvre in the context of steady growth in Luxembourg. The 8 municipalities under scrutiny – the association of municipality “Pays Haut Val d’Alzette”, with 28,000 inhabitants – are marked by deindustrialisation and the attractiveness of Luxembourg’s economy, which overflows its national boundaries. The vast majority of the workforce is driven to Luxembourg, and pressure on public amenities is growing. The EPA is a state-led agency with the capacity to “take back” planning responsibilities from other administrative levels to plan specific areas. This instrument is unique in the French planning system as all levels remain involved in the governance structure and as the EPA brings technical expertise and financial resources to the locality. This case study scrutinises on how the EPA can represent a leverage for greater spatial justice within and beyond the locality, in the context of growing cross-border interdependencies. What does spatial justice mean in a cross-border context? How equitable can a cross-border area be? For a couple of years, a shared awareness of the locality’s needs has reached all levels of governance from the local to the national level. The dedicated instrument, the EPA, is equipped with the regulatory and financial capacity to act. It holds also legitimacy, know-how and expertise. It is well accepted by formal stakeholders in the locality and in the broader regional and cross-border context. The EPA appears as an appropriate tool to ensure development in a coordinated manner, considerate of sustainability, and limited use of agricultural land, thus avoiding urban sprawl and scattered urbanism. Yet, the EPA is challenged to find appropriates means to 1) inform the public of its activities; 2) develop a participatory approach when using the diverging opinions as a resource for implementing its projects. Its action partly overlooks current social inequalities (as they are not part of its direct objectives), while CCPHVA and the municipalities are challenged to face them (e.g. financially). In the long run, its capacity to support the development of public services for the local population in terms of development of residential economy and public infrastructure is highly dependent on 1) CCPHVA’s and the municipalities’ effective room for manoeuvre (politically, institutionally and financially); 2) the collaboration with public stakeholders in Luxembourg when it comes to cross-border public services (i.e. transport, economic attractiveness). [less ▲]

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See detailDevOps and its Philosophy : Education Matters!
Bobrov, Evgeny; Antonio, Bucchiarone; Capozucca, Alfredo UL et al

Report (2019)

DevOps processes comply with principles and offer practices with main objective to support efficiently the evolution of IT systems. To be efficient a DevOps process relies on a set of integrated tools ... [more ▼]

DevOps processes comply with principles and offer practices with main objective to support efficiently the evolution of IT systems. To be efficient a DevOps process relies on a set of integrated tools. DevOps is among the first competencies together with Agile method required by the industry. As a new approach it is necessary to develop and offer to the academy and to the industry training programs to prepare our engineers in the best possible way. In this chapter we present the main aspects of the educational effort made in the recent years to educate to the concepts and values of the DevOps philosophy. This includes principles, practices, tools and architectures, primarily the microservices architectural style, which shares many aspects of DevOps approaches especially the modularity and flexibility which enables continuous change and delivery. Two experiences have been made, one at academic level as a master program course and the other, as an industrial training. Based on those two experiences, we provide a comparative analysis and some proposals in order to develop and improve DevOps education for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailProject Team SC4 T6 interim reports April 2019 Draft EN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Banfi, Mike; Hicks, Stephen et al

Report (2019)

April draft of second generation for Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1; Outcome from SC4.T6

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See detailEuralens, an Innovative Local Tool to Redevelop Pas-de-Calais Former Mining Basin?
Blondel, Cyril UL

Report (2019)

Background The Pas-de-Calais mining basin is a predominantly urban conurbation of approximately 650,000 inhabitants, situated in the North of France, about 35 km south of Lille and at a reasonable ... [more ▼]

Background The Pas-de-Calais mining basin is a predominantly urban conurbation of approximately 650,000 inhabitants, situated in the North of France, about 35 km south of Lille and at a reasonable distance of Paris, London and Brussels. The territory have been facing since the end of the mining activity in the 1980s an alarming socio-economic situation, ranked last in France for most of the indicators. Against this background, local and regional actors have created in 2009 a local association, Euralens, in order to use the implementation of the antenna of the Louvre in Lens as a catalyst for territorial development. The association has today two main missions: to prepare and to facilitate the emergence of a metropolis institution; to foster local development by supporting innovative local initiatives through a label process. Findings Created in 2009 at the regional level, Euralens is neither a classical (in France) top-down State intervention nor a genuine bottom-up local initiative. The association has taken a rising importance in the organisation of the territory, favouring the cooperation between local authorities, but also between institutional stakeholders at different levels, the civil society and private actors. Doing so, it gives the Pas-de-Calais mining basin a clearer and louder voice. The recent creation of a specific state policy towards the Mining Basin is a good example of such an assertion and demonstrates the clear redistributive impact of Euralens for the benefit of the locality in the national space. On the question of the distribu-tion of territorial engineering, another accomplishment of Euralens is its the capacity to mobilise external national and international expertise to imagine with local stakeholders policies supporting social and territorial development. Outlook However, the effort seems still insufficient over time. The enormous environmental impact of mining activity as well as the deep social impact of the collapse of this activity have let the territory dry. Albeit positive, the action of Euralens is relatively modest in comparison to the extent of the needs. At the social level in particular, the rebuilding of individuals trust is a long-term policy that deserves more attention. Too often, Euralens disregard the social and the procedural dimensions of injustice. It does not pay sufficient attention to the integration of the civil society to the decision-making in a time of democratic crisis. Yet, symbols, power balance, transparency should be cornerstones of Euralens action in the territory in order to better exemplify change in the locality. [less ▲]

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See detailLerneffekte interaktiver Medien bei Kindern und Jugendlichen
Melzer, André UL; Happ, Christian; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2019)

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See detailNational report on the governance of the asylum reception system in Luxembourg
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL; Oesch, Lucas UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2019)

The national report on the governance of the reception system in Luxembourg is one of the seven country reports that are produced within Work Package 3 of the H2020 project CEASEVAL. The report provides ... [more ▼]

The national report on the governance of the reception system in Luxembourg is one of the seven country reports that are produced within Work Package 3 of the H2020 project CEASEVAL. The report provides an overview of the Luxembourgish reception system. More specifically, it focuses on recent transformations that have affected the system, processes of implementation at the national and local levels, and sources of heterogeneity within the national system. It is based on document analysis as well as on 19 semi-structured interviews with a range of different stakeholders who are directly or indirectly involved in the Luxembourgish reception system. The report first provides some historical background on the reception of asylum seekers in Luxembourg by paying specific attention to the main legislative instruments that shaped the initial design of the national reception system. Then, the main revisions that affected the system in the period 2009-2018 are explored alongside their related decision-making processes. This paves the way for an overview of the formal structure of the Luxembourgish reception system. After the discussion of the formal organisation of reception policies in the country, the report moves on to explore the actual functioning of the reception system by investigating implementation practices at the national and local levels. Finally, some examples of heterogeneity in the current provision of reception are discussed, in an attempt to identify drivers of convergence and divergence in the implementation of reception policies. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to Isogeometric Analysis
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Lian, Haojie UL; Ding, Chensen UL

Report (2019)

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See detailNetzWerk 2
Böwen, Petra UL; Flammang, Manou Laure UL

Report (2019)

"NetzWerk-Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro bietet ... [more ▼]

"NetzWerk-Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen Akteuren der Sozialen Arbeit Vernetzung, Plattformen, Veranstaltungen, Informationen aus Luxemburg und der Großregion. Das Schwerpunktthema dieser Ausgabe: "Was sind die Bedürfnisse der Akteure der Sozialen Arbeit?" fußt auf dem 6. Praxis- und Kontakttag 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching DevOps in academia and industry: reflections and vision
Bobrov, Evgeny; Bucchiarone, Antonio; Capozucca, Alfredo UL et al

Report (2019)

This paper describes our experience of delivery educational programs in academia and in industry on DevOps, compare the two approaches and sum-up the lessons learnt. We also propose a vision to implement ... [more ▼]

This paper describes our experience of delivery educational programs in academia and in industry on DevOps, compare the two approaches and sum-up the lessons learnt. We also propose a vision to implement a shift in the Software Engineering Higher Education curricula. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Machine Learning to Speed Up the Design Space Exploration of Ethernet TSN networks
Navet, Nicolas UL; Mai, Tieu Long UL; Migge, Jörn

Report (2019)

In this work, we ask if Machine Learning (ML) can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis to determine whether a real-time Ethernet network meets a set of timing constraints ... [more ▼]

In this work, we ask if Machine Learning (ML) can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis to determine whether a real-time Ethernet network meets a set of timing constraints. Otherwise said, can an algorithm learn what makes it difficult for a system to be feasible and predict whether a configuration will be feasible without executing a schedulability analysis? In this study, we apply standard supervised and unsupervised ML techniques and compare them, in terms of their accuracy and running times, with precise and approximate schedulability analyses in Network-Calculus. We show that ML techniques are efficient at predicting the feasibility of realistic TSN networks and offer new trade-offs between accuracy and computation time especially interesting for design-space exploration algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailReport on political participation of mobile EU citizens: Luxembourg
Scuto, Denis UL; Besch, Sylvain

Report (2019)

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See detailGender Equality, Women’s Empowerment and Child Wellbeing in Ethiopia
Elezaj, Erëblina; Ramful, Nesha; Cebotari, Victor UL et al

Report (2019)

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See detailOpportunities and Challenges of DLT (Blockchain) in Mobility and Logistics
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Guggenberger, Nikolas; Hoeren, Thomas et al

Report (2019)

This report presents the economic potential, legal framework, and technical foundations required to understand distributed ledger (DL) / blockchain technology and llustrates the opportunities and ... [more ▼]

This report presents the economic potential, legal framework, and technical foundations required to understand distributed ledger (DL) / blockchain technology and llustrates the opportunities and challenges they present, especially in the mobility and logistics sectors. It was compiled by the blockchain laboratory at Fraunhofer FIT on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI). Its intended audience comprises young companies seeking, for example, a legal assessment of data protection issues related to DL and blockchain technologies, decisionmakers in the private sector wishing concrete examples to help them understand how this technology can impact existing and emerging markets and which measures might be sensible from a business perspective, public policymakers and politicians wishing to familiarize themselves with this topic in order to take a position, particularly in the mobility and logistics sectors, and members of the general public interested in the technology and its potential. The report does not specifically address those with a purely academic or scientific interest in these topics, although parts of it definitely reflect the current state of academic discussion. [less ▲]

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See detail8. výroční konference centra vizuální historie malach
Bronec, Jakub UL

Report (2019)

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See detailLebenssituationen und Erfahrungen von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg
Meyers, Christiane UL; Reiners, Diana; Samuel, Robin UL

Report (2019)

Diese von der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bildung, Kinder und Jugend durchgeführte Studie ist explorativ angelegt. Mit einem Mixed-Methods-Ansatz wurden einerseits internationale ... [more ▼]

Diese von der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bildung, Kinder und Jugend durchgeführte Studie ist explorativ angelegt. Mit einem Mixed-Methods-Ansatz wurden einerseits internationale Datenerhebungen zu Einstellungen der Gesamtbevölkerung und eine LGBT*-Befragung sekundär für Luxemburg ausgewertet. Zweitens wurde der politische und mediale Diskurs mittels einer qualitativen Dokumentenanalyse untersucht. Den dritten Teil bildet eine Analyse von qualitativen Interviews mit acht Jugendlichen (davon zwei trans* Personen), sowie sieben Expert_innen. Durch die geringe Fallzahl sind die vorgestellten Ergebnisse als Einblick in die Lebenssituationen, jedoch nicht als abschließende Gesamtuntersuchung der Situation von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg einzuordnen. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting communication and cooperation in the asylum procedure with Blockchain technology : A proof of concept by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Guggenmos, Florian; Lockl, Jannik et al

Report (2019)

The proof of concept showed that the use of Blockchain technology could support cross-organisational communication and cooperation in the asylum procedure. In addition, Blockchain could provide an ... [more ▼]

The proof of concept showed that the use of Blockchain technology could support cross-organisational communication and cooperation in the asylum procedure. In addition, Blockchain could provide an important foundation for the establishment of digital identities and allow an asylum seeker’s procedure to be tracked based on this identity. Admittedly, not all applicable data protection regulations were fully implemented in the proof of concept. However, the findings gained as part of the project provide a promising basis for the development of a Blockchain-based solution for the asylum procedure that complies with data protection requirements. Moreover, the developed concept could scale beyond Germany’s borders. Blockchain-based, transnational management of asylum procedures could therefore become a joint project of the European member states to strengthen cooperation while safeguarding federal structures. This means that Blockchain technology could be the start of digital federalism in Europe (including the asylum procedure). [less ▲]

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See detailSpace Law at Unispace +50: Consequences and Future Perspectives
Salmeri, Antonino UL

Report (2019)

Report of IISL Session E7.4 on the occasion of the 69th International Astronautical Congress,

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See detailWahlen und Weichenstellungen in Lateinamerika 2018. Eine Länderspezifische Analyse.
Harnoncourt, Julia UL; Molden, Berthold; Echivarria, Josefina

Report (2019)

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See detailInitial conditions for the marketing of demand flexibility: status quo analysis and meta study. 2 version
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; rner, Marc-Fabian K. O et al

Report (2019)

The present work is part of the research project "Synchronized and energy-adaptive production technology for the flexible alignment of industrial processes to a fluctuating energy supply (SynErgie ... [more ▼]

The present work is part of the research project "Synchronized and energy-adaptive production technology for the flexible alignment of industrial processes to a fluctuating energy supply (SynErgie)" funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. As one of the "Kopernikus projects for the energy transition", the SynErgie research project aims to enable energy-intensive industries in Germany to adapt their electricity demand to the increasingly fluctuating electricity supply. In the past, electricity systems were usually designed so that the generation side of the market was adapted to the temporal behavior of consumption. However, due to the increased expansion of volatile renewable energies, power generation is subject to uncontrollable, weather-dependent fluctuations, which is why making the overall system more flexible is becoming increasingly important. Because the producer side can only offer the required flexibility in the form of a reduction in feed-in, there is a so-called flexibility gap. As became clear on December 14, 2018 and January 10, 2019, this flexibility gap is already pushing the power system to its limits of stability. Only through the use of many compensation mechanisms or With options for flexibility, the security of supply could just be maintained on these days. The industrial processes considered in SynErgie represent a subset of potential flexibility options and can contribute to load adjustment to fluctuating generation as well as to the provision of system services and relief of the grids. In a liberalized, competitive electricity market, the market and regulatory framework conditions are of great relevance with regard to the development of the potential for flexibility in demand. This study therefore first describes the basics of the electricity market design and the constituent legal framework. Current discussions about the basic price system (unit price system vs. zonal system vs. nodal system) are not dealt with. The processing of these discussions as well as the specific analysis of the effects of the price system on demand flexibility is the content of the work packages of the Cluster IV “Market and Electricity System” pending in SynErgie II. The present study therefore rather works on potential obstacles to the participation of flexible demand processes and always refers to the application to industrial processes. The analysis forms the basis for future work in Cluster IV and provides cross-cluster information about the status quo of market structures and regulatory framework conditions. In addition to the systematic processing of the market framework, the scientific literature and already published studies on the subject of demand flexibility (demand side management and demand response) are analyzed and summarized in a meta study. The analysis forms the basis for future work in Cluster IV and provides cross-cluster information about the status quo of market structures and regulatory framework conditions. In addition to the systematic processing of the market framework, the scientific literature and already published studies on the subject of demand flexibility (demand side management and demand response) are analyzed and summarized in a meta study. The analysis forms the basis for future work in Cluster IV and provides cross-cluster information about the status quo of market structures and regulatory framework conditions. In addition to the systematic processing of the market framework, the scientific literature and already published studies on the subject of demand flexibility (demand side management and demand response) are analyzed and summarized in a meta study. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Giuffrida, Fabio UL; Ligeti, Katalin UL

Report (2019)

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See detailDigital Education in Luxembourg
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

Report (2019)

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See detailLuxembourg
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Giuffrida, Fabio UL

Report (2019)

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See detailData Management Plan of the ERCStG 803239
Leist, Anja UL

Report (2019)

The Data Management Plan is a compulsory deliverable of H2020 projects. It will be regularly updated over the course of the project.

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See detailÜberprüfung der Machbarkeit eines offenen und dezentralen Mobilitätssystems (OMOS)
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Röhlen, Jörg; Guggenberger, Tobias et al

Report (2019)

The customer requirements for mobility systems are changing. Travelers increasingly expect a carefree travel experience with any starting or destination point ("Seamless Mobility as a Service") - and that ... [more ▼]

The customer requirements for mobility systems are changing. Travelers increasingly expect a carefree travel experience with any starting or destination point ("Seamless Mobility as a Service") - and that with a single booking and billing for all means of transport used. In order to meet this need, the idea of ​​an open and decentralized mobility system is increasingly being discussed, which can integrate the offers of various mobility providers through a common, neutral system. Before such a system can take a concrete form, however, a clear understanding of the opportunities and risks as well as the specific requirements of end customers and mobility providers on such a system is required. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the general opportunities and risks of a corresponding system, as well as the general feasibility of the requirements placed on such a system. A multi-method approach was chosen for this purpose. This makes it possible to examine a holistic picture of the requirements of end customers as well as mobility providers and other stakeholders (e.g. technology providers). Records from a workshop with the (associated) partners in the OMOS project and the results of a literature analysis were used as the basis for data collection. To examine the end customer needs, two surveys were carried out with a total of 352 participants, whose questions were derived from practical workshops (survey I) and theoretical models (survey II). In addition, an interview study was carried out with 15 experts to discuss the requirements of various stakeholders, on the basis of which general topics in the field of seamless mobility were also asked. [less ▲]

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See detailDividend Policy Decisions and Ownership Concentration: Evidence from Thai Public Companies
Wolff, Christian UL

Report (2019)

In this paper we examine the relationship between ownership concentration and dividend policy for Thai publicly listed companies. High family ownership firms have higher dividend payouts than low family ... [more ▼]

In this paper we examine the relationship between ownership concentration and dividend policy for Thai publicly listed companies. High family ownership firms have higher dividend payouts than low family ownership firms, which we interpret to mean high family ownership firms follow a more rational dividend policy. This finding is consistent with the prediction that agency conflicts between the managers and shareholders are lower at firms with a controlling shareholder. The evidence is robust through different econometric specifications, robust when the level used to determine the extent of family ownership (family control) is lowered to 10 percent of the outstanding shares, and robust to the inclusion of the ownership wedge as a proxy for the severity of agency conflicts. [less ▲]

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See detailSpillovers to small business credit risk
Wolff, Christian UL

Report (2019)

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See detailA geometrical view of I/O logic
Gabbay, Dov UL; Parent, Xavier UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2019)

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See detailClass, Race and Inequality in Northern Towns
Barbulescu, Roxana; Favell, Adrian; Khan, Omar et al

Report (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (9 UL)
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See detailPolicy Recommendations
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Giuffrida, Fabio UL

Report (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (5 UL)
See detailEducation in Luxembourg
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

Report (2019)

Overall, reforms and changes in almost all sectors of education were launched over the past six months. In early childhood education, the introduction of the mini crèches made a contribution to a ... [more ▼]

Overall, reforms and changes in almost all sectors of education were launched over the past six months. In early childhood education, the introduction of the mini crèches made a contribution to a comprehensive implementation of early childhood education and care across Luxembourg, assuring at the same a first contact for the youngest with the multilingual education programme. In primary education, the focus was on quality assurance and on the introduction of assistance measures adapted to learning difficulties and the implementation of inclusive schools. In addition, the production of ICT materials for primary school classes was expanded in 2019. Changes in secondary education took place in the sectors of smart technologies trainings and continued the smooth transition from lower to upper secondary education. Furthermore, changes were made in adapting the end of study exams in secondary education according to international standards. Changes in higher education were based on the four-year-plan 2018-2021 of the University of Luxembourg, focusing on quality assurance, advancing learning and teaching, working on the achievement of international excellence in research, and fostering entrepreneurship. Some actions have been taken, however, others are still on its way and need to be implemented. The challenges to be addressed are the maintenance of multilingualism as an asset of education and training systems at all levels, the ability of the Luxembourgish education system to integrate children and youth from different backgrounds, and the ability to overcome inequalities in learning outcomes. The reforms undertaken form the foundation for addressing the challenges in the short and medium term. [less ▲]

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See detailNational report: France
Evrard, Estelle UL; Blondel, Cyril UL

Report (2019)

In France, spatial injustice is usually described as disadvantages related to place that result in the feeling that the local population is left out or unable to shape the locality’s own future. It ... [more ▼]

In France, spatial injustice is usually described as disadvantages related to place that result in the feeling that the local population is left out or unable to shape the locality’s own future. It contrasts with a strong tradition of “égalité des territoires” (“equality between territories”) which shapes the spatial planning policy. Two contrasted case studies have been selected for the RELOCAL project in France. Located in peri-urban post-industrial contexts, they both need to reopen the path towards local development. The EPA Alzette-Belval (Lorraine) is a top-down initiative established through an on-site technical implementation, while Euralens is a more bottom-up, autonomous association in the Nord mining basin. Spatial injustices existed in both localities, and there were a number of similarities (e.g. access to and financing of public services, fair and equitable access to decision-making processes). The national context goes beyond the individual findings for each case, to reflect on their significance in a national context shaped by successive waves of decentralisation and the recent launch of nationally led thematic initiatives to support local development. We found that Euralens and the EPA Alzette-Belval make a direct contribution to greater spatial justice. The EPA Alzette-Belval specifically targets distributive justice, while Euralens targets procedural justice more. These two actions demonstrate that despite decentralisation, the state remains crucial in France. Like the place-based approach promoted at the EU level, France encourages localities to build up their own initiatives to foster local development, while the state provides timely support through dedicated schemes (e.g. ERBM, ÉcoCité, EPA à la française). In this context, regions facing steep challenges (e.g. economic regeneration following the fall of single industries, asymmetric border exchanges and interdependencies) are overwhelmed by the task of effectively mobilising the national tools at their disposal and initiating local development on their own. Nationally led instruments therefore need to be adapted to local geographic, political and social specificities in order to be capable of deploying their full impact. It therefore seems important – especially in a unitary country like France – to keep monitoring spatial disparities and social inequalities, have dedicated channels for territories to bring forward their respective problems, and as a consequence to keep redistributive measures that can be mobilised to address the deepest territorial divides. Too often, potential beneficiaries of EU funding do not apply (i.e. due to the administrative burden, lack of information). Access to EU regional policy should be more open, simpler and based more on impact (including qualitative and quantitative indicators). Open European satellites with dedicated agents in territories facing structural challenges could contribute by enabling these regions and giving “Brussels” a more human and less bureaucratic face. [less ▲]

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