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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailWhat Makes Me? Core Capacities for Living and Learning
Richardson, Dominic; Vrolijk, Marloes; Cunsolo, Sabbiana et al

Report (2021)

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See detailIntegration of migrant women in Luxembourg: policies and measures
Osburg, Mathis UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

This study provides an overview of the current policies and measures in Luxembourg regarding the integration of third-country national migrant women. Luxembourg follows a mainstream approach regarding ... [more ▼]

This study provides an overview of the current policies and measures in Luxembourg regarding the integration of third-country national migrant women. Luxembourg follows a mainstream approach regarding integration. According to the Law of 16 December 2008 on the integration of foreigners in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, integration is a two-way process that includes both the foreigner and the Luxembourgish society, thereby aiming at all non-Luxembourgish nationals (EU citizens and third-country nationals alike), independent of their gender. However, both national and EU funds may finance measures to support the integration of third-country national migrant women. The number of third-country national women in Luxembourg has increased steadily over the last years, representing 8,1% of the total female population in 2020. Most first residence titles issued to third-country national women were based on family reasons. Depending on the reasons for immigration, the most common countries of origin were India, the U.S.A., and China (to pursue remunerated activities), as well as Syria, Eritrea, the Philippines (for ‘other’ reasons, which includes, among others, beneficiaries of international protection), and Brazil (for family reasons). While third-country national women in Luxembourg comprise a diverse population, occupying jobs in both high-skilled and low-skilled employment sectors, they experience several challenges. Despite higher levels of education, they are more exposed to overcrowded housing, lower household income, lower activity rates, and higher unemployment rates than Luxembourgish women. Moreover, third-country national women are less often enrolled on electoral lists for municipal elections than female EU foreigners. Finally, the issue of discrimination towards (female) residents of African descent in Luxembourg has generated debates in recent years. The study also presents three projects specifically addressing third-country national women, which have been identified as examples of good practices in the context of integration of migrant women, namely ‘Le Temps des Femmes’ by Caritas, ‘Concept d’Intégration, d’Accompagnement et d’Orientation (CIAO!)' by Femmes en Détresse, and ‘Intégration par le Sport’ by the municipality of Esch-sur-Alzette. [less ▲]

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See detailThird-country national victims of trafficking in human beings: Detection, identification and protection in Luxembourg
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

This study provides an overview of the current procedures and practices regarding the detection, identification and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings from third-countries in Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

This study provides an overview of the current procedures and practices regarding the detection, identification and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings from third-countries in Luxembourg. Since 2016, Luxembourg saw a number of significant developments with regard to legislation, institutional and policy reforms, as well as debates and awareness campaigns related to the detection, identification, and protection of (presumed) third-country national victims of trafficking in human beings. These include, among others, several legislative developments strengthening procedural safeguards and the fight against certain forms of exploitation; the establishment of a National Action Plan on ‘Trafficking in Human Beings’ (including a confidential roadmap for relevant stakeholders in the field) and a National Action Plan on ‘Prostitution’ (which also relates to trafficking in human beings); an enhanced cooperation on the Benelux level; the creation of the Search for Fugitives and Victim Protection Unit of the Judicial Police (including reinforcement in 2021); the appointment of contact person for the fight against trafficking in human beings at the Directorate of Immigration and a ‘trafficking’ reference person in each of its departments; the reinforcement of the support for victims of trafficking (including the establishment of a common space (‘INFOTRAITE’) for the two approved assistance services SAVTEH and COTEH); an increase and broadening of the basic and specialised training for various stakeholders; and the organisation of information and awareness raising campaigns. At the same time, the national referral mechanism in Luxembourg has remained the same since its establishment: all stakeholders who detect a (presumed) third-country national victim of trafficking in human beings are obliged to refer cases to the Organised Crime Unit and the Search for Fugitives and Victim Protection Unit of the Judicial Police. Only the Judicial police can formally identify a victim of trafficking and notify the Directorate of Immigration of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs in view of issuing a reflection period of 90 days to the third-country national. Before the expiration of the reflection period, the Directorate of Immigration consults with the Police in order to determine whether a residence permit for victims of trafficking in human beings may be issued to the third-country national. For all the details, including challenges and good practices in the area of detecting, identifying, and protecting victims of trafficking in human beings in Luxembourg, have a look at the EMN Luxembourg Study. [less ▲]

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See detailChicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID-19 Special Collections
Aasman, Susan; Bingham, Nicola; Brügger, Niels et al

Report (2021)

This report is the first in a short series of WARCnet papers which aim to provide feedback on an internal datathon conducted by Working Group 2 of the WARCnet project. It explores the creation of ... [more ▼]

This report is the first in a short series of WARCnet papers which aim to provide feedback on an internal datathon conducted by Working Group 2 of the WARCnet project. It explores the creation of transnational merged datasets and corpora, based on seed lists, derived data and metadata provided by several web archiving institutions. The report highlights our first explorations of specially curated COVID web archives, in order to prepare an in-depth exploration of the issues, challenges, limitations and opportunities afforded by these heterogeneous datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich demographic and socio-economic factors are associated with vaccination willingness and beliefs towards vaccination? Rapid report with first results
Leist, Anja UL; Klee, Matthias UL; Paccoud, Ivana UL et al

Report (2021)

In the framework of the CoVaLux project on vaccination and long COVID in Luxembourg, the project “Socio-economic determinants of long COVID and vaccination, and economic consequences with focus on labour ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the CoVaLux project on vaccination and long COVID in Luxembourg, the project “Socio-economic determinants of long COVID and vaccination, and economic consequences with focus on labour market and health care” aims to triangulate evidence from different data sources such as social security and general population data, the national cohort CON-VINCE as well as national health surveys. We seek to arrive at robust assessments of how socio-economic determinants shape vaccination willingness, occurrence, severity and persistence of long COVID, and economic consequences of long COVID in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration Internationale au Luxembourg: Système d'observation permanente des migrations OCDE
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif à l’immigration. Entre 2019 et 2020 la population luxembourgeoise a continué à augmenter principalement en raison de l’immigration nette, passant de 626.108 à 634.730 ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif à l’immigration. Entre 2019 et 2020 la population luxembourgeoise a continué à augmenter principalement en raison de l’immigration nette, passant de 626.108 à 634.730 habitants (+1,4%), mais d’une manière plus discrète que les années précédentes. La part luxembourgeoise représente 52,8% de la population et les ressortissants étrangers 47,2%. La pandémie a dominé la politique en matière d’immigration et asile pendant l’année 2020 et 2021. Ces politiques ont impacté tous les secteurs au Luxembourg y compris les volets de l’immigration et de l’asile. La fermeture des frontières extérieures de l’Union Européenne, la réintroduction temporaire des contrôles aux frontières internes de l’espace Schengen (décrétées par l’Allemagne, la Belgique et la France) et la perturbation du trafic aérien international ont affecté les mouvements migratoires vers et au départ du Luxembourg. La limitation des mouvements des ressortissants pays tiers (RPT) s’est compliquée suite à la déclaration de l’état de crise entre le 18 mars et le 13 mai 2020 et la fermeture des services d’immigration et asile. Néanmoins, afin d’éviter qu’ils ne tombent dans une situation irrégulière, les autorités luxembourgeoises ont étendu la durée de validité des titres et cartes de séjour et des visas de manière automatique. De même, le traitement des dossiers et la prise de décision par la Direction de l’immigration se sont poursuivis sans interruption. L’interdiction d’entrée des RPT (avec des exceptions pour certaines catégories) a été maintenue jusqu’au 30 juin 2021. Une baisse significative du nombre de titres de séjour délivrés, de demandes d'autorisation temporaire de séjour et de visas de court séjour a été constatée, ainsi qu’une diminution de presque 50% des demandes de protection internationale. Le regroupement familial est resté le principal type de titre de séjour en 2020. Les limitations de mouvements ont aussi une incidence sur les transferts sous le règlement Dublin ainsi que sur les retours vers le pays d’origine. Au cours de l’année 2020, le Luxembourg a continué à maintenir ses engagements de solidarité internationale avec la relocalisation et la réinstallation des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) puisque 25 personnes (dont 16 mineurs) ont été relocalisées et 14 réinstallées. La réception des DPI s’est poursuivie car l’Office national de l’accueil (ONA) n’a pas fermé ses guichets. Un défi majeur est constitué par les taux d’occupation élevés dans les structures d’hébergement de l’ONA. La crise du logement affecte particulièrement les bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) qui peinent à trouver un logement en-dehors des structures d’accueil réservées en principe aux DPI. Dans ce contexte l’ONA a poursuivi ses efforts à inciter les communes à promouvoir la mise en place de structures d’hébergement pour DPI et/ou de possibilités d’hébergement pour BPI. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring progress to address statelessness in the EU and Georgia
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2021)

Member States reported statistics from a range of sources or categories. The time period covered by the statistics, which was not specified in the information request, also varied. If a date is not ... [more ▼]

Member States reported statistics from a range of sources or categories. The time period covered by the statistics, which was not specified in the information request, also varied. If a date is not specified, it is assumed that statistics refer to the time of the answer period for the ad hoc query which was April/May 2021. Sources/categories reported include residence permit data, population register data, statutory stateless persons, persons without citizenship, unknown/undetected nationality, nationality not specified and recognised stateless persons. T [less ▲]

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See detailSEMKIS-DSL: a Domain-Specific Language for Specifying Neural Networks’ Key-Properties
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoit UL

Report (2021)

Neural networks are becoming increasingly part of today’s software systems. These neural networks are simplified models of the human brain that are mainly capable of learning from large datasets to ... [more ▼]

Neural networks are becoming increasingly part of today’s software systems. These neural networks are simplified models of the human brain that are mainly capable of learning from large datasets to compute some function based on recognized data. Engineering these datasets and these neural network-based software systems is a complicated and challenging task. Software engineers require methods and tools to engineer these datasets and neural networks for their customers and to satisfy their requirements. In general, they lack methods and tools to support the engineering of dataset and neural networks that satisfy the customer’s requirements. They follow traditional approaches consisting of time-consuming, imprecise and manual activities. Typically, these approaches are not supported by any tool that precisely analyse and specify the neural network’s recognition skills. In our previous work, we have introduced the notion of key-properties for describing the neural network’s recognition skills. In this paper, we define a domain-specific language to support our SEMKIS software engineering methodology for the dataset augmentation to improve network’s key-properties. We present the SEMKIS-DSL for the specification of the key-properties of a neural network. We illustrate the concepts of our DSL with a running example specifying a neural network for recognizing a digital meter counter state. This running example demonstrates a specification of the neural network’s key-properties using the SEMKIS-DSL and a successful improvement of the neural network’s recognition skills. [less ▲]

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See detailDATA DISTRIBUTION API SPECIFICATION
Blanco, Braulio UL; Brorsson, Mats Hakan UL

Report (2021)

The second deliverable for the Script Project: API Specification

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See detailEnergy Efficiency of Blockchain Technologies
Papageorgiou, Orestis UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

Report (2021)

The purpose of this thematic report is to present an updated view of the aspects related to the energy efficiency of blockchain technologies. The topic of energy consumption of blockchains and especially ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this thematic report is to present an updated view of the aspects related to the energy efficiency of blockchain technologies. The topic of energy consumption of blockchains and especially of the Bitcoin blockchain has recently triggered a lot of discussions and a debate has started on the topic of making Bitcoin a sustainable ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailARL – Akademie für RaumePostwachstum und Raumentwicklung – Denkanstöße für Wissenschaft und Praxis.
Best, Benjamin; Brückner, Heike; Hülz, Martina et al

Report (2021)

This position paper, drawn up by members of the ARL’s Working Group on Post-Growth Economies (2016 – 2020), situates the international post-growth debate and discusses its relevance for spatial ... [more ▼]

This position paper, drawn up by members of the ARL’s Working Group on Post-Growth Economies (2016 – 2020), situates the international post-growth debate and discusses its relevance for spatial development and spatial science research. In addition to sectoral approaches and findings, the authors make concrete proposals for post-growth focuses in planning, research and teaching, distinguishing between changes that can be achieved in the short term and measures designed for the medium to long term. [less ▲]

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See detailUnemployment and working hours of women and men during the pandemic
Todorovic, Jelena; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Peluso, Eugenio UL

Report (2021)

Nearly all modern recessions have had one thing in common: men's employment has been affected significantly more than that of women. At least this was the case until 2020, with the recession caused by the ... [more ▼]

Nearly all modern recessions have had one thing in common: men's employment has been affected significantly more than that of women. At least this was the case until 2020, with the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only has it been unique in terms of its origin, but also in terms of its impact on the labour market: for the first time women were significantly more likely than men to be laid off, furloughed or to experience a reduction in working hours. This has led some economists to coin the term “shecession” (she + recession) to describe the recent economic downturn [less ▲]

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See detailREPORT OF DATA SOURCES
Wang, Xin Lin UL; Blanco, Braulio UL; Brorsson, Mats Hakan UL

Report (2021)

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See detailFinance Crowd Analysis Project (FINCAP)
Wolff, Christian UL; Zhang, Lu UL

Report (2021)

More than 100 research teams (RTs) from around the world tested the same set of hypotheses on the same data. They worked independently and wrote an academic paper based on their findings. These reports ... [more ▼]

More than 100 research teams (RTs) from around the world tested the same set of hypotheses on the same data. They worked independently and wrote an academic paper based on their findings. These reports were be evaluated by more than 30 distinguished academics whom we refer to as peer evaluators (PEs). Their feedback was be passed on to the RTs so that they can revise their papers. The project coordinators will study the #fincap results to learn about the scientific process. They have committed ex-ante to a meta-science analysis which was frozen before any instructions and data were given to the RTs and PEs. This frozen “pre-analysis plan” was uploaded to the Open Science Framework on Monday, 2021-01-11. The project will lead to a peer-reviewed academic publication at high level. [less ▲]

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See detailLes représentations du genre dans les manuels scolaires: Une étude à l'école fondamentale luxembourgeoise
Kerger, Sylvie UL; Brasseur, Laurence

Report (2021)

Tous les jours, les enfants se servent des manuels scolaires. Mis à part leur rôle pédagogique, les manuels scolaires agissent comme instruments de socialisation et de transmission de valeurs. De ce fait ... [more ▼]

Tous les jours, les enfants se servent des manuels scolaires. Mis à part leur rôle pédagogique, les manuels scolaires agissent comme instruments de socialisation et de transmission de valeurs. De ce fait, les manuels scolaires ont le potentiel de contribuer à l’égalité entre les sexes dans nos sociétés. Nous présentons un état des lieux ainsi que des pistes possibles pour garantir l'égalité entre les sexes dans les manuels scolaires ainsi que dans les pratiques éducatives. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical Report LA19.E Rev. B. Headed studs in profiled steel sheeting transverse to the beam. Investigations on design resistance of headed stud shear connectors on the basis of the Final Draft of SC4.PT3 (April 2018)
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Vigneri, Valentino

Report (2021)

The unsafety of current design rules for novel types of open-trough deck geometries for the resistance of headed studs in profiled steel sheeting is well known [1] and it was the main reason behind the ... [more ▼]

The unsafety of current design rules for novel types of open-trough deck geometries for the resistance of headed studs in profiled steel sheeting is well known [1] and it was the main reason behind the nomination of CEN/TC250/SC4- Task SC4.T3: “Revised rules for shear connection in the presence of modern forms of profiled sheeting”. During the RFCS research project “DISCCO” (RFCS-CT-2012-00030) [1], a mechanical model was developed on the basis of a large literature study and previous studies [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] while the corresponding design equations were presented by CEN/TC250/SC4.PT3 and further enhanced during the Research Project “ShearCON” of University of Luxembourg. In order to let the current rules of EN 1994-1-1 6.6 (Eq.(2) and (3)) as unchanged as possible, the limits of its suitable field of applicability (Database B1) was investigated thoroughly by means of the statistical procedure of EN 1990 D.8 [7]. The newly proposed equations (Eq. (7) and (8)) apply only to the cases outside these limits (Database B2). In this way, the proposed solution is able to restore the level of safety to its initial value, so that the partial safety factor for the shear connection ϒV=1.25 is adequate. Conversely, the current situation (without including the new design equations) would need a much higher partial safety factor as shown below. [less ▲]

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See detailHeaded studs in profiled steel sheeting transverse to the beam. Investigations on design resistance of headed stud shear connectors on the basis of the Final Draft of SC4.PT3 (April 2018)
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Vigneri, Valentino UL

Report (2021)

The unsafety of current design rules for novel types of open-trough deck geometries for the resistance of headed studs in profiled steel sheeting is well known [1] and it was the main reason behind the ... [more ▼]

The unsafety of current design rules for novel types of open-trough deck geometries for the resistance of headed studs in profiled steel sheeting is well known [1] and it was the main reason behind the nomination of CEN/TC250/SC4- Task SC4.T3: “Revised rules for shear connection in the presence of modern forms of profiled sheeting”. During the RFCS research project “DISCCO” (RFCS-CT-2012-00030) [1], a mechanical model was developed on the basis of a large literature study and previous studies [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] while the corresponding design equations were presented by CEN/TC250/SC4.PT3 and further enhanced during the Research Project “ShearCON” of University of Luxembourg. In order to let the current rules of EN 1994-1-1 6.6 (Eq.(2) and (3)) as unchanged as possible, the limits of its suitable field of applicability (Database B1) was investigated thoroughly by means of the statistical procedure of EN 1990 D.8 [7]. The newly proposed equations (Eq. (7) and (8)) apply only to the cases outside these limits (Database B2). In this way, the proposed solution is able to restore the level of safety to its initial value, so that the partial safety factor for the shear connection ϒV=1.25 is adequate. Conversely, the current situation (without including the new design equations) would need a much higher partial safety factor as shown below. [less ▲]

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See detailPRACE Best Practice Guide 2021: Modern Accelerators
Bispo, João; Barbosa, Jorge G.; Filipe Silva, Pedro et al

Report (2021)

Hardware accelerators are special types of elements designed for boosting the performance of certain application regions requiring large amounts of numerical computations. Several factors contributed to ... [more ▼]

Hardware accelerators are special types of elements designed for boosting the performance of certain application regions requiring large amounts of numerical computations. Several factors contributed to broadening the use and furthering the adoption of these technologies in High-Performance Computing (HPC). One of such is the offered greater computational throughput as compared to stand-alone Central Processing Units (CPUs), which is driven by the highly parallel architectural design of accelerators. This is particularly important in the current era of ever-increasing computational demands featuring high reuse rates of compute-intensive operational patterns. Another contributing factor is that these specialized chips are also capable of delivering much higher compute performance as compared to CPUs under the same power budget, making these technologies even more appealing for system vendors and users. All these led HPC manufacturers and integrators to unleash further the potential of hardware accelerators for delivering the required compute performance more efficiently. In fact, this is one of the main reasons that the current Top500 list [1] continues to be enriched with various accelerated systems. The next generation of HPC systems will also see a considerable amount of accelerator technology used. As a matter of fact, two out of the three European High-Performance Computing Joint Undertaking (EuroHPC JU) [2] pre-exascale HPC sites have already announced that their supercomputers will be equipped with large amount of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Thus, in order to achieve a competitive application performance and to be able to use the underlying hardware infrastructure efficiently, HPC application developers should be familiar with various challenges associated with using and orchestrating vast amounts of accelerator devices while being acquainted with the available ecosystem of the supporting tools. This Best Practice Guide (BPG) extends the previously developed series of BPGs [3] by providing an update on new accelerator technologies to further support the European HPC user community in achieving outstanding performance records of their large-scale parallel applications. This guide follows the style of the previously published guide on "Modern Processors" [4], by providing a hybrid approach of a field guide and a textbook. The aim of this BPG is not to replace any of the available in depth textbooks and/or documentations of certain tools, but rather to provide a set of best practices that build upon the available literature and the expertise of authors involved to further ease the process of application porting and performance optimisation. This guide showcases the usability and possibilities of further application tuning given a specific accelerator technology, and does not provide any direct comparisons of different accelerator technologies involved. The guide provides a generic overview on various accelerators and their accompanying programming models/environments and thus should be viewed as complementary to the existing in-depth BPGs provided by hardware vendors that are typically specific to their own product. [less ▲]

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See detailPraxis und Wissenschaft im Dialog- Berufsbegleitender Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Böwen, Petra UL; Flammang, Manou Laure UL

Report (2021)

Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht "Wissenschaft und Praxis im Dialog- berufsbegleitender Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften BSSE-CSL" analysiert und beschreibt den Studiengang, den die ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht "Wissenschaft und Praxis im Dialog- berufsbegleitender Bachelor in Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften BSSE-CSL" analysiert und beschreibt den Studiengang, den die Universität Luxemburg, in Kooperation mit der Chambre des Salariés Luxemburg CSL, konzipiert, organisiert, durchgeführt und evaluiert hat. Er stellt seine Bedeutung für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft im Allgemeinen und für den Arbeitsmarkt der Sozialen Arbeit im Besonderen dar. Darüber hinaus werden die Themen LebensLangesLernen, Theorie-/Praxistransfers sowie Arbeitsmarktbeobachtung und Qualifizierung in der Sozialen Arbeit in einem breiteren Kontext dargestellt. Die Publikation ist das Ergebnis einer gelungenen Zusammenarbeit verschiedener Akteure aus Praxis, Wissenschaft/Lehre, Politik und Öffentlichkeit, die auch persönlich zu Wort kommen. Sie stellt die enorme Spannbreite der Aktivitätsfelder der Sozialen Arbeit und ihrer Professionellen dar, die damit Beiträge zur Verbesserung der sozialen Kohäsion in Luxemburg leisten, was auch der Wirtschaft und allen Bürgern zugute kommt. [less ▲]

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See detailTabellenband - Jugendbericht 2020
Residori, Caroline UL; Schembri, Emanuel UL; Bulut, Hamid UL et al

Report (2021)

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See detailThe absolute Gravity Network of Haiti - Status Report 2021
Francis, Olivier UL; Sauveur, Renaldo UL; Beker, Neptune et al

Report (2021)

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See detailData science meets computational mechanics
Dehghani, Hamidreza UL; Zilian, Andreas UL

Report (2021)

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See detailTowards A Model-Based Multi- Perspective ValuationMethod for Smart Grid Initiatives: Foundations, OpenIssues, and a Research Outlook
de Kinderen, Sybren; Kaczmarek-Heß, Monika; Ma, Qin UL et al

Report (2021)

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 in the migration area (EMN OECD UMBRELLA INFORM)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Sheridan, Anne

Report (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has created profound changes in all areas of migration and asylum. EU Member States and OECD countries have made many efforts to keep the pandemic under control, entailing impacts ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has created profound changes in all areas of migration and asylum. EU Member States and OECD countries have made many efforts to keep the pandemic under control, entailing impacts such as border closures, travel restrictions, and the need to introduce sanitary measures. Beginning with the pandemic’s impact on permits and entry conditions, the Inform reports on contingency measures to keep systems operational and to mitigate the impacts on migrants and citizens to the extent possible. For instance, the reduction of in-person immigration related services was largely replaced by electronic or postal communication to ensure continuity in processes. In EU Member States and Norway, the automatic extension of residence permits or the removal of the obligation to leave in some cases, were some of the measures taken to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Most EU Member States provided financial support for migrant workers affected by the pandemic, either due to unemployment or loss of income, and made COVID-19 related healthcare services available to all migrants. Although restrictions were imposed on the admission of migrants, continued admission was granted for jobs deemed essential to meet labour market needs, notably in areas of health, agriculture, and transport. New digital tools have been critical in providing asylum and migration services, although the Inform notes that it has also raised new challenges. In the area of asylum, for instance, providing effective and fair application and appeals processes has become more complicated by having remote interviews, and depends largely on the applicants’ ability to use and access electronic means. Both the requests for asylum and the number of returns carried out have reduced in 2020 as a result of the pandemic. The landscape also changed for international students, where in-person attendance was discouraged if not suspended altogether. Many students returned home, and in some cases, were able to continue their studies remotely, while processes to renew residence permits were moved online. The joint research shows that public authorities have acted swiftly to introduce new measures or adapt their systems to confront the migration challenges caused by the pandemic, or in some cases, to simply continue to use pre-existing on-line systems. While the long-term impacts are hard to predict, the last chapter of the inform looks towards future migration policies and how these might be shaped in the context of the digitalisation of migration management, the need for bio-secure borders, and the expansion of teleworking digital nomads. The European Asylum Support Office (EASO) and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) provided inputs to the publication. [less ▲]

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See detailDetention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the usage of detention and alternatives to detention in international protection and return procedures in Luxembourg. Luxembourgish legislation, namely the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on Free Movement of Persons and Immigration (Immigration Law) and the Law of 18 December 2015 on International Protection and Temporary Protection (Asylum Law), foresees three alternatives to detention: - Alternative 1: Reporting obligations, which includes the obligation to surrender a passport, travel document or identity document; - Alternative 2: Home custody (+ electronic monitoring, if necessary); - Alternative 3: Deposition of a financial guarantee of 5.000€. In principle, the assessment between detention or alternatives to detention is made at the same time as when the grounds for detention are considered, as long as the Directorate of Immigration, as the responsible authority, has all the necessary information to decide if an alternative to detention can be ordered. Furthermore, the possibility to impose an alternative to detention is in principle systemically considered, as both relevant laws foresee that the detention decision is ordered in writing by the Minister on the basis of a case-by-case assessment, where necessary and if other less coercive measures cannot be effectively applied. Grounds for detention are generally rejected in favour of an alternative to detention if the person concerned falls within the category of vulnerable groups and if person is able to proof effective guarantees of representation to prevent the risk of absconding. This latter obligation on the third-country national to revert the legal presumption that there is a risk of absconding remains the main challenge because effective guarantees of representation are not defined by law. This is particularly challenging in the context of return procedures, where this legal presumption exists in nearly all cases where a third-country national has no valid identity, travel or residence documents. In the absence of such effective guarantees of representation, the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum generally does not make the decision to apply an alternative to detention. Consequently, the research in the context of this study has shown that alternatives to detention are only rarely used in Luxembourg, with the important exception of home custody in the Emergency Housing Structure of Kirchberg (‘Structure d’hébergement d’urgence Kirchberg’ – SHUK). The SHUK serves as a semi-open return facility for applicants for international protection and irregularly staying third-country nationals whose fingerprints have already been registered in Eurodac by another Member State and are therefore likely to be transferred to that Member State, in accordance with the Dublin III Regulation. A placement at the SHUK corresponds to home custody. The rare use of alternatives to detention also results in the fact that there is generally not much data available in this regard, with the important exception of home custody in the SHUK, which is more widely used. [less ▲]

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See detailGesundheit von Schülerinnen und Schülern in Luxemburg - Bericht zur luxemburgischen HBSC-Befragung 2018
Heinz, Andreas UL; Kern, Matthias Robert; van Duin, Claire UL et al

Report (2021)

Der Bericht gibt Auskunft über Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden der Schüler im Jahr 2018 in ihrem sozialen Kontext. Darüber hinaus informiert er, wie sich die entsprechenden Indikatoren von 2006—2018 in ... [more ▼]

Der Bericht gibt Auskunft über Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden der Schüler im Jahr 2018 in ihrem sozialen Kontext. Darüber hinaus informiert er, wie sich die entsprechenden Indikatoren von 2006—2018 in Luxemburg entwickelt haben. Verbesserungen gab es vor allem beim Gesundheitsverhalten — die Schüler rauchen und trinken weniger, sie putzen sich häufiger die Zähne und essen mehr Obst und Gemüse. Verschlechterungen betreffen die mentale Gesundheit: Die Schüler haben häufiger psychosomatische Beschwerden und sie fühlen sich häufiger von der Schularbeit gestresst. Des Weiteren sind die Schüler häufiger übergewichtig und sie sind seltener körperlich aktiv. Der Bericht zeigt auch, dass Gesundheitsrisiken mit soziodemografischen Merkmalen zusammenhängen, wie u. a. dem Geschlecht, dem Alter, dem Wohlstand und dem Migrationshintergrund. So verhalten sich Mädchen zwar häufig gesundheitsbewusster als Jungen, aber dennoch schätzen sie ihren Gesundheitszustand schlechter ein und sie haben mehr Stress und sie sind häufiger von multiplen psychosomatischen Beschwerden betroffen. Aus Clusteranalysen geht hervor, dass es typische Konstellationen von Gesundheitsverhaltensweisen gibt, die zudem mit soziodemografischen Merkmalen sowie Übergewicht, Stress und der Lebenszufriedenheit zusammenhängen. [less ▲]

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See detailMaaS4All Project Report
Bandiera, Claudia UL; Cisterna, Carolina UL; Viti, Francesco UL

Report (2021)

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See detailUni.lu HPC Annual Report 2020
Varrette, Sébastien UL

Report (2021)

2020 was a challenging year for everyone that will stay in our memory. The pandemic disrupted our economies, societies, and all our best laid-out plans. However, COVID-19 also taught us several lessons ... [more ▼]

2020 was a challenging year for everyone that will stay in our memory. The pandemic disrupted our economies, societies, and all our best laid-out plans. However, COVID-19 also taught us several lessons for the future, in particular the (real) necessity to adapt, to be nimble and to expect the unexpected while supporting cutting-edge excellence in science with the best performing and most flexible tools to unleash research potential. One thing is certain - the strategic developments for accelerated digitalisation and the role that HPC will play to ensure a smarter and more connected University will be in focus in 2021 and the years to come. 2020 was thus a very fruitful and productive year for the ULHPC team which has seen unprecedented changes and challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailOpenMP optimisation of the eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM)
Ojeda-May, Pedro; Eriksson, Jerry; Rousset, Alban UL et al

Report (2021)

The eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is an extension of the regular Discrete Element Method (DEM) which is a software for simulating the dynamics of granular material. XDEM extends the regular DEM ... [more ▼]

The eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is an extension of the regular Discrete Element Method (DEM) which is a software for simulating the dynamics of granular material. XDEM extends the regular DEM method by adding features where both micro and macroscopic observables can be computed simultaneously by coupling different time and length scales. In this sense XDEM belongs the category of multi-scale/multi-physics applications which can be used in realistic simulations. In this whitepaper, we detail the different optimisations done during the preparatory PRACE project to overcome known bottlenecks in the OpenMP implementation of XDEM. We analysed the Conversion, Dynamic, and the combined Dynamics-Conversion modules with Extrae/Paraver and Intel VTune profiling tools in order to find the most expensive functions. The proposed code modifications improved the performance of XDEM by ~17% for the computational expensive Dynamics-Conversion combined modules (with 48 cores, full node). Our analysis was performed in the Marenostrum 4 (MN4) PRACE infrastructure at Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC). [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Retail Banking: Potentiale und Herausforderungen Künstlicher Intelligenz
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Rägo, Vadim et al

Report (2021)

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See detailNOWHERELAND REVISITED IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC 2020
Trummer, Ursula; Novak-Zezula, Sonja; Dauvrin, Marie et al

Report (2021)

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence ... [more ▼]

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence base to guide policy making. The Center for Health and Migration, Vienna, has initiated a stock-taking of national regulations concerning access to health and social care for UDM. The initiative aims to create a landscape of policy frameworks to inform policy making and practice development. National experts on health and migration are contacted and asked to provide information on the respective legal frameworks in the following categories: work, housing, compulsory education, social welfare, and health. A validated template is used for data collection. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary and secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children in Ghana
Karpati, Julia; Elezaj, Erëblina; Cebotari, Victor UL et al

Report (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 UL)
See detailTime use, childcare and home schooling
Todorovic, Jelena; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Peluso, Eugenio UL

Report (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have jumped to historical highs.Work conditions for those who remained employed changed abruptly, with many being forced to work from home. As schools and daycare centres closed, child-care needs soared. Social distancing recommendations and stay-at-home orders made it difficult, if not impossible, for informal care providers, such as grandparents or other family members, to help with child-care responsibilities. So how did parents cope? [less ▲]

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See detailDigital urban development - How large digital corporations shape the field of urban governance (DIGI-GOV)
Carr, Constance UL

Report (2021)

DIGI-GOV is a research project that aims to understand (I) the role of large digital corporations (LDCs) in digital urbandevelopment, (II) how the presence of LDCs in urban planning practice challenge pre ... [more ▼]

DIGI-GOV is a research project that aims to understand (I) the role of large digital corporations (LDCs) in digital urbandevelopment, (II) how the presence of LDCs in urban planning practice challenge pre-existing modes urban governance, and (III) how LDC-led urban development constitutes a new relational geography of digital cities. DIGI-GOV is thus a chance to call attention to this critical shift in the ways that contemporary digital cities are constructed, planned, mediated and governed. DIGI-GOV expands on prior research that examined Alphabet Inc.’s digital city project in Toronto that raised a number of important issues forurban planners, development practitioners, and urban studies scholars – even if this particular digital city project was ultimately unsuccessful. DIGI-GOV expands this research because the range of services that LDCs provide has increased in both volume and centrality; more and more public and private institutions rely on LDCs for essential digital infrastructures. There is an urgent need to study the trajectories of urbanization that are rolled out under the leadership of LDCs and the tensions in urban governance that are unleashed. DIGI-GOV will shed light on four further cities in addition to Toronto, which have been challenged by the presence of LDCs—namely, Seattle, Washington D.C, Bissen, and Eemshaven. The selected cities are some of the few exemplary cases available where LDCs have secured their position in the local urban field. Through qualitative methodological approaches, DIGI-GOV will tease out how these cities are relationally connected through LDC-led urban development, and what scholars and practitioners can learn from these experiences. Examined together, one can scratch at the surface of, and unearth, this new emerging relational geography. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (12 UL)
See detailFrench version of the General Self-Efficacy Short Scale (FASKU)
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Schumacher, Anette UL et al

Report (2021)

The ASKU is an economic instrument for recording individual competence expectations to be able to deal with difficulties and obstacles in daily life. It was originally developed and validated in German by ... [more ▼]

The ASKU is an economic instrument for recording individual competence expectations to be able to deal with difficulties and obstacles in daily life. It was originally developed and validated in German by Beierlein, Kemper, Kovaleva, & Rammstedt (2013). In 2019 we developed and tested a French Version of this scale and tested it for reliability (internal consistency), validity and measurement equivalence towards the original German Version (see Décieux et al., 2020). The provided evidence on the quality of the German and the French Version of ASKU (FASKU) indicates that the scales allow a reliable, valid and economic assessment of subjective competence expectations and that the two language versions can be used to a [less ▲]

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See detailEnergieflexibilitätsdatenmodell der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Duda, Sebastian; Schott, Paul et al

Report (2021)

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially ... [more ▼]

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially) automated information technology processing of a wide variety of flexibility. The aim is to develop a comprehensive data model to map flexibility in a flexibility space and concrete flexibility measures. The aim is not to create a completely realistic representation of a flexibility. The focus is on mapping technically and energetically relevant information in a granularity that enables the communication of flexibility between industrial companies and energy markets. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicy Brief – Le Capital Social : les Facilitateurs et les Obstacles à l’Intégration des Jeunes Migrants au Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Oliveira, José UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The Policy Brief opposite is based on the results of the SOCAMI project, which was drawn up on the basis of secondary analysis of European and national data concerning the socio-professional integration ... [more ▼]

The Policy Brief opposite is based on the results of the SOCAMI project, which was drawn up on the basis of secondary analysis of European and national data concerning the socio-professional integration of young migrants, as well as qualitative data collected as part of this study. Indeed, twelve biographical interviews were conducted by the researchers involved in the project with young migrants who had been living in Luxembourg for more than five years. This analysis was completed by eight expert interviews with representatives of organisations working with young people and/or migrants in various fields. These different analyses made it possible, on the one hand, to develop relevant indicators to measure the acquisition of social capital by young migrants and, on the other hand, to identify the structural obstacles to the social integration of this group. Based on these results, this document makes a number of recommendations for governmental and non-governmental organisations working with young people and/or migrants. [less ▲]

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See detailAcceptance is not acceptance, but acceptance!
van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL

Report (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)
See detailEnhancing Participation in Probability-Based Online Panels: Two Incentive Experiments and their Effects on Response and Panel Recruitment
Witte, Nils; Schröder, Jette; Schauer, Ines et al

Report (2021)

This article investigates how mail based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment and the ... [more ▼]

This article investigates how mail based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment and the intermediate participation in the recruitment survey. The experiments were implemented in the context of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study and encompass two samples of randomly sampled persons. Tested incentives include a conditional lottery, conditional monetary incentives, and the combination of unconditional money-in-hand with conditional monetary incentives. For an encompassing evaluation of the link between incentives and panel recruitment, the article further assesses the incentives’ implications for demographic composition and panel recruitment unit costs. Multivariate analysis indicates that low combined incentives (€5/€5) or, where unconditional disbursement is unfeasible, high conditional incentives (€20) are most effective in enhancing panel participation. In terms of demographic bias, low combined incentives (€5/€5) and €10 conditional incentives are the favored options. The budget options from the perspective of panel recruitment include the lottery and the €10 conditional incentive which break even at net sample sizes of 1,000. [less ▲]

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See detailImpediments to resolvability – what is the status quo?
Bodellini, Marco UL

Report (2021)

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See detailReferenzarchitektur der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; van Stiphoudt, Christine UL et al

Report (2021)

The Energy Synchronisation Platform (ESP) maps the entire process of information-automated energy flexibility trading from the machine to the energy market. The ESP is thus the overall concept that ... [more ▼]

The Energy Synchronisation Platform (ESP) maps the entire process of information-automated energy flexibility trading from the machine to the energy market. The ESP is thus the overall concept that enables industrial demand flexibility. This discussion paper on the ESP reference architecture is an update of an older version presented in Reinhart et al. (2020). Since then, the development of individual services has been discontinued and the market platform (MP) is no longer designed as a broker architecture. It now serves as the first point of contact between industrial companies and service providers and takes on an intermediary role. The Enterprise Platform (UP) thus takes on a more important role in terms of communication within ESP, as all communication with services now takes place via the UP. Furthermore, in this detailed discussion paper we provide a collection of the different services that have been developed within SynErgie for the MP and the UP. Each service presented includes a brief description, the relevant inputs and outputs, and other relevant comments. Furthermore, an overview of the primary reference processes considered for the operation and marketing of flexibility is provided. These are presented on the basis of three possible use cases. Thus, logic and interactions of the different processes within the ESP are shown [less ▲]

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See detailOECD Report : The Missing Entrepreneurs 2021: Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship and Self Employment
Fletcher, Denise Elaine UL

Report (2021)

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2021 is the sixth edition in a series of biennial reports that examine how public policies at national, regional and local levels can support job creation, economic growth and ... [more ▼]

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2021 is the sixth edition in a series of biennial reports that examine how public policies at national, regional and local levels can support job creation, economic growth and social inclusion by overcoming obstacles to business start-ups and self-employment by people from disadvantaged or under-represented groups in entrepreneurship. It shows that there are substantial untapped opportunities for entrepreneurship in populations such as women, youth, the unemployed, and immigrants and highlights the need for more differentiated government entrepreneurship policies that respond to the specific barriers they face. The report includes an assessment of the impact of COVID-19 across these populations of entrepreneurs and the effectiveness of the policy response. It also contains thematic policy chapters on microfinance and leveraging the potential of immigrant entrepreneurs. These chapters present the range of current policy actions in EU and OECD countries and make recommendations for future policy directions. Finally, the report contains country profiles for each of the 27 EU Member States that identify for each county the major recent trends in entrepreneurship by women, youth, seniors and immigrants, the key policy issues and the recent policy actions. See section on Luxembourg country profile. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport final Projet 2020: Le capital social dans l'intégration des jeunes migrants au Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Oliveira, José UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2021)

The SOCAMI project focuses on the importance of social ties in the integration pathways of young migrants from third countries in Luxembourg. Youth is a period rich in learning where social identities and ... [more ▼]

The SOCAMI project focuses on the importance of social ties in the integration pathways of young migrants from third countries in Luxembourg. Youth is a period rich in learning where social identities and feelings of belonging to a social group are developed. In this sense, the analysis of the role of social ties in the integration of young migrants is essential. In particular, the ties that young migrants establish with residents of their host country may endure in the future and should therefore be considered relevant in the formation of their social relationships. However, young migrants often find themselves in vulnerable situations linked to job insecurity or, more broadly, marginalisation within the host society. Thus, it is mainly the relationships fostered by youth organisations, governmental or non-governmental, formal or informal, that play a central role in the preparation of young migrants for adult life. The overall aim of this study is to understand, investigate, explain and scientifically formulate the role of social capital in the integration of young migrants residing in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Different Electricity Pricing Systems Affect the Energy Trilemma : Assessing Indonesia?s Electricity Market Transition
Heffron, Raphael J.; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Sumarno, Theresia et al

Report (2021)

Many countries have a clear policy objective of increasing their share of renewable energy sources (RESs). However, a major impediment to higher RES penetration often lies in the historically grown ... [more ▼]

Many countries have a clear policy objective of increasing their share of renewable energy sources (RESs). However, a major impediment to higher RES penetration often lies in the historically grown structures of a country’s electricity sector. In Indonesia, policymakers have relied on cheap fossil fuels and state control to provide the population with access to both reliable and affordable electricity. However, this focus on only two of the three horns of the energy trilemma, namely energy security and energy equity (and not sustainability), may put Indonesia at risk of missing its ambitious RES targets. In this context, a number of small- scale reform attempts to promote RES integration in recent years have proved to be relatively unsuccessful. Like many other countries, Indonesia needs clear policy directions to avoid an unsustainable lock-in into a fossil fuel future. In the last decades, several other countries have successfully restructured their electricity sectors, for example by introducing a wholesale market for electricity under different electricity pricing systems, including nodal, zonal, or uniform pricing. These countries may hold valuable experiences of overcoming the historically grown barriers to successful RES integration through a greater role for market mechanisms. This paper develops three generic models that allow policymakers to analyze the impact of introducing either a nodal, a zonal, or a uniform pricing system on the three horns of the energy trilemma in their country. We evaluate our model using a simplified network representation of the Indonesian electricity sector. Our results indicate that each of the pricing systems is able to foster specific horns of the energy trilemma. Considering that any major reform intended to improve energy sustainability in Indonesia will only be a success if it also addresses energy security and energy equity, we also discuss our results from the perspective of energy justice and the need to balance the country’s energy trilemma. Ultimately, we illustrate a transformation pathway for a more sustainable and just transition to a low-carbon economy in Indonesia. [less ▲]

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See detailNOWHERELAND REVISITED IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC 2020: LUXEMBOURG POLICY BRIEF
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Vukovich, Lilla; Hallack, Florence UL et al

Report (2021)

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence ... [more ▼]

Undocumented Migrants (UDM) belong to the most vulnerable groups in times of global emergency situations. COVID-19 does hit hardest the most vulnerable groups and it is important to create an evidence base to guide policy making. The Center for Health and Migration, Vienna, initiated a stock-taking of national regulations concerning access to health and social care for UDM. The initiative aims to create a landscape of policy frameworks to inform policy making and practice development. This Policy Brief provides information on the respective legal frameworks in the following categories: work, housing, compulsory education, social welfare, and health in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailRAPPORT ANNUEL SUR LES MIGRATIONS ET L'ASILE Luxembourg 2020
Hallack, Florence UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2021)

This report traces the main developments and debates related to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2020. Apart from the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on migration movements and policy, three key ... [more ▼]

This report traces the main developments and debates related to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2020. Apart from the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on migration movements and policy, three key changes have taken place in 2020: 1) The creation of the National Office for Reception (ONA) and the Department of Integration, which replace the Luxembourg Office for Reception and Integration (OLAI). 2) Bill n°7682 has been tabled in the Chamber of Deputies. It aims to strengthen the security of identity cards issued to European Union (EU) citizens and family members exercising their right to free movement, to simplify administrative procedures, and to amend certain provisions concerning family reunification, intra-corporate transfers (ICT) and trainees. 3) Bill No. 7681 aims to amend the procedure for appealing against a Dublin transfer decision in order to increase its effectiveness while ensuring maximum legal certainty for the applicant for international protection. It also proposes to amend the Asylum Act by introducing "extraordinary" remedies against a final decision to close a procedure and against a decision to withdraw international protection. [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity Spot Market Design 2030-2050
Novirdoust, Amir Ashour; Bichler, Martin; Bojung, Caroline UL et al

Report (2021)

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce ... [more ▼]

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce harmful CO2 emissions. The German government plans that even before the year 2050, all electricity generated and consumed in Germany should be greenhouse gas neutral [1]. To successfully integrate renewable energies, a future energy system must be able to handle the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. One important means to address such electricity production variability is demand-side flexibility. Here, industry plays a major role in responding to variable electricity supply with adequate flexibility. This is where the Kopernikus project SynErgie comes in with more than 80 project partners from academia, industry, governmental, and non-governmental organizations as well as energy suppliers and network operators. The Kopernikus project SynErgie investigates how to best leverage demand-side flexibility in the German industry. The current electricity market design in Germany is not well suited to deal with increasing levels of re- newable energy, and it does not embrace demand-side flexibility. Almost 6 GW of curtailed power in 2019 provide evidence that changes are needed with respect to the rules governing electricity markets. These rules were designed at a time when electricity generation was concentrated on a few large and dispatchable conventional power plants and demand was considered inelastic. The SynErgie Cluster IV investigates how a future-proof electricity market design should be organized. The corresponding Work Package IV.3.1 more specifically deals with analyzing and designing allocation and pricing rules on electricity spot markets. The resulting design must be well suited to accommodate demand-side flexibility and address the intermittent nature of important renewable energy sources. This whitepaper is the result of a fruitful collaboration among the partners involved in SynErgie Cluster IV which include Germany’s leading research organizations and practitioners in the field. The collaboration led to an expert workshop in October 2020 with participation from a number of international energy market experts such as Mette Bjørndal (NHH), Endre Bjørndal (NHH), Peter Cramton (University of Maryland and University of Cologne), and Raphael Heffron (University of Dundee). The whitepaper details the key recommendations from this workshop. In particular, the whitepaper recommends a move to a locational, marginal price-based system together with new bidding formats allowing to better express flexibility. We argue in favor of a one-step introduction of locational, marginal prices instead of repeatedly splitting existing zones. Frequent zone splitting involves recurring political debates as well as short- and long-run instabilities affecting the basis for financial con- tracts, for example. Importantly, the definition of stable prize zones is very challenging with increasing levels of distributed and renewable energy sources. The recommendation is the outcome of an intense debate about advantages and downsides of different policy alternatives. However, such a transition to locational, marginal prices is not without challenges, and it is a call to arms for the research community, policymak- ers, and practitioners to develop concepts on how to best facilitate the transition and ensure a reliable and efficient electricity market of the future. We’d like to thank all the project partners and are grateful for the financial support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as well as the Project Management Jülich. Hans Ulrich Buhl (Cluster Lead) Martin Bichler (Work Package Lead) [less ▲]

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See detailFASKU. French version of the General Self-Efficacy Short Scale [Test description and questionnaire]
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Schumacher, Anette UL et al

Report (2021)

The FASKU is an economical instrument for recording individual competence expectations of dealing with difficulties and obstacles in daily life. It was originally developed and validated in German by ... [more ▼]

The FASKU is an economical instrument for recording individual competence expectations of dealing with difficulties and obstacles in daily life. It was originally developed and validated in German by Beierlein, Kemper, Kovaleva, and Rammstedt (2013). In 2019, the authors developed and tested a French version of this scale (FASKU) and tested it for reliability (internal consistency), validity, and measurement equivalence towards the original German Version (see Décieux et al., 2020a). The provided evidence on the quality of the German and the French Version of ASKU (FASKU) indicates that the scales allow a reliable, valid, and economical assessment of subjective competence expectations and that the two language versions can be used to assess and compare self-efficacy in German- and French-speaking populations. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2020
Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2021)

The Annual Report on Migration and Asylum provides an overview of the main developments and debates in Luxembourg in 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic strongly impacted migratory movements to and from ... [more ▼]

The Annual Report on Migration and Asylum provides an overview of the main developments and debates in Luxembourg in 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic strongly impacted migratory movements to and from Luxembourg. In 2020, there was a significant decrease in the number of residence permits, applications for temporary authorisation of stay and visas (short stay visas and D-visas), a reduction of around 50% on the number of applications for international protection and a decline in Dublin transfers and returns. Public health measures in response to the pandemic significantly impacted migration policies. For instance, Luxembourg temporarily closed its borders to third-country nationals and automatically regularized the stay of third-country nationals whose legal residence status ended during the state of crisis. Moreover, personal interviews with applicants of international protection (AIPs) and Dublin transfers were suspended. Lastly, irregular migrants were granted access to healthcare, free of charge, regardless of their social security coverage without being issued a return order or being placed in detention during the pandemic. Outside of the COVID-19 context, the following developments can be highlighted: The introduction of Bill n°7682 foresees the extension of the time limit from three to six months available to beneficiaries of international protection (BIPs) to apply for family reunification after the granting of their status, as well as the simplification of administrative procedures, concerning the elimination of the requirement to provide integral copies of travel documents for family members of the third-country national applying for family reunification. At the procedural level, Bill n°7682 aims to amend the appeal procedure against a Dublin transfer decision to increase their effectiveness while guaranteeing maximum legal security for the applicant for international protection. It proposes to amend the Asylum Law by introducing “extraordinary” remedies against a final decision to close proceedings and against a decision to withdraw international protection. The Grand Ducal Regulation of 4 November 2020 entered into force, establishing the Commission on the evaluation of the best interest of unaccompanied minors in return decisions. However, this commission continues to generate debates and criticism, especially from fundamental rights organisations, regarding its composition. In view of the high occupancy rate in the ONA’s accommodation structures, efforts to promote the construction of new accommodation structures continued in 2020. A new emergency reception facility was set up for newcomers. Strengthening the fight against trafficking in human beings was another priority of the Luxembourgish government. As a result, the composition of the Monitoring Committee on the Fight Against the Trafficking in Human Beings was implemented by Grand Ducal Regulation. Other strategic developments were implemented, such as the elaboration of a second National Action Plan on Human Trafficking and an enhanced collaboration at the Benelux and EU level. In terms of integration, several major developments should be noted: The creation of a communication service within the Department of Integration The first interministerial committee on integration open to civil society took place on 16 December 2020 The launch of a large consultation including all key actors on the future of integration policies The selection of several municipalities to take part in a pilot phase regarding a new approach to the Communal Plan on Integration (PCI) A discussion in Parliament on the issue of racism and discrimination, which resulted in the adoption of two motions and a resolution. One of the motions provided for a study on racism and ethno-racial discrimination and the resolution aims to strengthen the resources of the Centre for Equal Treatment (CET). The Minister of Education, Children and Youth is planning to set up a service specifically responsible for the integration and reception of children of foreign origin and to review the procedures for taking care of newly arrived pupils [less ▲]

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See detailVaccination policies in Europe: a comparative study between selected countries” under the request, and for the benefit of, the Ministry of Health of the Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Donati, Alessandra UL

Report (2021)

This report sets forth the main findings of the research that we carried out at the Max Planck Institute Luxembourg under the request, and for the benefit of, the Ministry of Health of Luxembourg.

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See detailMetaheuristics for the Online Printing Shop Scheduling Problem - Supplementary Material
Tessaro Lunardi, Willian UL; Birgin, Ernesto G.; Ronconi, Débora P. et al

Report (2020)

This document presents further numerical results of the experiments concerning the classical instances of the flexible job shop scheduling problem, performed in (Lunardi et al., Metaheuristics for the ... [more ▼]

This document presents further numerical results of the experiments concerning the classical instances of the flexible job shop scheduling problem, performed in (Lunardi et al., Metaheuristics for the Online Printing Shop Scheduling Problem, submitted). Additionally, this document gathers the best makespan values (upper bounds and lower bounds) found by state-of-the-art algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in high-income countries
Richardson, Dominic; Carraro, Alessandro; Cebotari, Victor UL et al

Report (2020)

COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had ... [more ▼]

COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had national recessions, the COVID-19 pandemic is much more than that. COVID-19 is a social and economic crisis, sparked by a protracted health crisis. High-income countries have very limited experience of dealing with health crises, having their health and human services stretched beyond capacity, restricting the travel of their populations or having to close workplaces and schools – let alone experience of all of these things combined. These unique conditions create new and serious challenges for the economies and societies of all high-income countries. As these challenges evolve, children – as dependants – are among those at greatest risk of seeing their living standards fall and their personal well-being decline. This new UNICEF Innocenti report explores how the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to affect children; the initial government responses to the crisis; and how future public policies could be optimized to better support children. [less ▲]

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See detailEdge Computing: An Overview of Framework and Applications
Krishnasamy, Ezhilmathi UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Mucciardi, Michael

Report (2020)

This report gives an overview of the Edge Computing paradigm and its applications. Indeed, with the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) era, many electronic devices and sensors produce a vast volume of ... [more ▼]

This report gives an overview of the Edge Computing paradigm and its applications. Indeed, with the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) era, many electronic devices and sensors produce a vast volume of data which should be processed in a timely manner and this novel computing model is nowadays seen as a pertinent answer to this open challenge. This report thus explains why Edge Computing is needed and how the edge architecture is typically structured. It further presents the technologies that help this cutting-edge model to function properly. Since Edge Computing involves a heterogeneous architecture, it requires to adapt to a few technological recommendations for optimal performance. In this context, this report reviews the latest hardware technology trends tied to Edge Computing developments and points out technical challenges implementing this innovative computing model. In particular, we analyse how High-Performance Computing and CloudComputing infrastructures can be efficiently organised to design an Edge Computing-based framework able to tackle cutting-edge issues solved by Artificial Intelligence techniques. Finally, this report presents selected real-world applications of the Edge Computing paradigm across multiple domains affecting our daily life, i.e., healthcare, smart city and grids, industry 4.0 and public safety [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate, timely, interoperable? Data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg
Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish Asylum Law foresees a centralised and streamlined asylum system with one single national authority for registering, lodging and examining applications for international protection, namely the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, implemented by the Directorate of Immigration. The Asylum Law clearly distinguishes the phases of making, registering and lodging an application for international protection. In practice, however, the three phases generally occur on the same day or within a few working days if the claim is not directly made to the Directorate of Immigration. Furthermore, the asylum system does not differentiate between the different types of entry routes to Luxembourgish territory. As a consequence, applicants for international protection have a swift access to the asylum procedure once they express their wish to apply for international protection in Luxembourg. In addition to the tracks foreseen in the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU), Luxembourg operates a fourth track in the form of the ultra-accelerated procedure, which was introduced in 2017 as a practical acceleration of the accelerated procedure for applicants stemming from safe countries of origin from the Western Balkan countries and Georgia. The study provides an detailed overview of what data is collected from applicants of international protection, at what stage of the procedure this data is collected and by whom, as well as where and how this data is stored. Lastly, the study has shown that, despite the increase of applications since 2015 and a consistent high number of applications since then, the processing times have decreased significantly, in particular since 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailResponses to long-term irregularly staying migrants: practices and challenges in EU Member States and Norway
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

This study analyses the legal and factual situation in which long-term irregular staying migrants are in Luxembourg.

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See detailPrimary and Secondary Impacts of COVID-19 on Children and Women in Ghana
Karpati, Julia; Elezaj, Erëblina; Safojan, Romina et al

Report (2020)

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See detailQuels seraient les impacts d’une pandémie numérique pour l’armée de Terre (fonctionnement et rôle au sein de la Nation) ?
Fouillet, Thibault UL

Report (2020)

La pandémie numérique est un sujet qui n’a pas fait l’objet d’une véritable documentation. L’occurrence d’un tel phénomène qui dépasserait une simple panne pour intéresser de vastes zones durant une ... [more ▼]

La pandémie numérique est un sujet qui n’a pas fait l’objet d’une véritable documentation. L’occurrence d’un tel phénomène qui dépasserait une simple panne pour intéresser de vastes zones durant une période importante, est souvent considérée comme faible, au point de la négliger voire de la classer arbitrairement dans la catégorie des fantasmes. Mais comme en toute chose, la capacité à anticiper une crise peut faciliter son traitement et accélérer le retour à la normale. En effet, un effondrement localisé et durable de l’internet peut se trouver lié à des causes naturelles spécifiques de grande ampleur, accidentelles du fait de la défaillance d’installations techniques, ou intentionnelles du fait d’actes malveillants terroristes ou de guerre. La robus-tesse du réseau de communication maillé que nous connaissons peut-être mise à défaut par des pannes généralisées d’électricité ou la destruction simultanée de composants électro-niques uniformément répartis dont la fragilité ou la vulnérabilité à des actions spécifiques n’avaient pas été détectées. Les impacts sur la vie de la nation seraient majeurs du fait de la généralisation des applications internet qui pilotent aujourd’hui la presque totalité des réseaux utilisés par les administra-tions, les particuliers ou les industriels. Ainsi, le dysfonctionnement de l’internet aurait un ef-fet domino sur les réseaux de transport d’énergie (électricité, gaz, oléoducs), de transport fer-roviaire et dans une moindre mesure aujourd’hui routière, télécommunications (particuliers, banques…). En conséquence le pays serait frappé d’une certaine paralysie entraînant des dé-sordres importants dictés par les tentatives de survie face aux différents blocages. La situation de 2035 serait encore plus difficile à gérer que celle d’aujourd’hui du fait de la multiplication des objets connectés. Dans ce cadre, les forces armées et l’armée de Terre en particulier peuvent être réquisitionnées pour intervenir et les missions qui en découlent doivent être imaginées dans le cadre d’une démarche générale d’anticipation qui ne vise pas nécessairement le retour à la normale, mais la stabilisation dans un état acceptable dans une logique de résilience. Deux types de missions peuvent être envisagés sous forme de réquisition conformément aux conventions existantes, en utilisant les structures de commandement des zones de défense. D’une part des missions de sécurité civiles permettant dans l’urgence de renforcer le service public en apportant le concours d’hommes et de matériels. D’autre part des missions proprement militaires pour protéger les points d’importance vitale dont les systèmes de sécurité seraient devenus inopérants. Enfin, des missions principalement techniques pour rétablir les moyens de communication en utilisant des réseaux militaires pour une grande part indépen-dants de l’internet. Des enseignements et recommandations viennent conclure la note, en insistant sur l’importance de l’acceptabilité du temps de retour à la normale et notamment du service dégradé qu’il s’agirait de mettre sur pied. Parmi ces enseignements, certains seront dédiés aux évolutions de la réserve pour que celle-ci soit au mieux adaptée à ces missions nouvelles. [less ▲]

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See detailMIGRATION INTERNATIONALE AU LUXEMBOURG Système d’observation permanente des migrations (OCDE)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif en termes d’immigration ; entre 2018 et 2019, la population du Grand-Duché a augmenté de 2 %. La part de la population luxembourgeoise représente 59,1 % de cette ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif en termes d’immigration ; entre 2018 et 2019, la population du Grand-Duché a augmenté de 2 %. La part de la population luxembourgeoise représente 59,1 % de cette croissance contre 40,9 % de nationalités étrangères. L’immigration nette reste le principal facteur expliquant l’augmentation de la population. Le solde migratoire est largement positif pour les ressortissants de nationalité étrangère (12 142) alors qu’il est négatif pour les ressortissants luxembourgeois (-1 067). Le deuxième élément explicatif réside dans le solde naturel global positif (1 947). Si ce solde est largement positif chez les ressortissants étrangers, il est négatif chez les Luxembourgeois. Le regroupement familial reste le principal motif d’immigration pour les ressortissants de pays tiers. Ce type de migration devance l’immigration pour motifs économiques et la migration basée sur la recherche d’une protection internationale. Le nombre de personnes sollicitant une protection internationale est resté à un niveau élevé en 2019 avec 2 047 demandes, même si ce nombre constitue une diminution de 7,1 % par rapport à l’année précédente. En 2019, plusieurs évolutions majeures dans le domaine de l’immigration légale sont à noter. Parmi ces évolutions figurent notamment : l’introduction d’un visa de longue durée visant à simplifier l’entrée et le séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers sans devoir solliciter l’obtention d’un titre de séjour, ainsi que l’adoption de quatre lois tendant à clarifier le statut des ressortissants britanniques résidant au Luxembourg. La loi sur l’immigration a connu d’autres modifications importantes dans le domaine de la lutte contre la migration irrégulière et la rétention et le retour des ressortissants de pays tiers sans droit de séjour. La coopération internationale s’est poursuivie en matière de réadmission, comme le montre l’entrée en vigueur du protocole entre les États du Benelux et le gouvernement de la République de Serbie sur la mise en œuvre de l’accord conclu entre l’UE et la République de Serbie concernant la réadmission des personnes en situation de séjour irrégulier. -Ainsi, l’adoption des projets de loi portant approbation des protocoles en matière de réadmission avec l’Arménie et l’Ukraine. Un changement institutionnel significatif a eu lieu en matière de protection internationale : la loi du 4 novembre 2019 portant création de l’Office national de l’accueil (ONA) a opéré le transfert des compétences relatives à l’accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale du Ministère de la Famille, de l’Intégration et à la Grande Région vers le ministère ayant l’Immigration dans ses attributions. Avec l'entrée en vigueur de la loi au 1er janvier 2020, l'ONA s'est substitué à l'Office luxembourgeois de l'accueil et de l'intégration (OLAI) et a été rattaché au Secrétariat général du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes. L’intégration demeure une compétence du ministère de la Famille, de l'Intégration et à la Grande Région. Le 1er janvier 2019, la loi sur le revenu d’inclusion sociale (REVIS) est entrée en vigueur. Une des nouvelles dispositions est que tous les bénéficiaires d’une protection internationale âgés de 25 ans ou plus, de même que les membres de leur famille, peuvent bénéficier du REVIS, sans devoir remplir la condition des 5 ans de résidence au Luxembourg au cours des 20 dernières années. L’hébergement des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) reste un défi de taille et les taux d’occupation dans les structures d’hébergement de l’ONA continuent à se situer à des niveaux très élevés. Ceci est notamment dû au fait que la crise du logement affecte particulièrement les bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) qui peinent à trouver un logement privé et à se loger en-dehors des structures d’accueil réservées en principe aux DPI. Dans ce contexte l’ONA a poursuivi ses efforts à inciter les communes à promouvoir la mise en place de structures d’hébergement pour DPI ou de possibilités d’hébergement pour BPI. Sur le plan de la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains les structures d’accueil et de consultation ont été élargies en 2019, notamment pour les hommes victimes de traite. Au niveau international, une déclaration d’intention concernant les nouvelles étapes dans leur coopération transfrontalière pour combattre la traite des êtres humains a été signé le 10 décembre 2019 par les pays du Benelux. Sur le plan des politiques d’intégration, les autorités ont continué à mettre en œuvre le Plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration à travers des appels à projets. Les actions visant à promouvoir l’intégration au niveau local ont également été renforcées, comme en témoignent la promotion du développement de plans communaux d’intégration et le soutien financier apporté aux communes par les pouvoirs publics. Le débat parlementaire sur le racisme a conduit à l’adoption d’une motion invitant le gouvernement à réaliser une étude sur le racisme et les discriminations au Luxembourg et d’une résolution dans laquelle la Chambre des Députés s'engage à renforcer les moyens du Centre d’Egalite de Traitement (CET). L’année 2020 a été marquée par la crise sanitaire liée à la Covid-19. La crise sanitaire et les mesures mises en place par les gouvernements, ont fortement impacté la mobilité et les migrations. Contrairement à la France, la Belgique et, surtout, l'Allemagne, le Luxembourg n'a jamais fermé ses frontières. Dans ce contexte le Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes a été contraint de négocier des accords avec ses homologues des pays voisins afin d’assurer la continuité du travail des frontaliers, notamment pour ceux travaillant dans le secteur de la santé. [less ▲]

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See detailPRACE Best Practice Guide 2020: Modern Processors
Saastad, Ole Widar; Kapanova, Kristina; Markov, Stoyan et al

Report (2020)

This Best Practice Guide (BPG) extends the previously developed series of BPGs by providing an update on new technologies and systems for the further support of European High Performance Computing (HPC ... [more ▼]

This Best Practice Guide (BPG) extends the previously developed series of BPGs by providing an update on new technologies and systems for the further support of European High Performance Computing (HPC) user community in achieving a remarkable performance of their large-scale applications. It covers existing systems and aims to provide support for scientists to port, build and run their applications on these systems. While some benchmarking is part of this guide, the results provided are mainly an illustration of the different systems characteristics, and should not be used as guides for the comparison of systems presented nor should be used for system procurement considerations. Procurement and benchmarking are well covered by other PRACE work packages and are out of this BPG's discussion scope. This BPG document has grown to be a hybrid of field guide and a textbook approach. The system and processor coverage provide some relevant technical information for the users who need a deeper knowledge of the system in order to fully utilise the hardware. While the field guide approach provides hints and starting points for porting and building scientific software. For this, a range of compilers, libraries, debuggers, performance analysis tools, etc. are covered. While recommendation for compilers, libraries and flags are covered we acknowledge that there is no magic bullet as all codes are different. Unfortunately there is often no way around the trial and error approach. Some in-depth documentation of the covered processors is provided. This includes some background on the inner workings of the processors considered; the number of threads each core can handle; how these threads are implemented and how these threads (instruction streams) are scheduled onto different execution units within the core. In addition, this guide describes how the vector units with different lengths (256, 512 or in the case of SVE - variable and generally unknown until execution time) are implemented. As most of HPC work up to now has been done in 64 bit floating point the emphasis is on this data type, specially for vectors. In addition to the processor executing units, memory in its many levels of hierarchy is important. The different implementations of Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) are also covered in this BPG. The guide gives a description of the hardware for a selection of relevant processors currently deployed in some PRACE HPC systems. It includes ARM64(Huawei/HiSilicon and Marvell) and x86-64 (AMD and Intel). It provides information on the programming models and development environment as well as information about porting programs. Furthermore it provides sections about strategies on how to analyze and improve the performance of applications. While this guide does not provide an update on all recent processors, some of the previous BPG releases do cover other processor architectures not discussed in this guide (e.g. Power architecture) and should be considered as a staring point for work. This guide aims also to increase the user awareness on energy and power consumption of individual applications by providing some analysis on usefulness of maximum CPU frequency scaling based on the type of application considered (e.g. CPU-bound, memory-bound, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailLa remontée en puissance à la lumière des vulnérabilités et dépendances industrielles révélées par la crise sanitaire
Fouillet, Thibault UL

Report (2020)

remontée en puissance dépend évidemment du niveau de puissance ambitionné et des délais imposés pour y parvenir. Le niveau retenu extrapolé du contrat opérationnel, de la LPM et des différentes ... [more ▼]

remontée en puissance dépend évidemment du niveau de puissance ambitionné et des délais imposés pour y parvenir. Le niveau retenu extrapolé du contrat opérationnel, de la LPM et des différentes déclarations officielles est une force adaptée à la haute intensité au modèle complet. Cette force dont l’ossature est constituée par une division interarmes et interalliés OTAN, dispose de la capacité d’entrer en premier dans un cadre non permissif (outrepassant la capacité A2AD adverse). Disposant d’une capacité de commandement de niveau corps d’armée elle engerbe, outre 2 brigades terrestres nationales, des forces alliées et doit permettre à la France d’assurer les responsabilités de nation cadre. La réalisation par la BISD de cette capacité nationale compte tenu de l’état actuel des forces, des parcs, et des dépôts, dépend évidemment des délais accordés pour cette remontée en puissance. La remontée en puissance dans l’urgence sous la pression d’évènements extérieurs périlleux permettrait dans le court terme d’ici à 2025 de satisfaire les besoins exprimés par la LPM sans laisser de place à l’innovation, mais en optimisant les réparations de matériels existants ainsi que l’augmentation de leurs volumes tout en acceptant des lacunes qui ne pourraient être comblées que par le concours d’éléments spécialisés américains, en particulier dans les domaines C4ISR et de la défense contre les tirs indirects et les forces aériennes ennemies. La remontée en puissance progressive pour sa part, envisagée à horizon 2030, permet de mieux tirer parti des innovations apportées en particulier par le système scorpion et certains armements en cours de développement (munitions de précisions, capacités drones…). Toutefois même dans cette logique certaines capacités négligées demeureraient incomplètes du fait d’abandons capacitaires industriels (défense sol-air terrestre notamment), et pourraient souffrir à l’avenir d’une capacité industrielle fragilisée par la crise sanitaire. En vue de combler ces manques, deux voies de renforcement de la BISD ont été envisagées : une vision nationale et une vision européenne. Si dans la plupart des cas la voie nationale apparaît comme pertinente notamment afin de garantir une capacité de production même en cas de crise mondiale ; lorsqu’il s’agit de capacités globales à recréer (C-RAM) ou de hautes technologies, une mutualisation de la R&D et des coûts au niveau européen apparaît comme plus adéquate. Dans tous les cas, le développement de capacités dimensionnantes ne peut s’inscrire que dans le temps long, selon un horizon 2040 voire 2050, dépassant de loin l’ambition de remontée en puissance décrite dans cette note, et impliquant entre temps la poursuite d’une dépendance aux capacités américaines déployées en coalition dans le cadre d’opérations de haute intensité. Fort de ces éléments un ensemble de recommandations tant pour la BISD que pour l’armée de Terre a pu être formulé (dont le détail est disponible au § 3.2) qui peut se résumer selon deux priorités :  À court terme : déterminer une structure de pilotage permettant de certifier la prise en compte des besoins de l’armée de Terre dans la relance générale de l’économie des industries de défense.  À moyen terme : assurer la remontée en puissance de l’armée de Terre en accélérant la mise en oeuvre des programmes futurs des forces terrestres (en particulier le segment lourd) pour prévoir sur le long terme les besoins opérationnels et les intégrer dans la prochaine LPM. L’enjeu étant de pouvoir anticiper à plus long terme les coopérations européennes structurantes et les dépendances critiques aux forces américaines (ainsi que les voies éventuelles pour les atténuer). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Wealth of Families: The Intergenerational Transmission of Wealth in Britain in Comparative Perspective
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

Report (2020)

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See detailSupporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in Southern and Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Richardson, Dominic; Cebotari, Victor UL; Carraro, Alessandro et al

Report (2020)

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See detailLe statut de résident de longue durée dans l'UE
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2020)

Les ressortissants de pays tiers migrent vers l’Union européenne pour différentes raisons : raisons économiques, raisons familiales, pour suivre des études ou pour obtenir une protection internationale ... [more ▼]

Les ressortissants de pays tiers migrent vers l’Union européenne pour différentes raisons : raisons économiques, raisons familiales, pour suivre des études ou pour obtenir une protection internationale. Certaines de ces personnes restent sur le territoire des États membres de nombreuses années, et tissent des liens avec l’État membre concerné. C’est pourquoi l’intégration des ressortissants de pays tiers résidents de longue durée dans les États membres est considérée comme un élément clé pour promouvoir la cohésion économique et sociale au sein de l’Union européenne. L’un des premiers textes législatifs adoptés par l’UE en matière d’immigration vers l’Union européenne a été la directive 2003/109/CE du Conseil du 25 novembre 2003 relative au statut des ressortissants de pays tiers résidents de longue durée (ci-après la « directive »). Bien que la directive soit entrée en vigueur le 23 janvier 2006, sa mise en œuvre par les États membres n’a pas été uniforme. C’est la raison pour laquelle l’EMN Luxembourg a décidé, à la demande des autorités luxembourgeoises, de lancer une étude sur ce sujet par l’intermédiaire du Réseau européen des migrations. Comme il était nécessaire de procéder à une évaluation adéquate de la mise en œuvre de la directive, le comité directeur du REM a mandaté, le 21 octobre 2019, l’EMN Luxembourg de recueillir des informations via le mécanisme des questions ad-hoc du REM afin d’établir l’état des lieux de la mise en œuvre de la directive. Les informations nécessaires à l’élaboration de la présente note de synthèse ont été recueillies par le biais de quatre questions ad-hoc du REM portant sur des aspects spécifiques du statut de résident de longue durée (ci-après le « statut RLD ») dans l’UE. [less ▲]

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See detailCoronavirus pandemic in the EU – Fundamental Rights Implications in Luxembourg -July2020
Vukovich, Lilla UL; Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The state of emergency which was declared for three months in Luxembourg came to its end on 24 June 2020. After three weeks of intense legislative work, on 22 June 2020 the parliament adopted two “COVID ... [more ▼]

The state of emergency which was declared for three months in Luxembourg came to its end on 24 June 2020. After three weeks of intense legislative work, on 22 June 2020 the parliament adopted two “COVID-19 laws” to provide a continuous legislative framework addressing the COVID-19 situation after the end of the state of emergency. The first piece of legislation contains measures with respect to individuals. They revolve around the limitation of mass gatherings, the application of protective measures such as wearing face masks or social distancing, and the identification, follow-up and removal of infected and potentially infected people. The second piece of legislation targets measures relating to economic, sporting or cultural activities and welcoming the public. It reinforces the current health restrictions and rules, for example in restaurants, bars, and cafes. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term resident status in the EU
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2020)

Third-country nationals migrate to the European Union for different reasons: economic migration, family reasons, studies, or in search of international protection. Some of these individuals stay in the ... [more ▼]

Third-country nationals migrate to the European Union for different reasons: economic migration, family reasons, studies, or in search of international protection. Some of these individuals stay in the territory of the Member States for a considerable number of years and develop attachments to the Member State. For this reason, integration of third-country nationals who are long-term residents in the Member States is considered as a key element in promoting economic and social cohesion in the European Union. One of the first pieces of EU legislation that was adopted dealing with immigration to the European Union was the Council Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003 concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents. While the Directive entered into force on 23 January 2006, the implementation of the Directive by Member States had not been uniform. This is the reason why EMN Luxembourg decided, at the request of the Luxembourgish authorities, to launch a study on this topic through the European Migration Network. As it was necessary to make a proper assessment of the implementation of the Directive, it was decided by the EMN Steering Board on 21 October 2019 that EMN Luxembourg would collect information through the EMN Ad-Hoc Query mechanism to establish the set out a state of play of the implementation of the Directive. The information for elaborating this Inform was collected through four EMN Ad-hoc queries highlighting specific elements of the long-term resident status in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailLe bilan de l'évaluation systémique de l'éducation a Luxembourg
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Schmit, Paul; Ugen, Sonja UL

Report (2020)

Dans le domaine de l'éducation, le Luxembourg participe depuis 20 ans régulièrement à des études d’évaluation systémique, menées à l’échelle nationale et internationale, afin de pouvoir fonder ses ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine de l'éducation, le Luxembourg participe depuis 20 ans régulièrement à des études d’évaluation systémique, menées à l’échelle nationale et internationale, afin de pouvoir fonder ses décisions politiques sur des données empiriques solides. La présente rétrospective comprend une vue d’ensemble des types de données et de rapports disponibles sur le Luxembourg ainsi que de leurs principaux constats transversaux (chapitre 2). La publication des résultats des premières études PISA menées au début des années 2000 (MENFP & SCRIPT, 2000, 2004) avait entraîné un choc, car le pays et les parties prenantes avaient été confrontés à un ranking mitigé concernant la performance du système scolaire luxembourgeois, comparée aux autres pays participants. Les principaux constats ont été corroborés de manière cohérente dans d’autres études également (p.ex. ICCS en 2009, ICILS en 2018). Des performances faibles généralisées ont été rapportées dans tous les domaines évalués. Les caractéristiques des élèves (contexte socio-économique, migratoire et linguistique) ont un effet important sur leur performance dans le système scolaire luxembourgeois. L’équité en matière de réussite scolaire est jugée faible et constitue un véritable défi. Ces constats relatifs à l’importance des caractéristiques des élèves dans leur réussite n’étaient pas tout à fait nouveaux, car ils avaient déjà été documentés, dans les grandes lignes, dans le cadre de l’étude Magrip de 1968 (Brunner & Martin, 2011; Kerger & Schrobildgen, 1986). En revanche, ce qui est surprenant, c’est que, d’une part, ces constats ont peu évolué au fil des différents cycles d’évaluation et que, d’autre part, les facteurs déterminants menant à ces résultats se sont encore renforcés au fil du temps. Ainsi, depuis leur introduction en 2009, les épreuves standardisées (« ÉpStan »), le programme de monitoring scolaire continu adapté au système scolaire luxembourgeois, ont confirmé les défis inhérents. Les principaux constats des évaluations systémiques effectuées au cours de ces 20 dernières années ont permis d’identifier 8 domaines thématiques prioritaires sur lesquels l'Observatoire national de la qualité scolaire (ONQS) désire concentrer son action au cours des années à venir (chapitre 3). En vue d’une mise en perspective internationale, les approches de plusieurs pays sont présentées, afin de recenser des constats partagés et des enseignements à tirer. Toutefois, les limites d’un tel exercice de comparaison sont également examinées, car le contexte socio-culturel et socio-politique spécifique à un pays détermine, de manière considérable, le choix et le développement du modèle éducatif national (chapitre 4). L’utilisation des évaluations systémiques ainsi que l’impact de celles-ci sur la définition de la politique éducative sont analysés sur ces 20 dernières années. Le rôle du monitoring scolaire présente deux différences importantes sur la période examinée. Ainsi, au cours de la première décennie étudiée, les évaluations systémiques avaient servi d’éléments déclencheurs pour motiver une politique volontariste de réformes. Ensuite, au cours de la seconde décennie étudiée, la stratégie a mué, pour diverses raisons, vers des axes de développement ayant guidé et structuré des actions de réforme plus ciblées, mais de moindre envergure (chapitre 5). L’ONQS conclut le présent rapport en formulant trois recommandations, fondées sur le bilan des évaluations systémiques auxquelles a participé le Luxembourg, adressées aux acteurs politiques, sur base de l’article 4 de la loi du 13 mars 2018 (chapitre 6). [less ▲]

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See detailPraxistagebücher aus der Sozialen Arbeit in Zeiten von Covid-19 – Möglichkeiten, Herausforderungen und Grenzen der digitalen Kommunikation
Flammang, Manou Laure UL; Böwen, Petra UL

Report (2020)

In this publication, representatives from 8 different practical fields of social work describe how communication and interaction with their target groups changed during the confinement measures due to ... [more ▼]

In this publication, representatives from 8 different practical fields of social work describe how communication and interaction with their target groups changed during the confinement measures due to Covid-19 and how they deal with this exceptional situation. The focus is on digital communication with the addressees. The publication is rounded off by a comprehensive analysis of the practice diaries and considerations for the future of digitisation in social work. It contains contributions in German and in French. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport RIAL 2019
Bernard Gottlieb; Meyers, Christian UL

Report (2020)

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See detailQUALINET White Paper on Definitions of Immersive Media Experience (IMEx)
Perkis, Andrew; Timmerer, Christian; Baraković, Sabina et al

Report (2020)

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See detailAttracting and Protecting Seasonal Workers from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is a country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. In Luxembourg, 296.500 residents (47,4%) of a total population of 626.100 are foreigners. 247.900 are EU citizens representing 39.6% of the total population of the country and 83,6% of the foreign population of the country. The 48.600 third-country nationals represent only 7,8% of the total population and 16.4% of the foreign population. Due to its size and geographic location, Luxembourg has an access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial center was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centers and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which, up until now, the country has found within the Greater Region. With regards to the labour market: the number of salaried workers on 31 December 2019 shows that Luxembourgish residents represented only 26,5%, EU citizens (other than Luxembourgish) 23,4% and third-country national residents only 4,2%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 46% of the workforce. The Luxembourgish labour market is not a national labour market but rather a labour market of the Greater Region with a trend to become an international labour market. This situation can be explained in the context of the free movement of services and the posted workers coming from other Member States to Luxembourg. The need of workforce must be placed in this particular context, taking into account the “internal reserves”, the free movement of persons from which EU citizens, who reside in the country, benefit and the large majority of cross-border workers. To this framework one must add a range of measures that were introduced by the Luxembourgish authorities in order to regulate the labour market. Some of these measures did not have labour market needs as their only objective, but were also foreseen to manage integration processes. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to implement an economic diversification policy, focused on attracting high added value activities such as ICT, health technologies, space, logistics, industry and FinTech. In consequence and taking into consideration the specificities of Luxembourg’s labour market, third-country national seasonal workers are not a priority of the Luxembourgish government. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2019
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2020)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced by the figures on net migration, which remains the main reason for the demographic growth of the Luxembourgish resident population. Net immigration of third-country nationals remains high (7 336) and exceeds that of citizens of the European Union (EU; 4 806). The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2019 (2 047 applications) compared to the levels registered pre-‘migration crisis’ (1 091 in 2014). Family reunification remains the principal reason for third-country nationals to immigrate to Luxembourg, followed by economic reasons and international protection. Several major developments occurred in the field of legal migration. The introduction of a new long-term visa simplifies the entry and stay of third-country nationals for a period of up to one year, without having to apply for a residence permit. In order to guarantee the rights of British citizens working and residing in Luxembourg before the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU (Brexit) four laws were adopted, most of them were supposed to enter into force if there was a non-deal Brexit. Other important changes related to migration result from the adoption of the law of 4 December 2019 amending the law of 29 August 2009 on the free movement of persons and immigration (hereinafter Immigration Law). This law takes into account the expert’s comments during the evaluation in 2016 of the application of Schengen. [less ▲]

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See detailVarieties of Democracy (V-DEM) Report "Autocratization Surges - Resistance Grows" (2020)
Danescu, Elena UL

Report (2020)

Main findings 2020. Autocratization – the decline of democratic traits – accelerates in the world: for the first time since 2001, autocracies are in the majority: 92 countries – home to 54% of the global ... [more ▼]

Main findings 2020. Autocratization – the decline of democratic traits – accelerates in the world: for the first time since 2001, autocracies are in the majority: 92 countries – home to 54% of the global population. Almost 35% of the world’s population live in autocratizing nations – 2.6 billion people. EU has its first non-democracy as a member: Hungary is now classed as an electoral authoritarian regime. Major G20 nations and all regions of the world are part of the “third wave of autocratization”: autocratization is affecting Brazil, India, the United States of America, and Turkey, which are major economies with sizeable populations, exercising substantial global military, economic, and political influence. Latin America is back to a level last recorded in the early 1990s while Eastern Europe and Central Asia are at post-Soviet Union lows. India is on the verge of losing its status as a democracy due to the severely shrinking of space for the media, civil society, and the opposition under Prime Minister Modi’s government. Pro-democracy resistance grows from 27% in 2009 to 44% in 2019 amidst the autocratization surge. During 2019, citizens in 29 democracies mobilized against autocratization, such as in Bolivia, Poland, and Malawi. Citizens staged mass protests in 34 autocracies, among them Algeria, Hong Kong, and Sudan. [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il une approche sociologique permettant de mieux recruter pour mieux fidéliser ?
Fouillet, Thibault UL

Report (2020)

En préambule de la réflexion, il importe de noter que ces préoccupations (recrutement/fidélisation) ne sont pas spécifiques à l’armée de Terre française. La plupart des armées occidentales – mais pas ... [more ▼]

En préambule de la réflexion, il importe de noter que ces préoccupations (recrutement/fidélisation) ne sont pas spécifiques à l’armée de Terre française. La plupart des armées occidentales – mais pas seulement – connaissent des difficultés de recrutement et de fidélisation, malgré les différences de méthodes de gestion des ressources humaines, et les différences d’emploi des forces armées. La situation est critique dans l’armée de Terre britannique. Devant les difficultés de recrutement, l’US Army réforme complètement sa gestion du personnel ainsi que ses méthodes de recrutement. L’armée de Terre, malgré ses inquiétudes légitimes, se trouve dans une situation raisonnablement favorable comparée à ses homologues. Son image en tant qu’employeur a cependant été brouillée depuis une dizaine d’années, entre les difficultés dues au logiciel Louvois, les annonces de réductions de personnels, les communications sur la vétusté des matériels et le manque de moyens… Il importe donc de restaurer, sur le moyen terme, l’image d’une institution solide, aux valeurs affirmées et qui prend soin de ses hommes, même après leur départ. Cela implique de personnaliser la communication, de favoriser l’identification de chacun à des soldats soit par la rencontre directe, soit en racontant leur histoire. Un discours « à hauteur d’homme », favorisant le contact direct, mobilisant l’imaginaire autour de l’esprit guerrier, incite ainsi les jeunes recrues à s’identifier à une institution prestigieuse, à l’histoire riche. Une réflexion sur l’élargissement du vivier de recrutement pourrait être engagée sur plusieurs points en cas de besoin : élargissement géographique à certains pays, élargissement du critère d’âge, ou encore modulation des critères sportifs et médicaux pour certaines spécialités sous tension seulement, lorsque cela est compatible avec les nécessités du service. La démarche de recrutement pourrait être affinée, soit en ciblant de façon très précise certains bassins ou certaines filières, soit en renforçant la possibilité pour les régiments de recruter eux-mêmes, avec une communication personnalisée. La fidélisation est en revanche insatisfaisante. Plusieurs explications sont en concurrence, mais aucune ne se dégage vraiment. En l’absence d’études sociologiques poussées, on peine à saisir les raisons profondes des départs anticipés ou des non-renouvellements de contrats. Pour mieux comprendre les expériences des militaires du rang et des sous-officiers, en particulier, des études sociologiques de terrain sur un temps long seraient nécessaires. Il existe néanmoins de nombreuses études, menées par différents organismes (HCECM, EMAT, IDA, CAA…) mais il manque un échelon de synthèse pour agréger ces données et pouvoir faire des corrélations. Pour l’armée de Terre, la création d’un esprit de corps dès le départ est une condition favorisant l’attachement à l’institution. Dans cette optique, le CFIM pourrait être repensé, afin de créer un récit d’initiation fort favorisant l’esprit de corps et dissuadant les moins motivés. Dans la même veine, la poursuite des efforts engagés sur les marqueurs identitaires de l’institution (« esprit guerrier », traditions) ne peut que renforcer le capital symbolique de l’armée française. La possibilité d’évoluer tout au long de sa carrière et de se former doit permettre de maintenir l’intérêt des personnels pour leur métier. Il importe donc de poursuivre les efforts déjà entrepris sur la flexibilité des parcours, ainsi que de réfléchir, notamment pour les militaires du rang et les sous-officiers, à la possibilité de parcours valorisants pour chaque spécialité, par exemple en offrant la possibilité de faire une formation longue dans le civil ou encore en alternant les allers-retours entre les industries de défense et l’armée, par le biais de filières de formation communes. Enfin, il est possible de mieux impliquer les réserves sur les questions de recrutement, tant à des fins de rayonnement que pour favoriser une meilleure connaissance des armées. [less ▲]

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