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See detailTax Treaty Arbitration in Luxembourg - National Report
Chaouche, Fatima UL; Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

Report (in press)

Tax Treaty dispute resolution through the Mutual Assistance Procedure (MAP) is particularly relevant in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has, as of May 2018, 81 Double Tax Convention (henceforth, “DTC”) out of ... [more ▼]

Tax Treaty dispute resolution through the Mutual Assistance Procedure (MAP) is particularly relevant in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has, as of May 2018, 81 Double Tax Convention (henceforth, “DTC”) out of which only 12 provide for arbitration clauses. In contrast, while the Arbitration procedure is also available, it is barely used in practice as the MAP procedure proves to be the most common form of resolution of tax treaty dispute resolutions in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailSpace Law at Unispace +50: Consequences and Future Perspectives
Salmeri, Antonino UL

Report (in press)

Report of IISL Session E7.4 on the occasion of the 69th International Astronautical Congress,

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See detailStudent case vignettes for the investigation of teachers' tracking decisions
Böhmer, Ines; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Gräsel, Cornelia et al

Report (in press)

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See detailBericht über die "Demenzforschungstage" 2019. Einbezug von Betroffenen in die Forschung zu kognitivem Altern und Demenz
Leist, Anja UL

Report (2019)

On 19 and 20 September 2019, the first "Dementia Research Days" took place on the Belval campus of the University of Luxembourg. People living with dementia were invited to the university to discuss the ... [more ▼]

On 19 and 20 September 2019, the first "Dementia Research Days" took place on the Belval campus of the University of Luxembourg. People living with dementia were invited to the university to discuss the research questions of the ERC-CRISP project and to advise the researchers on the dissemination of the research results. The idea of giving people affected by dementia a voice in research projects is already being successfully implemented in other countries such as the UK. The report presents some information on the research project for the general public. After that, the contributions of the participants are summarised. [less ▲]

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See detailRAPPORT TRAVAIL ET COHÉSION SOCIALE − L'ÉTAT SOCIAL ET LE BIEN-ÊTRE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ LUXEMBOURGEOISE
Ametepe, Fofo; Franziskus, Anne; Hartung, Anne UL et al

Report (2019)

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See detailEmployers’ hiring decisions in relation to young people in Luxembourg (EDYPOLU)
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Report (2019)

In this report, we present a selection of preliminary descriptive results from the EDYPOLU research project funded by the University of Luxembourg (2017-2020). The research project examines the labour ... [more ▼]

In this report, we present a selection of preliminary descriptive results from the EDYPOLU research project funded by the University of Luxembourg (2017-2020). The research project examines the labour market for young people in Luxembourg with an interest in operational staffing needs, general human resource requirements and selection processes of recruiters. The main objective of the project is to identify possible obstacles for a successful entry into the labor market for young job seekers in Luxembourg by studying the general mechanisms in recruiters’ evaluation of young job candidates. To this end, we conducted an online survey among recruiters working in different occupational fields in Luxembourg between November 2018 and January 2019. A pilot study was conducted in spring 2018. The EDYPOLU recruiter survey builds on the Horizon 2020 project NEGOTIATE (https://negotiate-research.eu/). In the context of NEGOTIATE, a recruiter survey was conducted in four countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, and Switzerland. EDYPOLU surveys a number of topics that have also been examined in NEGOTIATE. This makes it possible to draw some comparisons between the results of both studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual Report on Migration and Asylum - Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Report (2019)

This report summarises the main debates and major developments concerning migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2018. 2018 was marked by the parliamentary elections in October 2018, which led to the ... [more ▼]

This report summarises the main debates and major developments concerning migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2018. 2018 was marked by the parliamentary elections in October 2018, which led to the renewal of the former Government coalition. The coalition agreement provides for a number of changes related to migration policies in Luxembourg. Luxembourg remains a country with significant immigration. The population growth is largely a result of migratory movements. Family and economic migration remains at a high level. The inflow of certain nationalities is stagnating or decreasing, whileothers are progressing. This is above all the result of two phenomena: firstly, a slowdown of overall migratory flows to the country and, secondly, high rates of naturalisation. The number of residence permits issued for economic reasons increased by more than 23% year-on-year compared to 2017, continuing the clear upward trend observed in recent years. This overall increase is due in particular to the larger numbers of residence permits issued to the "salaried worker", "European Blue Card" and "intra-corporate transferee" categories. The Law of 1st August 2018 introduced significant changes in the admission policy for international students and researchers in Luxembourg. This law transposes Directive 2016/801/EU, which allows students and researchers to stay for nine months after successfully completing their master's or doctoral studies in order to find a job or start a business. The Government elected in the parliamentary elections of October 2018 intends to organise legal immigration taking into account the needs of the economy. The 2018 political agenda also saw a large debate regarding Luxembourg signing the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM). This debate, both in Luxembourg and internationally, gave rise to suspicious and negative reactions, particularly in nationalist circles in some European countries. However, there was broad support for the GCM in Luxembourg with most of the political class (6 of the 7 political parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies) defending the GCM alongside the Government The number of people seeking international protection remained high but relatively stable in 2018 compared to the previous two years. The refugee recognition rate has continued to increase. Many beneficiaries of international protection (BIPs) remain in applicants for international protection (AIP) homes as they have difficulty finding housing in the private market or social housing. This in turn increases the pressure on accommodation facilities and it is one of the priorities of the national authorities, as reflected by the coalition agreement. Reception and accommodation conditions for AIPs and BIPs have sparked a number of debates and reflections within civil society. They were discussed in most political party manifestos for the 2018 parliamentary elections. It should be noted that the new multiannual National Action Plan on Integration (Integration NAP) has these as central themes, the reception and management of AIPs is one of the two main areas of action. A major institutional development is the extension, following the 2018 legislative elections, of the powers of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs to include the "Reception of applicants for international protection" portfolio. Previous this belonged to the Ministry for Family and Integration. Finally, at the European level the new Government confirmed its commitment to the Common European Asylum System, which emphasises European solidarity. Unaccompanied minors were another area of concern in 2018. A Bill was published, which aims to establish a multidisciplinary team to assess the best interests of the child in the context of a return procedure. In addition, there was a widely publicised debate around the practice of age assessment. The new Government has indicated that it intends to focus on unaccompanied minor AIPs, particularly in terms of improving care for these young people. In the area of integration, the Integration NAP was drafted. This document is the result of a wide consultation process with the different stakeholders involved in the reception and integration of non-Luxembourg nationals. The Integration NAP provides a general, strategic and sustainable framework to firstly develop programmes and tools to promote the integration of all non-Luxembourgers residents in the country, and secondly, to promtoe social cohesion between Luxembourgers and non-Luxembourgers. The Law of 8 March 2017 on Luxembourg nationality has had consequences for the number of individuals gaining citizenship. The impact of this law explains the stagnation, or even slight decline in the foreign population in Luxembourg and, in particular, of certain specific nationalities, as well as the increased electorate in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg since the law was introduced. Two advisory bodies representing the interests of foreign residents in Luxembourg are in operation: at the national level, the National Council for Foreigners (CNE), and, at the municipal level, Advisory Committees on Integration (CCCI) were renewed following the 2017 municipal elections. The new Government has stated that it intends to further increase the powers of these two bodies. Moreover, it intends to decentralise its Welcome and Integration Contracts (CAI), and to support the municipalities in their local integration work. The education system continues to face major challenges resulting from the heterogeneity of the school population. The second National Report on Education noted inequalities in the educational system caused by social origin and the migratory context of pupils. In order to cope with this situation, the authorities have focused on several measures such as expansion of the number of international and European schools; the development of specific classes for young migrants; the establishment of a mediator service for support, inclusion and school integration; and the introduction of the plurilingual education programme at nursery level. Knowledge of Luxembourgish as an integration factor was another concern throughout the year. The Law of 20 July 2018 presents a number of measures to promote the Luxembourgish language. The objectives of the Luxembourgish language policy, which aim to reinforce the importance of Luxembourgish, are to support the use and study of Luxembourgish, encourage the learning of the Luxembourgish language and culture, and promote culture in the Luxembourgish language. Several bodies have been set up to implement this action plan. The language question was ubiquitous during the election campaign. Most political parties emphasised the importance of the Luxembourgish language as an integration factor in their manifestos, while highlighting the advantage of multilingualism. Finally, there are some changes to note in the return policy of Luxembourg. There were two proposals to amend the Immigration Law: one, which authorises the police to enter residential premises to enforce removal orders in the case of forced return; and a second one, which provides for systematic oversight by the courts of prolonged detention beyond the 4-month period. The new Government has stated that it is committed to improving the current detention system through the creation of a specific detention structure for women, families and vulnerable persons. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel sur les migrations et l'asile Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2019)

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives ... [more ▼]

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives d’octobre 2018 qui ont débouché sur la reconduction de l’ancienne coalition gouvernementale. L’accord de coalition prévoit un certain nombre de mesures relatives aux politiques migratoires. Le Luxembourg reste un pays d’immigration important. Les mouvements migratoires expliquent en grande partie la croissance de la population. Les migrations pour raisons familiales et économiques demeurent à un niveau élevé. Si certaines nationalités stagnent ou reculent tandis que d’autres progressent, cela est avant tout dû à la conjonction de deux phénomènes : d’une part, le ralentissement des flux migratoires et d’autre part, la naturalisation. Le nombre de titres de séjour délivrés pour des raisons économiques a augmenté de plus de 23% par rapport à 2017, confirmant ainsi la nette tendance à la hausse observée depuis ces dernières années. Cette progression est notamment due à l’augmentation de titres de séjour accordés aux catégories « travailleur salarié », « carte bleue européenne » et « travailleur transféré intragroupe » pour experts et cadres. La loi du 1er août 2018 qui transpose la directive n° 2016/801/UE a introduit des modifications significatives dans la politique d’admission des étudiants et des chercheurs internationaux au Luxembourg. Cette loi permet aux étudiants et aux chercheurs de séjourner au Luxembourg pendant neuf mois s’ils ont terminé leurs études de master ou de doctorat et s’ils disposent de ressources suffisantes. Le Gouvernement issu des élections législatives d’octobre 2018 entend organiser l’immigration légale en tenant compte des besoins de l’économie. L’agenda politique de l’année 2018 a également été marqué par le débat autour de la signature du Luxembourg au Pacte mondial pour une migration sûre, ordonnée et régulière (PMM). Ce débat, tant au Luxembourg qu’à l’international, a suscité un certain nombre de réactions de suspicion et de rejet, en particulier dans les milieux nationalistes de certains pays européens. Toutefois, la majorité de la classe politique luxembourgeoise ainsi que le Gouvernement ont défendu le Pacte. Le nombre de personnes demandant une protection internationale est resté élevé en 2018 et demeure relativement stable par rapport aux deux années précédentes. Le taux de reconnaissance des demandes a continué à progresser. De nombreux BPI restent hébergés dans les structures d’accueil prévues pour les DPI en raison de leurs difficultés à trouver un logement sur le marché privé ou un logement social, ce qui augmente la pression exercée sur les structures d’hébergement. Cette question problématique figure parmi les priorités des autorités nationales, comme en témoigne l’accord de coalition. Les conditions d’accueil et d’hébergement ont suscité un certain nombre de débats et de réflexions au sein de la société civile. Elles ont été abordées dans la plupart des programmes des partis politiques dans le cadre des élections législatives de 2018 et occupent une place centrale dans le nouveau plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (PAN), l’accueil et l’encadrement des DPI constituant l’un des deux grands domaines d’action de ce plan. Une évolution institutionnelle majeure a eu lieu à la suite des élections législatives de 2018 : il s’agit de l’extension des compétences du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes qui reprend le volet « Accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale », qui relevait jusque-là du ministère de la Famille et de l’Intégration. Enfin, sur le plan européen, le nouveau gouvernement confirme son engagement en faveur du Régime d’Asile Européen Commun qui tient notamment compte de la solidarité europenne. Les mineurs non accompagnés (MNA) ont été un autre sujet de préoccupation au cours de l’année 2018 comme en témoignent le projet de loi qui vise à instaurer une équipe pluridisciplinaire pour évaluer l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant dans le contexte d’une procédure de retour, le débat largement médiatisé autour de la pratique des examens pour la détermination de l’âge des MNA DPI, ou encore l’accent particulier que le nouveau gouvernement entend donner au renforcement de la prise en charge de ces personnes. Dans le domaine de l’intégration, il convient de souligner l’établissement d’un plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (ou PAN Intégration). Ce document est le résultat d’un large processus de consultation mené par les autorités avec les différentes parties prenantes impliquées dans l'accueil et l'intégration des ressortissants non luxembourgeois. Le PAN Intégration fournit un cadre général, stratégique et durable en vue de développer des programmes et outils en faveur de l’intégration de tous les non-Luxembouregois résidant sur le territoire et de la cohésion sociale entre Luxembourgeois et non-Luxembourgeois. La loi du 8 mars 2017 sur la nationalité luxembourgeoise a généré des conséquences sur le nombre d’acquisitions de nationalité et explique la stagnation, voire le léger recul de la population étrangère au Luxembourg (et en particulier de certaines nationalités) ainsi que l’augmentation du corps électoral au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Les deux organes consultatifs chargés de la défense des intérets des résidents étrangers au Luxembourg ont commencé à fonctionner avec, au niveau national, le Conseil national pour étrangers (CNE) et, au niveau communal, les Commissions consultatives communales d’Intégration (CCCI), renouvelées à la suite des élections communales de 2017. Le nouveau gouvernement entend valoriser ces deux organes. Il propose d’offrir le Contrat d’accueil et d’intégration (CAI) de façon décentralisée et soutenir les communes au niveau de leur travail d’intégration locale. Le système éducatif reste confronté à des défis majeurs résultant de l’hétérogénéité de la population scolaire. Le deuxième rapport national sur l’éducation a permis de mettre en évidence les inégalités du système éducatif dues aux facteurs sociaux et au contexte migratoire des élèves. Pour faire face à cette situtaion, les autorités ont développé plusieurs mesures telles que l’élargissement de l’offre scolaire internationale et européenne, le développement de classes spécifiques pour jeunes migrants, l’établissement d’un service de médiateur au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaire ainsi que l’introduction du programme d’éducation plurilingue au niveau des mini-crèches. La question de la langue luxembourgeoise, en tant que facteur d’intégration, a également fait l’objet de débats tout au long de l’année. La loi du 20 juillet 2018 relative à la promotion de la langue luxembourgeoise a introduit un certain nombre de mesures visant à renforcer l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise, à soutenir son utilisation, son étude et son apprentissage. Plusieurs organes ont été institués afin de mettre en œuvre ce plan d’action de promotion de la langue et de la culture luxembourgeoises. La question linguistique fut également omniprésente lors de la campagne électorale. La plupart des partis politiques ont souligné dans leurs programmes électoraux l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise comme facteur d’intégration tout en mettant en évidence l’atout du multilinguisme pour le pays. Enfin, quelques évolutions sont à signaler au niveau de la politique de retour, en particulier deux propositions de modification de la loi sur l’immigration : l’une autorisant la police à pénétrer dans des locaux d’habitation afin de procéder plus facilement à l’exécution d’une décision d’éloignement en cas de retour forcé ; l’autre prévoyant un contrôle systématique par les juridictions d’une rétention prolongée au-delà de la durée de 4 mois. Le nouveau gouvernement s’engage à compléter le dispositif actuel de rétention à travers la création d’une structure spécifique de rétention pour femmes, familles et personnes vulnérables. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of continuously variable bicycle transmission
Kolb, Jean; Kedziora, Slawomir UL

Report (2019)

As the people’s needs develop, so does the technology. Bicycles exist already for a long time, and ever since the appearance of electrically driven ones, the necessity to change their drivetrain and ... [more ▼]

As the people’s needs develop, so does the technology. Bicycles exist already for a long time, and ever since the appearance of electrically driven ones, the necessity to change their drivetrain and transmission started getting more important. What makes the development of bicycles even more impressive is the fact that their efficiency ranks first among travelling animals and machines, if we consider the energy consumed by moving a certain distance as a function of body weight. Different bicycle drivetrains are researched and explained in this report, especially CVT hubs. A continuously variable transmission based on a patent of Hiroyuki Urabe has been designed with the CAD method, and their main parts were analysed using the FEA method. The final construction has a theoretical total ratio of 400% and a mass of about 2.7kg (without lubricant). This transmission is using the principles of frictional traction to transfer torque. In general, this work shows how the designing process proceeded and gives an idea, how this type of gearbox could be constructed. [less ▲]

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See detailMigratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs in the EU and Norway (Country report Luxembourg)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL et al

Report (2019)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about migratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about migratory pathways for start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to Luxembourg. Fostering start-ups and innovative enterprises is a national policy priority for Luxembourg as providing support to entrepreneurship and start-ups has been on the Luxembourgish governments’ agenda since 2013. It has been a part of a more general diversification policy of existing economic structures in order to increase economic growth of the country and reduce dependence on the financial sector, which remains the dominant economic pillar. The current Governmental programme 2018–2023 encourages support to start-ups, the acceleration of the development of the start-up ecosystem in Luxembourg as well as the promotion of Luxembourg as a ‘start-up nation’ both at national and international level. What should be pointed out is that this policy is not specifically targeted at third-country start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs, but aims to attract international investment, (innovative) enterprises and researchers in general. Thus, the mainstream immigration policy established by the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on free movement of persons (hereafter referred to as ‘Immigration Law’) for ‘self-employed worker’ or ‘investor’ residence permits is applied. The conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to be issued either a ‘self-employed worker’ or ‘investor’ residence permit as well as the conditions for the renewal of the residence permits are explained in detail in Section 3.3 and in Section 5, respectively. Several of the stakeholders involved in the context of this study reported that the existing regulations are sufficient and there is no need to introduce new ones or ones that would specifically target third-country nationals. Several initiatives have implemented in order to support the development of innovation in Luxembourg. Luxinnovation, the National Agency for the promotion of Research, Development and Innovation, was established already in 1985 and currently is reinforcing Government’s economic development objectives by providing support to companies and researchers in order to foster innovation. One of these initiatives, launched by the Ministry of the Economy in 2015 and implemented by Luxinnovation, is the Fit4Start acceleration programme which is particularly aimed at innovative ICT start-ups and recently also at start-ups from the health technologies. This programme provides coaching, business development support and funding to innovative projects or young innovative start-ups from around the world. Another important policy in the context of this study is the amended Law of 17 May 2017 on the Promotion of Research, Development and Innovation which provides a national funding scheme for Young Innovative Enterprises. Under this scheme, unlisted small enterprises that are registered for a maximum of five years can apply for State aid at the Ministry of the Economy’s Research and Innovation Directorate. Furthermore, Luxinnovation also animates the Luxembourg Cluster Initiative established by the Government in 2002. The objective of this initiative is to encourage communication and exchange of knowledge between cluster members (involving both the public and private sector) as well as to encourage use of new technologies and identification of possible business opportunities. This study further presents a table of rights and incentive measures in place to attract start-up founders and particularly highlights the access to special funding and investments, the co-working spaces as well as the access to incubation/accelerator support programmes, among others. In addition to the elements presented above, this study also elaborates on the following questions: What is the process and what are the requirements for starting up a business in Luxembourg? What are the main sectors and industries in which Luxembourg aims to attract start-ups? What is the role of local and regional authorities in creating and supporting entrepreneurial ecosystems? What role can actors such as local authorities, the private sector or higher education institutions play in attracting start-ups? Are there factors/conditions in place that incentivise start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs to use specific immigration routes? Lastly, with the use of fictional scenarios, four case studies aim to provide an understanding of the possible admission options of different types of start-ups and innovative entrepreneurs. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestor Schemes "Golden Passports" and "Golden Visas"
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2019)

For the last 10 years, the EU Member States have been developing schemes to attract wealthy third-country national investors. To this end, Member States have facilitated the granting of visas or residence ... [more ▼]

For the last 10 years, the EU Member States have been developing schemes to attract wealthy third-country national investors. To this end, Member States have facilitated the granting of visas or residence permits and even implemented fast-track procedures for the acquisition of citizenship. The Commission’s report identified the following areas of concern: 1) Security: checks run on applicants are not sufficiently robust and the EU’s own centralised information systems, such as the Schengen Information System (SIS), are not being used as systematically as they should be; 2) Money laundering: enhanced checks (‘due diligence’) are necessary to ensure that rules on anti-money laundering are not circumvented; 3) Tax evasion: monitoring and reporting is necessary to make sure that individuals do not take advantage of these schemes to benefit from privileged tax rules; 4) Transparency and information: the report finds a lack of clear information on how the schemes are run, including on the number of applications received, granted or rejected and the origins of the applicants; and 5) In addition, Member States do not (routinely) exchange information on applicants for such schemes, nor do they inform each other of rejected applicants. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative overview of national protection statuses in the EU and Norway (Country report Luxembourg)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2019)

Luxembourg has integrated in the protection system the European legal framework on protection. However, besides the international protection (refugee status and subsidiary protection status) and the ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has integrated in the protection system the European legal framework on protection. However, besides the international protection (refugee status and subsidiary protection status) and the temporary protection statuses, the Luxembourgish legal system foresees two humanitarian statuses which are: a) residence permit for private reasons based on serious humanitarian grounds; b) the postponement of removal based on medical reasons. In regard to the latter, there are the following steps: 1) the postponement of removal can be granted and renewed for up to 24 months; 2) after 2 years, if the medical condition persists, an authorisation of stay for medical reasons may be granted and a residence permit for private reasons may be issued. However, it is important to stress at this point that the Luxembourgish authorities do not consider the two aforementioned residence permits issued according to articles 78 (3) and 131 (2) of the Immigration Law as “protection statuses” as such, but precisely as residence permits issued to the applicant. The granting of these two “protection statuses” are based on the discretionary power of the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum. The residence permit for private reasons based on humanitarian grounds (Status A of this report) allows for the Minister to grant an authorisation to stay in the country to an irregular migrant if s/he is in in need to stay based on humanitarian reasons of exceptional circumstances. There is not an exhaustive list of reasons on which the Minister can base his/her decision. However, there is an exhaustive analysis of the reasons advance by the applicant. Any third country national irregularly staying on the territory can apply for this residence permit. However, in the case of rejected asylum seekers, the application will be rejected if the applicant advances the same reasons that s/he advanced during the international protection procedure. On the contrary, the residence permit for medical reasons requires that, in the first stage, the applicant had received a return decision and an order to leave the territory. In order to obtain the residence permit, he/she has to obtain first a decision for a postponement of removal for medical reasons that has to be renewed for two years before the applicant can file the application for the residence permit based on medical reasons. This residence permit is not granted automatically and if the applicant does not file his/her application after expiration of the postponement of removal for medical reasons after two years, s/he will be precluded and the return decision will be executed, except if s/he proves that s/he cannot be returned for medical reasons. In this case, the entire procedure will have to start again. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EPA Alzette-Belval: A National Tool to Address Spatial Disparities at the Lorraine-Luxembourg Border
Evrard, Estelle UL

Report (2019)

Since 2012, the EPA Alzette-Belval has embedded the strategy developed by public actors from all levels to trigger development and regain strategic room for manoeuvre in the context of steady growth in ... [more ▼]

Since 2012, the EPA Alzette-Belval has embedded the strategy developed by public actors from all levels to trigger development and regain strategic room for manoeuvre in the context of steady growth in Luxembourg. The 8 municipalities under scrutiny – the association of municipality “Pays Haut Val d’Alzette”, with 28,000 inhabitants – are marked by deindustrialisation and the attractiveness of Luxembourg’s economy, which overflows its national boundaries. The vast majority of the workforce is driven to Luxembourg, and pressure on public amenities is growing. The EPA is a state-led agency with the capacity to “take back” planning responsibilities from other administrative levels to plan specific areas. This instrument is unique in the French planning system as all levels remain involved in the governance structure and as the EPA brings technical expertise and financial resources to the locality. This case study scrutinises on how the EPA can represent a leverage for greater spatial justice within and beyond the locality, in the context of growing cross-border interdependencies. What does spatial justice mean in a cross-border context? How equitable can a cross-border area be? For a couple of years, a shared awareness of the locality’s needs has reached all levels of governance from the local to the national level. The dedicated instrument, the EPA, is equipped with the regulatory and financial capacity to act. It holds also legitimacy, know-how and expertise. It is well accepted by formal stakeholders in the locality and in the broader regional and cross-border context. The EPA appears as an appropriate tool to ensure development in a coordinated manner, considerate of sustainability, and limited use of agricultural land, thus avoiding urban sprawl and scattered urbanism. Yet, the EPA is challenged to find appropriates means to 1) inform the public of its activities; 2) develop a participatory approach when using the diverging opinions as a resource for implementing its projects. Its action partly overlooks current social inequalities (as they are not part of its direct objectives), while CCPHVA and the municipalities are challenged to face them (e.g. financially). In the long run, its capacity to support the development of public services for the local population in terms of development of residential economy and public infrastructure is highly dependent on 1) CCPHVA’s and the municipalities’ effective room for manoeuvre (politically, institutionally and financially); 2) the collaboration with public stakeholders in Luxembourg when it comes to cross-border public services (i.e. transport, economic attractiveness). [less ▲]

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See detailProject Team SC4 T6 interim reports April 2019 Draft EN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Banfi, Mike; Hicks, Stephen et al

Report (2019)

April draft of second generation for Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1; Outcome from SC4.T6

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See detailNational report on the governance of the asylum reception system in Luxembourg
Vianelli, Lorenzo; Oesch, Lucas UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2019)

The national report on the governance of the reception system in Luxembourg is one of the seven country reports that are produced within Work Package 3 of the H2020 project CEASEVAL. The report provides ... [more ▼]

The national report on the governance of the reception system in Luxembourg is one of the seven country reports that are produced within Work Package 3 of the H2020 project CEASEVAL. The report provides an overview of the Luxembourgish reception system. More specifically, it focuses on recent transformations that have affected the system, processes of implementation at the national and local levels, and sources of heterogeneity within the national system. It is based on document analysis as well as on 19 semi-structured interviews with a range of different stakeholders who are directly or indirectly involved in the Luxembourgish reception system. The report first provides some historical background on the reception of asylum seekers in Luxembourg by paying specific attention to the main legislative instruments that shaped the initial design of the national reception system. Then, the main revisions that affected the system in the period 2009-2018 are explored alongside their related decision-making processes. This paves the way for an overview of the formal structure of the Luxembourgish reception system. After the discussion of the formal organisation of reception policies in the country, the report moves on to explore the actual functioning of the reception system by investigating implementation practices at the national and local levels. Finally, some examples of heterogeneity in the current provision of reception are discussed, in an attempt to identify drivers of convergence and divergence in the implementation of reception policies. [less ▲]

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See detailLerneffekte interaktiver Medien bei Kindern und Jugendlichend
Melzer, André UL; Happ, Christian; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2019)

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See detailIntroduction to Isogeometric Analysis
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Lian, Haojie UL; Ding, Chensen UL

Report (2019)

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See detailTeaching DevOps in academia and industry: reflections and vision
Bobrov, Evgeny; Bucchiarone, Antonio; Capozucca, Alfredo UL et al

Report (2019)

This paper describes our experience of delivery educational programs in academia and in industry on DevOps, compare the two approaches and sum-up the lessons learnt. We also propose a vision to implement ... [more ▼]

This paper describes our experience of delivery educational programs in academia and in industry on DevOps, compare the two approaches and sum-up the lessons learnt. We also propose a vision to implement a shift in the Software Engineering Higher Education curricula. [less ▲]

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See detailNetzWerk 2
Böwen, Petra UL

Report (2019)

"NetzWerk-Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro bietet ... [more ▼]

"NetzWerk-Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros der uni.lu. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen Akteuren der Sozialen Arbeit Vernetzung, Plattformen, Veranstaltungen, Informationen aus Luxemburg und der Großregion. Das Schwerpunktthema dieser Ausgabe: "Was sind die Bedürfnisse der Akteure der Sozialen Arbeit?" fußt auf dem 6. Praxis- und Kontakttag 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Machine Learning to Speed Up the Design Space Exploration of Ethernet TSN networks
Navet, Nicolas UL; Mai, Tieu Long UL; Migge, Jörn

Report (2019)

In this work, we ask if Machine Learning (ML) can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis to determine whether a real-time Ethernet network meets a set of timing constraints ... [more ▼]

In this work, we ask if Machine Learning (ML) can provide a viable alternative to conventional schedulability analysis to determine whether a real-time Ethernet network meets a set of timing constraints. Otherwise said, can an algorithm learn what makes it difficult for a system to be feasible and predict whether a configuration will be feasible without executing a schedulability analysis? In this study, we apply standard supervised and unsupervised ML techniques and compare them, in terms of their accuracy and running times, with precise and approximate schedulability analyses in Network-Calculus. We show that ML techniques are efficient at predicting the feasibility of realistic TSN networks and offer new trade-offs between accuracy and computation time especially interesting for design-space exploration algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailReport on political participation of mobile EU citizens: Luxembourg
Scuto, Denis UL; Besch, Sylvain

Report (2019)

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See detailLuxembourg
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Giuffrida, Fabio UL

Report (2019)

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See detailPolicy Recommendations
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Giuffrida, Fabio UL

Report (2019)

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See detailIntroduction
Giuffrida, Fabio UL; Ligeti, Katalin UL

Report (2019)

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See detailLebenssituationen und Erfahrungen von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg
Meyers, Christiane UL; Reiners, Diana; Samuel, Robin UL

Report (2019)

Diese von der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bildung, Kinder und Jugend durchgeführte Studie ist explorativ angelegt. Mit einem Mixed-Methods-Ansatz wurden einerseits internationale ... [more ▼]

Diese von der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bildung, Kinder und Jugend durchgeführte Studie ist explorativ angelegt. Mit einem Mixed-Methods-Ansatz wurden einerseits internationale Datenerhebungen zu Einstellungen der Gesamtbevölkerung und eine LGBT*-Befragung sekundär für Luxemburg ausgewertet. Zweitens wurde der politische und mediale Diskurs mittels einer qualitativen Dokumentenanalyse untersucht. Den dritten Teil bildet eine Analyse von qualitativen Interviews mit acht Jugendlichen (davon zwei trans* Personen), sowie sieben Expert_innen. Durch die geringe Fallzahl sind die vorgestellten Ergebnisse als Einblick in die Lebenssituationen, jedoch nicht als abschließende Gesamtuntersuchung der Situation von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg einzuordnen. [less ▲]

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See detailClass, Race and Inequality in Northern Towns
Barbulescu, Roxana; Favell, Adrian; Khan, Omar et al

Report (2019)

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See detailSpillovers to small business credit risk
Wolff, Christian UL

Report (2019)

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See detail8. výroční konference centra vizuální historie malach
Bronec, Jakub UL

Report (2019)

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See detailAttracting and retaining international students in the EU (Country report Luxembourg)
Petry, Ralph UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2018)

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in ... [more ▼]

Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in the country. Established by law in 2003, the University of Luxembourg is therefore the main actor in the higher education system and hosts the large majority of international students in Luxembourg. In addition to the University of Luxembourg, two more types of institutions complement the higher education system in Luxembourg and are recognised by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research as higher education institutions (hereafter referred to as ‘HEIs’), namely: 1. Secondary educational institutions offering educational programmes that award an advanced technician’s certificate (‘Brevet de technicien supérieur’ – ‘BTS’); 2. Private foreign universities having infrastructures or campus in Luxembourg. In order to be able to award higher education diplomas as well as to host international students, all HEIs are mandatorily required to be approved by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, with the exception of the University of Luxembourg because it was established by law. The admission conditions for international students to study at a HEI in Luxembourg are twofold: First, the international student must apply and be accepted at an approved HEI or at the University of Luxembourg. Second, once accepted at a HEI, s/he needs to apply for a temporary authorisation of stay, and subsequently, if applicable, a Visa D (valid for 3 months), from his/her country of origin before being authorised to travel to Luxembourg and before being issued a ‘student’ residence permit (valid for minimum 1 year and renewable) in Luxembourg. To conclude, the HEIs in Luxembourg, under the overall auspice of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, as well as the immigration authorities are the main stakeholders in the context of international students studying in Luxembourg. Luxembourg transposed the Directive (EU) 2016/801 by the Law of 1 August 2018, which amended the amended ‘Immigration Law’ and entered into force on 21 September 2018. In this context, the study highlights in particular the introduction of a new residence permit for ‘private reasons’ in view of seeking employment or establishing a business in Luxembourg. This residence permit was newly introduced by the transposition of the Directive and allows international graduates to remain in the country for a maximum duration of nine months in order to find a job or establish a business in relation to their academic training. Prior to the transposition, international students were only able to change their immigration status to ‘salaried worker’ immediately after their graduation. Moreover, the transposition modified a number of legal dispositions, such as the increase of the maximum amount of hours that students are authorised to work, from 10 hours to 15 hours per week. Furthermore, Bachelor students enrolled in their first year of academic studies as well as students enrolled in a study programme awarding them a ‘BTS’ are no longer excluded from exercising a salaried activity as allowed by law. Lastly, the transposition also facilitates the intra-European mobility of international students who follow a European or multilateral programme that contains mobility measures or a convention between two or more HEIs. The attraction and retention of international students are not considered as a national political priority per se by the Luxembourgish authorities, but have to be perceived in an overall national political priority of attracting “talents” to Luxembourg, i.e. (highly) qualified persons, regardless of their nationality and in the interest of the country and its economy. The stakeholders consulted in the context of this study identified several factors that may have positive effects on the attraction and retention of international students. These include, among others: - the geographical position of Luxembourg with an important financial sector and several European institutions - the multilingual environment of the country as well as the University of Luxembourg - the HEI ranking of the University of Luxembourg - the comparatively low levels of tuition fees, particularly of the national public HEIs - the fact that the level tuition fees is the same for every student, no matter his/her nationality, with the exception of examples from private HEIs Furthermore, the consulted stakeholders identified several examples of good practices in the context of this study, such as for example: - A close and diligent collaboration between all stakeholders, in particular between the Directorate of Immigration, the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the University of Luxembourg - Quality management of private HEI (mainly through the approval procedure) in view of the best interest of students - Affordable tuitions fees in the higher education system At the same time, the consulted stakeholders have identified several challenges, such as: - the languages of instruction (with a strong emphasis on French and German especially at the Bachelor/‘BTS’ levels) and the primary working languages (French and Luxembourgish) - socio-economic factors, particularly the high costs of living and the challenge of finding affordable housing - authenticity and veracity of transmitted diplomas in the context of a diploma recognition - a challenging procedure related to the entrance exam for international students who hold a high school diploma issued in a country that is not a signatory country of Paris/Lisbon conventions - potential misuse of the ‘student’ residence permit in view of trying to stay in the country instead of succeeding in the studies. In addition to the major legislative change introduced by the transposition of the Directive and the various factors and challenges mentioned above, the study also highlights a number of initiatives, offered in particular by the University of Luxembourg, aiming to support international students after their graduation and to encourage them to establish and/or maintain a connection to the national labour market. The study concludes with a section on bilateral and multilateral cooperation with third countries, both at the level of the Luxembourgish State as well as at the level of HEIs, particularly of the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailLesegewohnheiten und bilinguale Lesekompetenzen - Zum Zusammenhang zwischen den Deutsch- und Französisch-Lesekompetenzen von Neuntklässlerinnen und Neuntklässlern und ihren außerschulischen Lesegewohnheiten in Luxemburg
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Lesehäufigkeit, der Textsorten, die von Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit rezipiert werden, und der Sprache, in der sie bevorzugt lesen ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Lesehäufigkeit, der Textsorten, die von Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit rezipiert werden, und der Sprache, in der sie bevorzugt lesen, dabei helfen können, ihr Lesekompetenz Niveau im Deutschen und Französischen – jenseits von sozioökonomischem Status, Migrationshintergrund, Muttersprache und Geschlecht – zu erklären. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitudes de lecture et compétences de lecture bilingue
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

La problématique soulevée dans cet article concerne les liens entre d’une part, la fréquence de lecture chez les adolescents en fonction des types de textes lus, et de la langue dans laquelle ils lisent ... [more ▼]

La problématique soulevée dans cet article concerne les liens entre d’une part, la fréquence de lecture chez les adolescents en fonction des types de textes lus, et de la langue dans laquelle ils lisent et, dautre part, leur niveau de compétence de lecture en allemand et en français. En outre, il s’agit d’étudier ces liens en fonction des contextes socio-économique et migratoire, de la langue maternelle, et du sexe des adolescents. À cet effet, les données recueillies dans le cadre des Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) de novembre 2016 permettent d’analyser les compétences de lecture en allemand et en français ainsi que les habitudes de lecture extrascolaire de 5177 élèves du grade 9, fréquentant l’Enseignement Secondaire (ES), l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique (EST) ou la branche Préparatoire de l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique (EST-PRE). Les analyses montrent clairement que, indépendamment du sexe, du type d’enseignement et des caractéristiques socioculturelles des adolescents, principalement la tendance à lire des textes narratifs est positivement corrélée aux compétences en lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailSchülerkompetenzen im Längsschnitt - Die Entwicklung von Deutsch-Leseverstehen und Mathematik in Luxemburg zwischen der 3. und 9. Klasse
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

it der Erhebung der ÉpStan im Herbst 2016 liegt erstmalig ein Datensatz vor, der einen Einblick in die Entwicklung schulischer Kompetenzen zwischen der 3. Schulstufe (Zyklus 3.1) und der 9. Schulstufe (5e ... [more ▼]

it der Erhebung der ÉpStan im Herbst 2016 liegt erstmalig ein Datensatz vor, der einen Einblick in die Entwicklung schulischer Kompetenzen zwischen der 3. Schulstufe (Zyklus 3.1) und der 9. Schulstufe (5e bzw. 9e) erlaubt. Das vorliegende Kapitel gibt nun einen ersten Einblick in die längsschnittliche Kompetenzentwicklung in den Bereichen Deutsch-Leseverstehen und Mathematik. Hierfür werden die Testergebnisse der untersuchten Schülerkohorte aus den ÉpStan 2010 in der 3. Schulstufe (Zyklus 3.1) den Leistungen in der 9. Schulstufe (5e bzw. 9e) im Jahre 2016 gegenübergestellt. [less ▲]

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See detailGood Business: The Economic Case for Protecting Human Rights
Baglayan, Basak UL; Landau, Ingrid; Mcvey, Marisa et al

Report (2018)

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See detailSchulische Kompetenzen von Erstklässlern und ihre Entwicklung nach zwei Jahren.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Dieses Kapitel stellt die Befunde aus drei Datenerhebungen (2014, 2015, 2016) der ÉpStan im Zyklus 2.1 vor und zeigt welche schulischen Kompetenzen Erstklässler am Anfang ihrer Schullaufbahn aufweisen und ... [more ▼]

Dieses Kapitel stellt die Befunde aus drei Datenerhebungen (2014, 2015, 2016) der ÉpStan im Zyklus 2.1 vor und zeigt welche schulischen Kompetenzen Erstklässler am Anfang ihrer Schullaufbahn aufweisen und wie sich diese über zwei Jahre hinweg entwickeln. Allgemein betrachtet, sind die für den Zyklus 1 festgehaltenen Bildungsstandards in den drei überprüften Kernkompetenzen („Luxemburgisch-Hörverstehen“, „Vorläuferfertigkeiten der Schriftsprache“ und „Mathematik“) erfüllt. In allen drei Kompetenzen erreicht die Mehrheit der Schülerinnen und Schüler zu Beginn des Zyklus 2.1 das Niveau Avancé. Zwei Jahre später, im Zyklus 3.1, fällt die Verteilung der Schülerinnen und Schüler auf die verschiedenen Kompetenzränge negativer aus als im Zyklus 2.1. Hier haben vergleichsweise mehr Kinder das Niveau Socle in allen drei Kernkompetenzen noch nicht erreicht. Unsere Befunde zeigen außerdem, dass verschiedene außerschulische Faktoren (wie z. B. sozioökonomische Situation, Sprachhintergrund) bereits sehr früh im Verlauf der Schullaufbahn einen äußerst starken Einfluss auf die Testergebnisse haben und dass sich dieser Einfluss über die Jahre hinweg verstärkt. [less ▲]

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See detailLes compétences scolaires des enfants au début du cycle 2 de l'école fondamentale au Luxembourg et leur développement après deux ans.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Ce chapitre présente les résultats de trois collectes de données (2014, 2015, 2016) des ÉpStan au cycle 2.1 et présente avec quelles compétences scolaires les élèves débutent leur scolarité au début du ... [more ▼]

Ce chapitre présente les résultats de trois collectes de données (2014, 2015, 2016) des ÉpStan au cycle 2.1 et présente avec quelles compétences scolaires les élèves débutent leur scolarité au début du cycle 2.1 et comment celles-ci évoluent sur deux ans. De manière générale, nos résultats montrent que les compétences disciplinaires du cycle 1 portant sur les trois domaines d’apprentissage observés (« compréhension de l’oral en luxembourgeois », « compréhension de l’écrit» et « mathématiques ») sont acquises. Au début du cycle 2.1, la majorité des élèves atteint le Niveau Avancé dans l’ensemble des trois domaines d’apprentissage considérés. Deux ans plus tard, au cycle 3.1, la répartition des élèves sur les différents niveaux de compétence est plus négative qu’au cycle 2.1 et ceci dans la mesure où moins d’enfants ont atteint le Niveau Socle dans l’ensemble des trois domaines d’apprentissage observés. Nos résultats montrent également que, dès le début de la scolarité, différents facteurs extrascolaires (tels que le statut socio-économique et le contexte linguistique) ont une influence extrêmement forte sur les résultats des épreuves et que cette influence augmente au fil des années. [less ▲]

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See detailBeneficiaries of international protection travelling to their country of origin: Challenges, Policies and Practices in the EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2018)

The main objectives of this study of the European Migration Network are to provide objective and reliable information about beneficiaries of international protection who travel to their country of origin ... [more ▼]

The main objectives of this study of the European Migration Network are to provide objective and reliable information about beneficiaries of international protection who travel to their country of origin or come into contact with national authorities of their country of origin, and information on cases where international protection statuses were ceased leading to, for example, the status being ended, revoked or not renewed (as per Article 45 and 46 of the recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and, ultimately, the permission to stay withdrawn. For the Luxembourgish case, it is firstly important to note that beneficiaries of the refugee status and of the status of subsidiary protection are not subject to the same restrictions with regard to travel to the country of origin or contact with national authorities. While refugees are in principle not permitted to travel to the country of origin, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are not subject to this restriction. In this context, the phenomenon of beneficiaries of the refugee status travelling to their country of origin is currently not considered a policy priority in Luxembourg. While it does occur, there are no statistics providing information on how many refugees undertake this journey or contact the national authorities, on the reasons for travel to the country of origin, nor is there any case law on the cessation of the refugee status for reasons of travel to the country of origin. Luxembourg’s authorities are not systematically informed of such events by the authorities of other Member States. Luxembourg has no external borders with the exception of the international airport of Luxembourg, from where only an extremely limited number of flights to third countries depart. Thus, it is extremely difficult to capture the extent of the phenomenon in Luxembourg. Luxembourg’s Asylum Law establishes the re-availment of the protection of the country of origin and the voluntary re-establishment in the country of origin as grounds for cessation of the refugee status. Travel to the country of origin or contact with its national authorities are not explicitly forbidden by legislation. In principle, refugees are not permitted to travel back to the country of origin. They are provided with this information on multiple occasions: for instance at the moment of the introduction of their application, as well as when they are issued the decision granting them protection. Their travel document also clearly states the restriction. There is no notification or authorisation procedure that would authorise such travel in Luxembourg. When the Directorate of Immigration has the information that a refugee travelled back to the country of origin, it will proceed to an in-depth analysis of the personal situation of the individual. Determining that this travel is proof of the voluntary re-establishment in the country of origin is however considered extremely difficult, as it is nearly impossible to ascertain the reasons for which the refugee returned. Furthermore, a short stay in the country of origin is not necessarily considered like the (permanent) establishment in the country of origin or a proof thereof. This is also due to the fact that the Luxembourgish authorities cannot contact the authorities of the country of origin and have no tools to undertake an investigation there in order to verify that the refugee has re-established him/herself. The travel and the surrounding circumstances can be taken into account if the minister decides to re-examine the validity of the status, which could potentially lead to a withdrawal. The Directorate of Immigration has never considered ceasing protection because a refugee contacted the authorities of the country of origin. Proving that this contact occurred in the first place, and next, proving that it constitutes a re-availment of the protection of the country of origin, is considered nearly impossible. In addition, it is a fact that certain administrative procedures require the production of official documents and that the substitution of these documents with affidavits are in practice not always feasible. As previously mentioned, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are authorised to travel back to their country of origin and are permitted to contact the authorities of their country of origin. They are even encouraged to contact the national authorities in order to obtain a national passport. These actions can thus not lead to the cessation of the status of subsidiary protection. If the decision to cease the status is taken, the beneficiary is notified of this decision in writing. The decision can be appealed before the First instance Administrative Court. If the decision of the Court is negative, the individual can file an appeal before the Second instance Administrative Court. In principle, the decision to cease international protection carries a return decision. However, the individual can apply for another residence permit if s/he fulfils the conditions established in the Immigration Law. The same is true for family members who got a residence permit through family reunification with the concerned person: the family members will lose their right to stay unless they can gain access to another residence permit under the Immigration Law. [less ▲]

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See detailMedia Pluralism Monitor 2017: Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Schall, Céline UL

Report (2018)

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See detailLa mobilité transfrontalière des travailleurs est-elle une ressource pour la Grande Région?
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

Report (2018)

La Grande Région est l’un des espaces transfrontaliers les plus concernés par les flux de travail frontalier. Face aux nombreux défis (économiques, démographiques, environnementaux, etc.) auxquels elle se ... [more ▼]

La Grande Région est l’un des espaces transfrontaliers les plus concernés par les flux de travail frontalier. Face aux nombreux défis (économiques, démographiques, environnementaux, etc.) auxquels elle se trouve confrontée, peut-on considérer la mobilité transfrontalière comme une ressource pour les territoires frontaliers ? Telle était la question de départ posée aux différents spécialistes présents lors du Forum Grande Région du 7 juin 2018. Cette table ronde a réuni près de 70 participants issus du monde politique, économique, universitaire, mais également des citoyens intéressés par ces questions. Elle a donné lieu à de nombreux échanges et débats, révélant d’intéressantes pistes de recherche futures. [less ▲]

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See detailLabour Market Integration of Third-Country Nationals in EU Member States
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2018)

Luxembourg is characterized by a very specific demographic situation with 47,9% of its resident population being non-Luxembourgish nationals as of 1 January 2018. This particular circumstance makes ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is characterized by a very specific demographic situation with 47,9% of its resident population being non-Luxembourgish nationals as of 1 January 2018. This particular circumstance makes Luxembourg the EU Member State with the highest share of non-citizens residing on its territory. At the same time, around 85% of the foreign population are citizens of another EU Member State, leading to the fact that third-country nationals constitute only 7,3% of the total resident population of Luxembourg, the lowest share of foreigners coming from a third-country in the European Union. Integration is defined in national legislation as a ‘two-way process by which the foreigners shows their will to participate on a long-term basis to the host society, which, in turn, takes all the necessary measures at the social, economic, political, and cultural levels, to encourage and facilitate this approach. Integration is a task that the State, municipalities and civil society achieve together’. In addition to this legal provision, several strategic documents, most notably the multi-annual national action plan on integration 2018, or PAN integration, published in July 2018, make reference to integration and its definition. The PAN integration provides the framework for the programs and tools favouring the social cohesion of Luxembourgish and non-Luxembourgish nationals and the overall national integration policy by identifying five priority domains, one of which explicitly relates to the reinforcement of employability of non-Luxembourgish nationals. Generally speaking, employment is viewed as a core element of the overall integration process, making both the access to as well as the integration into the Luxembourgish labour market a key element in becoming a part of society. At the same time, this access to and integration into the labour market pose a challenge, particularly to third-country nationals, as the statistics show that their employment rate is lower than that of Luxembourgish nationals or citizens of another EU Member State. Third-country nationals are predominantly occupied in the accommodation and food service activities sector, followed by the administrative and support service activities sector and the wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles sector. A closer look at the evolution of the sectors employing third-country nationals over the last years, however, indicates that in particular the information and communication technologies sector, the professional, scientific and technical activities sector and the financial and insurance activities sector register the most significant growth rates, leading to a development that seem to indicate a ‘double immigration’ of (highly) skilled migrants on the one hand and less or low skilled migrants in the more traditional economic sectors on the other hand. In regard to the general integration approach as well as the labour market integration policy, this study shows that Luxembourg does have not have a specific policy/strategic document/model in place that only focusses on third-country nationals. All political documents (laws and strategic documents such as the PAN 2010-2014 and the new PAN integration of 2018) and public measures (Welcome and Integration Contract (CAI), linguistic leave, support measures provided by the National Employment Agency (ADEM), measures facilitating school integration, electoral registration campaigns, etc.) are aimed at all foreign nationals without distinguishing between EU nationals and third-country nationals. It is the Immigration Law that provides the legal framework regarding the various grounds of migration for economic purposes. Additionally, the legislator aims to be attractive for certain categories of migrants coming to Luxembourg for economic purposes in order to meet the needs of the country’s economic development (via legislative measures such as the European Blue Card, the ‘investor’ residence permit or the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde). This being said, this study will present examples of practices that have been identified as good practices in the context of the topic of labour market integration of third-country nationals, despite the fact that they, for the most part, do not fit 100% into the pre-set structure of the study template at hand. In section 2.2, three Member State measure are presented, the first of which is the linguistic leave, a specific form of additional special leave that is accessible for salaried and independent workers of all nationalities, resident or non-resident, to learn or perfect the command of the Luxembourgish language. This legislative measure was introduced by law in 2009 with the intention to facilitate the integration of the beneficiaries into society through the labour market. The second measure is the AMIF-project ‘InSitu JOBS’ by the non-governmental organisation CLAE asbl (with co-financing from the Luxembourgish State). This project, which ended in April 2018 was targeted at third-country nationals within the scope of this study as well as at beneficiaries of international protection by providing them information and counselling in the context of access and integration into the Luxembourgish labour market. The third measure was also an AMIF-project and consists of a practical guide that was developed and drafted by IMS Luxembourg, a network of Luxembourgish companies, in order to provide information on how to hire and integrate third-country nationals. As for the private sector measures in section 2.3. of this study, research of secondary resources as well as consultations with various relevant stakeholders proved to be rather difficult in terms of finding private sector initiatives that specifically target at supporting or facilitating the labour market integration of third-country nationals within the scope of this study. Two measures were selected in this context, the first consisting of a specific recruitment method (simulation-based recruitment method) by a large international company which allows them to evaluate various different profiles of people that are not necessarily detectable through the classic CV-based recruitment methods. The second measure is a business guide developed by the American Chamber of Commerce Luxembourg and aims to promote and facilitate the establishment of new business in Luxembourg by providing information on everything that entrepreneurs and international companies need to know in this context. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual report on migration and asylum (2017)
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Adao Do Carmo, Kelly UL; Petry, David UL et al

Report (2018)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2017 (2.322 applications) compared to the levels registered pre- ‘migration crisis’ (1.091 in 2014). However, the number of registrations remained relatively stable if compared to the two preceding years (2.447 in 2015 and 2.035 in 2016). This relative stability in numbers also reflected on the general public and policy debate in the field of migration and asylum. Since 2016, its focus has continuously shifted from an ‘emergency’ discourse axed on the implementation of reception measures and conditions towards discussions on longer-term integration measures and policies. In this regard, the newly introduced Guided Integration Trail (parcours d’intégration accompagné - PIA) can be considered a flagship project of OLAI, the national agency responsible for the reception and integration of foreigners. This multidisciplinary package of measures aims to empower applicants and beneficiaries of international protection and to support them in developing their life project. The trail, compulsory for all adult applicants for international protection, consists of a linguistic component and a civic component and is split into three phases. Although increasing housing capacities for the reception of applicants for international protection was high on national authorities’ agenda, housing remained a challenging aspect of the asylum system and triggered debate on a national scale. Alongside access to training, problems related to housing were among the issues most frequently raised by applicants for international protection in 2017. The lack of affordable housing on the private market, an increasing number of family reunifications as well as the increasing number of beneficiaries and persons who have been issued a return decision who remain housed in structures of OLAI were all identified as interplaying barriers for finding available accommodation for applicants for international protection. The difficulties with the construction of modular housing structures also persisted in 2017. A certain reticence of the population towards the construction of these so-called ‘container villages, planned in response to the increasing influx that started in August 2015, was visible in the appeals introduced into Luxembourg’s First Instance Administrative Courts to annul the land-use plans related to the projects. Living conditions in the various reception facilities were also one of the subjects of discussion in 2017. This included a debate on the (lack of) kitchen infrastructure in reception facilities and the varying systems for provision of food, the types of food available, as well as the availability of internet. As an answer to the resurgence of an increased influx of applicants of international protection from the Western Balkans in early 2017, a new ‘ultra-accelerated procedure’ was put in place for applicants of international protection stemming from the Western Balkans. According to the state authorities, the ultra-accelerated procedure was set up to take pressure off the reception facilities, but also as a deterrent to avoid creating false hopes for long-term stay. In April 2017, a ‘semi-open return structure’ (Structure d’hébergement d’urgence au Kirchberg – SHUK) was put in place, from which people are transferred to states applying the Dublin regulation. Due to home custody (assignation à résidence), the SHUK is considered to be an alternative to detention by national authorities. The newly created structure as well as the related conditions for assignment, were nevertheless criticised by civil society. The outcry among civil society was equally high during and after the adoption the Law of 8 March 2017, which endorses the extension of the permitted period of detention of adults or families with children from 72 hours to 7 days, in order to improve the organisation of the return and ensures that it is carried out successfully. A commission in charge of determining the best interests of unaccompanied minors applying for international protection was decided at the end of 2017. The commission is in charge of carrying out individual assessments regarding the best interest of the child with the aim of delivering an authorisation of stay or a return decision. Among the elements taken into consideration when the best interest of the child is evaluated in the context of a potential return decision is information provided by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The latter made an agreement with the Directorate of Immigration in 2017 to search for the parents of UAMs in the country of origin. With the focus of debates having slowly shifted towards long-term integration issues, the Council of Government also approved the elaboration of a new multiannual national action plan on integration. The plan will be based on two axes: (1) the reception and follow-up of applicants for international protection and (2) the integration of Luxembourg’s non-Luxembourgish residents. Luxembourg’s National Employment Agency (ADEM) set up a “cellule BPI” (beneficiaries of international protection cell) in its Employer Service in early 2017. This cell provides employers with information regarding job applications and evaluations of the competences of beneficiaries of international protection. A new law on the Luxembourgish nationality entered into force on 1 April 2017. Given the particular demographic situation of Luxembourg characterised by a significant increase in the total population and a decrease in the proportion of Luxembourgers in the total population, the reform intends to promote the societal and political integration of non-Luxembourgish citizens and to strengthen cohesion within the national community. The main changes introduced by the law include a decreased length of residence requirement for naturalisation (from 7 to 5 years), the right of birthplace (jus soli) of the first generation, a simplified way of acquiring Luxembourgish nationality by ‘option’, as well as new scenarios to avoid cases of statelessness. The law maintains previous linguistic requirements but makes some adjustments in order to prevent the language condition from becoming an insurmountable obstacle. Ahead of the local elections held on 8 October 2017, the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Region launched a national information and awareness-raising campaign titled “Je peux voter” (I can vote) in January 2017. This campaign aimed to motivate Luxembourg’s foreign population to register on the electoral roll for the local elections. The government’s intention to legislate face concealment was arguably one of the most debated topics in the field related to community life and integration in the broader sense, both in parliament as well as in the media and public sphere. Bill n°7179 aims to modify article 563 of the Penal Code and to create the prohibition of face concealment in certain public spaces. The bill defines face concealment as the action of covering part of or all of the face in a way of rendering the identification of the person impossible and provides a wide variety of examples, such as the wearing of a motor cycle helmet, a balaclava or a full-face veil. Opposing views among stakeholders, whether political parties, public institutions, civil society or the media, emerged with regard to the necessity to legislate in the matter and if so, on the basis of which grounds and to what extent. The phenomenon of migration has also led to a more heterogeneous population in Luxembourg’s schools. To face this situation, the education authorities continued to diversify Luxembourg’s offer in education and training, creating for instance a bigger offer for youngsters and adults who do not master any of Luxembourg’s vehicular languages, offering more alphabetisation courses or basic instruction courses. The Minister for National Education continued to develop and adapt the school offer to the increased heterogeneity by increasing the international and European school offer, introducing of a new mediation service and putting in place a plurilingual education programme. In the area of legal migration, the most significant changes concerned admission policies of specific categories of third-country nationals. In this respect, bill n°7188 mainly aims to transpose Directive (EU) 2016/801 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 May 2016 on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, training, voluntary service, pupil exchange schemes or educational projects and au pairing. The directive aims to make the European Union a world centre of excellence for studies and training, while favouring contacts between people and favouring their mobility, these two being important elements of the European Union’s external policy. Bill N°7188 intends to facilitate and simplify the procedures for intra-European mobility of TCN researchers and students. Moreover, the proposed changes include incentive mechanisms to retain students and researchers. To this end, it proposes that students and researchers, once they have completed their studies/research, can be issued a residence permit for “private reasons” for a duration of 9 months at most in view of finding employment or creating a business. Finally, bill n°7188 also foresees provisions to regulate the family reunification of a researcher staying in Luxembourg in the context of short- and long-term mobility with his/her nuclear family. The legislator furthermore transposed Directive 2014/36 on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66 on temporary intragroup transfer into national law, and adapted Luxembourg’s immigration law to the needs to the economy, by introducing, amongst other things, and authorisation of stay for investors. Organising the admission of stay and the issuance of authorisations of stay was also a key component within the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde on the concerted management of migratory flows and solidary development. Other objectives of the agreement include the promotion of the movement of people, detailing readmission procedures, fighting against irregular migration, strengthening the legal establishment and integration of the concerned nationals, as well as the mobilisation of skills and resources of migrants in favour of solidary development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (18 UL)
See detailFinTech for Financial Inclusion - Enabling FinTech regulation in emerging & developing countries
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Arner, Douglas W.; Buckley, Ross P.

Report (2018)

Access to finance, financial inclusion and financial sector development have long been major policy objectives. A series of initiatives have aimed to increase access to finance and financial inclusion ... [more ▼]

Access to finance, financial inclusion and financial sector development have long been major policy objectives. A series of initiatives have aimed to increase access to finance and financial inclusion, but these have accelerated in the last decade as technological developments combined with strategic policy support show potential for progress beyond anything that has been achieved. The World Bank’s 2017 Global Findex shows that in the last three years, 515 million adults acquired a financial account, and between 2010 and 2017, 1.2 billion people opened an account with a formal financial institution or mobile financial services provider (including mobile money) for the first time. This is impressive progress by any measure, but much remains to be done: as of 2017, 1.7 billion people 16 years or older still did not have access to an account, some 31 percent of the world’s adult population. We argue that to reap the greatest benefits for financial inclusion and maximize the potential of FinTech, a framework that supports infrastructure and an enabling policy and regulatory environment, built on a strong foundation of digital identification and electronic payment systems, will support much broader digital financial transformation. The full potential of FinTech for financial inclusion may be realized with a strategic framework of underlying infrastructure and an enabling policy and regulatory environment to support digital financial transformation. Drawing from experiences in a range of developing, emerging and developed countries, our research suggests that the best approach is staged and progressive, and is focused on four main pillars. 1) The first pillar requires building digital identification and e-KYC systems to simplify access to the financial system. Once these are established for individuals and businesses, they provide a solid foundation not only for finance, but also for the development of the digital economy more broadly. 2) The second pillar requires digital payment infrastructure and open electronic payments systems, as these are the primary way to facilitate digital financial flows in an economy. 3) The third pillar combines the promotion of account opening and access with the electronic provision of government services, particularly for public transfers and payments, so as to scale up the use of digital finance and related services. By supporting access, payments and savings, together these three pillars provide a foundation for digital financial transformation and financial inclusion. 4) The fourth pillar – design of digital financial markets and systems – builds on the first three to support broader access to finance and investment, by underpinning use cases including securities trading, clearing and settlement, and other more sophisticated financial functions. There is a need for regulatory approaches that support and adapt to these four pillars. These regulatory changes are a major journey for any economy, but one that experience increasingly suggests has tremendous potential to transform financial inclusion and support digital economic development. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel sur les migrations et l'asile (2017)
Jacobs, Sarah UL; Adao Do Carmo, Kelly UL; Petry, David UL et al

Report (2018)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2017. The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2017 (2.322 applications) compared to the levels registered pre- ‘migration crisis’ (1.091 in 2014). However, the number of registrations remained relatively stable if compared to the two preceding years (2.447 in 2015 and 2.035 in 2016). This relative stability in numbers also reflected on the general public and policy debate in the field of migration and asylum. Since 2016, its focus has continuously shifted from an ‘emergency’ discourse axed on the implementation of reception measures and conditions towards discussions on longer-term integration measures and policies. In this regard, the newly introduced Guided Integration Trail (parcours d’intégration accompagné - PIA) can be considered a flagship project of OLAI, the national agency responsible for the reception and integration of foreigners. This multidisciplinary package of measures aims to empower applicants and beneficiaries of international protection and to support them in developing their life project. The trail, compulsory for all adult applicants for international protection, consists of a linguistic component and a civic component and is split into three phases. Although increasing housing capacities for the reception of applicants for international protection was high on national authorities’ agenda, housing remained a challenging aspect of the asylum system and triggered debate on a national scale. Alongside access to training, problems related to housing were among the issues most frequently raised by applicants for international protection in 2017. The lack of affordable housing on the private market, an increasing number of family reunifications as well as the increasing number of beneficiaries and persons who have been issued a return decision who remain housed in structures of OLAI were all identified as interplaying barriers for finding available accommodation for applicants for international protection. The difficulties with the construction of modular housing structures also persisted in 2017. A certain reticence of the population towards the construction of these so-called ‘container villages, planned in response to the increasing influx that started in August 2015, was visible in the appeals introduced into Luxembourg’s First Instance Administrative Courts to annul the land-use plans related to the projects. Living conditions in the various reception facilities were also one of the subjects of discussion in 2017. This included a debate on the (lack of) kitchen infrastructure in reception facilities and the varying systems for provision of food, the types of food available, as well as the availability of internet. As an answer to the resurgence of an increased influx of applicants of international protection from the Western Balkans in early 2017, a new ‘ultra-accelerated procedure’ was put in place for applicants of international protection stemming from the Western Balkans. According to the state authorities, the ultra-accelerated procedure was set up to take pressure off the reception facilities, but also as a deterrent to avoid creating false hopes for long-term stay. In April 2017, a ‘semi-open return structure’ (Structure d’hébergement d’urgence au Kirchberg – SHUK) was put in place, from which people are transferred to states applying the Dublin regulation. Due to home custody (assignation à résidence), the SHUK is considered to be an alternative to detention by national authorities. The newly created structure as well as the related conditions for assignment, were nevertheless criticised by civil society. The outcry among civil society was equally high during and after the adoption the Law of 8 March 2017, which endorses the extension of the permitted period of detention of adults or families with children from 72 hours to 7 days, in order to improve the organisation of the return and ensures that it is carried out successfully. A commission in charge of determining the best interests of unaccompanied minors applying for international protection was decided at the end of 2017. The commission is in charge of carrying out individual assessments regarding the best interest of the child with the aim of delivering an authorisation of stay or a return decision. Among the elements taken into consideration when the best interest of the child is evaluated in the context of a potential return decision is information provided by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). The latter made an agreement with the Directorate of Immigration in 2017 to search for the parents of UAMs in the country of origin. With the focus of debates having slowly shifted towards long-term integration issues, the Council of Government also approved the elaboration of a new multiannual national action plan on integration. The plan will be based on two axes: (1) the reception and follow-up of applicants for international protection and (2) the integration of Luxembourg’s non-Luxembourgish residents. Luxembourg’s National Employment Agency (ADEM) set up a “cellule BPI” (beneficiaries of international protection cell) in its Employer Service in early 2017. This cell provides employers with information regarding job applications and evaluations of the competences of beneficiaries of international protection. A new law on the Luxembourgish nationality entered into force on 1 April 2017. Given the particular demographic situation of Luxembourg characterised by a significant increase in the total population and a decrease in the proportion of Luxembourgers in the total population, the reform intends to promote the societal and political integration of non-Luxembourgish citizens and to strengthen cohesion within the national community. The main changes introduced by the law include a decreased length of residence requirement for naturalisation (from 7 to 5 years), the right of birthplace (jus soli) of the first generation, a simplified way of acquiring Luxembourgish nationality by ‘option’, as well as new scenarios to avoid cases of statelessness. The law maintains previous linguistic requirements but makes some adjustments in order to prevent the language condition from becoming an insurmountable obstacle. Ahead of the local elections held on 8 October 2017, the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Region launched a national information and awareness-raising campaign titled “Je peux voter” (I can vote) in January 2017. This campaign aimed to motivate Luxembourg’s foreign population to register on the electoral roll for the local elections. The government’s intention to legislate face concealment was arguably one of the most debated topics in the field related to community life and integration in the broader sense, both in parliament as well as in the media and public sphere. Bill n°7179 aims to modify article 563 of the Penal Code and to create the prohibition of face concealment in certain public spaces. The bill defines face concealment as the action of covering part of or all of the face in a way of rendering the identification of the person impossible and provides a wide variety of examples, such as the wearing of a motor cycle helmet, a balaclava or a full-face veil. Opposing views among stakeholders, whether political parties, public institutions, civil society or the media, emerged with regard to the necessity to legislate in the matter and if so, on the basis of which grounds and to what extent. The phenomenon of migration has also led to a more heterogeneous population in Luxembourg’s schools. To face this situation, the education authorities continued to diversify Luxembourg’s offer in education and training, creating for instance a bigger offer for youngsters and adults who do not master any of Luxembourg’s vehicular languages, offering more alphabetisation courses or basic instruction courses. The Minister for National Education continued to develop and adapt the school offer to the increased heterogeneity by increasing the international and European school offer, introducing of a new mediation service and putting in place a plurilingual education programme. In the area of legal migration, the most significant changes concerned admission policies of specific categories of third-country nationals. In this respect, bill n°7188 mainly aims to transpose Directive (EU) 2016/801 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 May 2016 on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of research, studies, training, voluntary service, pupil exchange schemes or educational projects and au pairing. The directive aims to make the European Union a world centre of excellence for studies and training, while favouring contacts between people and favouring their mobility, these two being important elements of the European Union’s external policy. Bill N°7188 intends to facilitate and simplify the procedures for intra-European mobility of TCN researchers and students. Moreover, the proposed changes include incentive mechanisms to retain students and researchers. To this end, it proposes that students and researchers, once they have completed their studies/research, can be issued a residence permit for “private reasons” for a duration of 9 months at most in view of finding employment or creating a business. Finally, bill n°7188 also foresees provisions to regulate the family reunification of a researcher staying in Luxembourg in the context of short- and long-term mobility with his/her nuclear family. The legislator furthermore transposed Directive 2014/36 on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66 on temporary intragroup transfer into national law, and adapted Luxembourg’s immigration law to the needs to the economy, by introducing, amongst other things, and authorisation of stay for investors. Organising the admission of stay and the issuance of authorisations of stay was also a key component within the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde on the concerted management of migratory flows and solidary development. Other objectives of the agreement include the promotion of the movement of people, detailing readmission procedures, fighting against irregular migration, strengthening the legal establishment and integration of the concerned nationals, as well as the mobilisation of skills and resources of migrants in favour of solidary development. [less ▲]

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See detailA Dynamic Approach for Combining Abstract Argumentation Semantics – Technical Report
Dauphin, Jérémie UL; Cramer, Marcos UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2018)

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise ... [more ▼]

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise update relations on argumentation frameworks whose fixpoints represent the labeling functions on the arguments. We make use of this dynamic approach in order to study novel ways of combining abstract argumentation semantics. In particular, we introduce the notion of a merge of two argumentation semantics, which is defined in such a way that the merge of the preferred and the grounded semantics is the complete semantics. Finally we consider how to define new semantics using the merge operator, in particular how meaningfully combine features of naive-based and complete-based semantics. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of visa liberalisation on countries of destination
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2018)

Historically, Luxembourg has developed during the last 68 years strong links with the Western Balkan countries. In 1970, a labour agreement was signed between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Former ... [more ▼]

Historically, Luxembourg has developed during the last 68 years strong links with the Western Balkan countries. In 1970, a labour agreement was signed between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Former Republic of Yugoslavia to provide for workers to come to work in Luxembourg. This bilateral agreement created a diaspora from the Western Balkans in Luxembourg. Montenegrin nationals represent the largest third-country national population while the Serbians and the Bosnians represents the 3rd and 4th largest nationality groups. There has been a significant number of naturalisations from the West Balkan countries during the last 10 years. This diaspora was a significant “pull factor” during the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) and the economic crisis of 2008. This study was unable to verify direct and automatic links between the entering into force of the visa liberalisation agreements with the West Balkans countries and Eastern Partnership countries and an impact for Luxembourg. The large majority of increases, independently if it is legal migration, irregular migration or international protection did not occur during the next year following the entering into force of the agreements. These increases occurred generally during the second year or later. Concerning visa liberalisation agreements with the Western Balkan countries, the first findings are a dramatic increase of international protection applicants from those countries since the agreements came into force. In the international protection field and in the framework of the return decisions, the visa liberalisation agreement had a negative impact generating stress for all the public administrations during 2011 and 2012, which have to deal with international protection and the return mechanism. During 2011, there was a significant increase of applicants from Macedonia and Serbia and in 2012 from Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina. This situation placed the Luxembourgish authorities under significant stress to deal with this significant inflow of applicants, whose applications were, in the large majority of cases (80%), rejected. However, this situation obliged the Luxembourgish government to take measures in order to deal in a very efficient manner with these inflows of international protection applicants as well as to overhaul the entire international protection procedure. These measures can be divided into two different: procedural measures and implementation measures. The most significant procedural measures are: a) the introduction of the fast track procedure and the implementation of the ultra-expedite procedure; b) the introduction of these countries in the list of safe countries of origin. These measures allow the authorities to deal more efficiently with the massive influx of international protection applicants coming from the region. The implementation measures are: a) No access to social aid for the applicant benefiting from a commitment to cover all expenses by a Luxembourg national, EU citizen or TCN residing in Luxembourg; b) substantial decrease in monthly cash amounts of social aid for adult individuals and households; c) Recruitment and reallocation of staff in the Directorate of Immigration and the Luxembourg Reception and Integration office; d) implementing the Assisted voluntary return Balkans (AVR Balkans) which only covers the return bus ticket; and e) strengthen cooperation with the authorities of the Western Balkan countries. During 2017, there was an increase in the number of international protection applicants from Georgia and Ukraine, even though both countries are included in the list of safe countries of origin. As Luxembourg does not have external borders with the exception of the International Airport, it is not possible to obtain pertinent information concerning the detection of irregular entries in the territory. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that some individuals from these countries have taken advantage of the visa liberalisation agreements to come to work irregularly in Luxembourg, even if it is not possible to quantify the scale of the phenomenon. The findings of this study do not show an increase in the number of applications for authorisation of stay or residence permits (remunerated and study activities), so the EU visa liberalisation agreements did not have any impact in the legal migration field. The increase of application was visible after the second year of entering into force of these agreements but the numbers were not significant in regard with number of applications made by third-country nationals during the same period. However, the short-stay visits (i.e. friends, family, tourism, etc.) seem not only to have been facilitated, but also increased. In some cases, these short-visits have also been used not only to visit family and friends but also to be familiarized with the Luxembourgish society and to explore job opportunities and look for housing. This is probably the only positive impact that the visa liberalization agreements have had. Seen that the visa liberalisation agreements only allow travelling without a visa, but they do not allow working and staying in the country, and based on the data collected there is not possible to establish a link between them and any significant impact with regard to economy and to criminality (especially related to traffic of human beings or smuggling, where the numbers are very low and not directly related in most cases to nationals concerned by this study). [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting Document Fraud
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2018)

The high numbers and mixed flows of migrants entering the EU during the migration crisis in recent years has meant that the effective identification of third-country nationals has become a concern of ... [more ▼]

The high numbers and mixed flows of migrants entering the EU during the migration crisis in recent years has meant that the effective identification of third-country nationals has become a concern of increasing importance. One of the main issues around the use of documents to establish identity has been the risk of document fraud. This includes the production and use by third-country nationals of false documents, as well as the use of fraudulently obtained genuine documents (‘FOG’s) in procedures relating to entry and stay in Member States. The examination of documents such as passports and other travel documents are only part of identification procedures; however, given that they may contain biometric information such as facial image and iris data, the role they play in identification is significant. Where third-country nationals are unable to fulfil the criteria for legal entry using legitimate documents and channels, or seek to disguise or assume a different identity, document fraud can open alternative channels to entering Member States. In terms of understanding the scale of and trends in document fraud, according to Frontex’s Risk Analysis Report 2018, Member States reported some 6 700 third-country nationals presenting false documents at the EU / Schengen borders in 2017, and identified this as the lowest number of detections since 2013.1 The decreasing trend at the border, however, contrasts with an increase of 9% in detections within the EU/Schengen area, the second highest number of detections since 2013.2 This Inform aims to establish the current state of play in detecting document fraud perpetrated by third-country nationals intending to enter and stay in the EU Member States and Norway, including in the context of asylum procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting Youth in African Countries to Advance Local Economies and Community Health: The SDG Lab on Microfinance for Youth and Clean Water
Leist, Anja UL; Avidar, Ornit; Szelest, Linda et al

Report (2018)

In the sub-Saharan African countries, a large number of young adults enters the labour market each year. Scarcity of regular employment opportunities and the wish to become an entrepreneur lead many young ... [more ▼]

In the sub-Saharan African countries, a large number of young adults enters the labour market each year. Scarcity of regular employment opportunities and the wish to become an entrepreneur lead many young people to start their own business. However, young people are often not able to become regular microloan customers due to both higher risks associated with young age and lack of experience with managing finances. If microfinance products should become accessible to young people, the loans need to be accompanied by non-financial services, i.e., financial advice and mentoring. In order to advance local economies and community health, we see two distinct problems around microfinance products for young adults. First, microfinance products combined with non-financial services are not sustainable, i.e. additional external funds are needed that render these microloan products unprofitable in the long run. Second, if improvements in community water, development, and health are envisaged, then new microfinance products need to be designed to serve the purpose of supporting the SDG goals of clean water and sanitation for all. We used an existing initiative of microfinance for young entrepreneurs and applied the social innovation lab methodology to gather experts in relevant fields. The SDG lab, co-sponsored by Future Earth and Appui au Développement Autonome Microfinance Luxembourg and hosted by the University of Luxembourg, first addressed the problem of sustainability of microfinance products for young entrepreneurs. Second, the SDG lab defined actors, processes, and goals to design microfinance products for young people to support the SDG goals of clean water and sanitation for all. [less ▲]

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See detailCriminal procedural laws across the Union Italian report
Allegrezza, Silvia UL

Report (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (7 UL)
See detailCommunicating Air Pollution Episodes to Vulnerable Populations, a report for Public Health England, DEFRA and Department of Health
Korjonen, Maria Helena UL

Report (2018)

This report was funded by the Department of Health and Department for Environment and Rural Affairs to examine how best communicate air pollution episodes to vulnerable populations. The findings and ... [more ▼]

This report was funded by the Department of Health and Department for Environment and Rural Affairs to examine how best communicate air pollution episodes to vulnerable populations. The findings and recommendations were used in the UK air pollution strategy UK Clean Air Strategy 2019 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-air-strategy-2019 [less ▲]

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See detailMapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility, Final Public Project Report
Samuk, Sahizer UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Bissinger, Jutta UL et al

Report (2018)

This report is a synthesis of the main results of the H2020 project MOVE – Mapping mobility, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility in Europe. Over three years the project MOVE has provided ... [more ▼]

This report is a synthesis of the main results of the H2020 project MOVE – Mapping mobility, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility in Europe. Over three years the project MOVE has provided a research-informed contribution to a systematic analysis of intra-European mobility. The project departed its work by differentiating six mobility types that have diverse institutional frameworks, age specific constraints and scopes of action. The project has thus analysed and reconstructed mobility patterns that lie across different types of mobility, which are: • student mobility for higher education, • international volunteering, • employment mobility, • mobility for vocational and educational training, • pupil’s exchange, • entrepreneurship mobility. These identified six mobility types have been investigated in the following six European countries: • Germany, • Hungary, • Luxembourg, • Norway, • Romania and • Spain. [less ▲]

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See detail(Member) States' Approaches to Unaccompanied Minors Following Status Determination
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Adao Do Carmo, Kelly UL et al

Report (2018)

The legal framework in Luxembourg does not provide a specific legal status for unaccompanied minors (hereafter UAM), which is why the large majority of them apply for international protection. This allows ... [more ▼]

The legal framework in Luxembourg does not provide a specific legal status for unaccompanied minors (hereafter UAM), which is why the large majority of them apply for international protection. This allows them to stay in the country and to benefit from social and legal assistance, as well as from accommodation. Cases of UAMs presumed or identified victims of human trafficking are rare in Luxembourg. Overall, specific legal frameworks exist according to the status of the UAM: The Law on Asylum, the Law on Immigration and the Law on victims of trafficking in human beings. This framework is completed by general provisions of the Youth Protection Law, which applies to all minors independent of their immigration or legal status. Until the influx of applicants for international protection in 2015 and 2016, the phenomenon of unaccompanied minors has been relatively small in Luxembourg. Particularly 2015 was marked by a high number of UAMs applying for international protection, with 102 introductions of applications compared to 31 applications in 2014. Since, the number of applications has stabilised over the last two years, with 51 applications in 2016 and 50 applications in 2017. In 2015, Afghanistan and Albania were the leading countries of origin of UAMs. In 2016, Afghanistan was still the leading country of origin, followed by Morocco. In 2017, the profiles of the UAMs changed again, with Albania and Morocco as leading countries of origin. In Luxembourg, UAMs are predominantly boys and a large majority is close to the age of majority, or have already reached the age of majority, when a final decision on their application for international protection is issued. However, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they were confronted with a new phenomenon in 2017, namely the arrival of very young UAMs aged between 12 and 14. Every UAM, whether s/he files an application for international protection or not, will be assigned an ad-hoc administrator as soon as possible in order to assist him/her in all legal proceedings. In addition to the designation of an ad-hoc administrator, the organisations that accommodate the UAMs applying for international protection usually request the guardianship (either institutional or personal guardianship) of the UAM who has introduced his application. Different from the ad-hoc administrator, the guardian is assisting and supporting the UAM in all daily life affairs, such as social guidance, integration, education, medical care, acquisition of language skills, leisure activities, etc. In regard to education, the overall aim in Luxembourg is to integrate migrant children, independent of their immigration status, into the general educational system as soon as possible. The latter has experienced a diversification of its offer with a number of specialised measures and services. Together with leisure and extracurricular activities, school is considered to be one of the main contributors to the overall well-being and integration of UAMs into the Luxembourgish society. There are no integration measures that specifically target UAMs. There are no specific transition measures or procedures for UAMs who are approaching their majority, neither in regard to the accommodation and guardianship arrangements, nor in the general context of integration. The organisations responsible for the accommodation and care of the UAMs provide them with a supervision and support according to their specific individual needs. This is also true for the respective legal framework of the UAM, including eventual extensions of residence permits. The return of UAMs is considered to be rare in the Luxembourgish context. As mentioned earlier, this is related to the fact that the large majority of UAMs applying for international protection are close to the age of majority or have already reached majority when a final decision on their application is issued. Furthermore, although foreseen by the Immigration Law, Luxembourg does not carry out forced returns of persons considered to be unaccompanied minors. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM), responsible for (assisted) voluntary returns, reported that they have approximately one voluntary return of an UAM every two years. In 2017, following the recommendation of the evaluation of the Schengen acquis in the area of return in Luxembourg, the government adopted the creation of a new commission with the function of assessing the best interest of the child in the context of return of UAMs. This commission entered into force at the beginning of 2018 and is composed of members of the prosecution service, the National Childhood Office (ONE), the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI), and finally the Directorate of Immigration, which is chairing the commission. In addition, the ad-hoc administrator is invited to attend the commission meeting for the minor s/he represents. Based on the elements of his/her application, an individual opinion assessing the best interest of the child, in the context of his/her return, will be given for each minor. One of the major reported challenges is the appointment of legal representatives of UAMs (ad-hoc administrator and guardian), as well as the lack of precision of the legal provisions in this context. In the context of return, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they are faced with challenges in regard to getting in contact with the respective countries of origin as well as in regard to cases of applicants not telling the truth. One of the main good practices that has been identified by a number of stakeholders are the new care and accommodation arrangements, allowing to house UAMs in specifically dedicated reception facilities with a 24/7 supervision, depending on the availability of these facilities. In the same context, it was reported that it is of great importance to provide the minors with an environment of trust and support, to listen to them and to reassure them in order to be able to understand their current situation. Particularly the approach of supporting them in elaborating a life plan or life project (“projet de vie”) is considered as being very important for the stability and general well-being as well as for the integration of the UAMs. In addition, it is also important to support them in other matters of integration, such as education, acquisition of language skills, extracurricular activities, etc. In the context of return, Directorate of Immigration reported the newly concluded agreement with IOM in order to conduct family assessments of UAMs in the countries of origin as a good practice. On the one hand, this assessment is one element that will be taken into consideration in the examination of the application of the minor. On the other hand, it helps in assessing the best interest of the child in the event of a return if the application is rejected. [less ▲]

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See detailNetzWerk
Böwen, Petra UL

Report (2018)

"NetzWerk- Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen ... [more ▼]

"NetzWerk- Wëssenschaft trëfft Praxis, Politik an Ëffentlechkeet" ist eine regelmäßig erscheinende Publikation und dokumentiert die vielfältigen Angebote des PraxisBüros. Das PraxisBüro bietet allen Akteuren der Sozialen Arbeit Vernetzung, Plattformen, Veranstaltungen, Informationen aus Luxemburg und der Großregion. Das Schwerpunktthema dieser Ausgabe: "Die Bedeutung der Sozialen Arbeit für die luxemburgische Gesellschaft- Stand der Dinge, Herausforderungen, Perspektiven" fußt auf dem 5. Praxis- und Kontakttag 2017. Es werden u.a. Ergebnisse der Arbeitsmarktbeobachtung in den Feldern der Sozialen Arbeit und Diskussionen mit Akteuren aus Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik zur Thematik dargestellt. [less ▲]

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See detailThe D²Rwanda Study: March 2018 Report
Kallestrup, Per; Vögele, Claus UL; Uwizihiwe, JeanPaul et al

Report (2018)

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed ... [more ▼]

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed in collaboration with Aarhus University (AU) and the University of Luxembourg (UL), and under the auspices of the University of Rwanda and Rwanda Biomedical Centre. The project involves two PhD students, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe (enrolled at AU) and Charilaos Lygidakis (enrolled at UL), and is kindly sponsored by the Karen Elise Jensens Foundation, alongside AU and UL. In this report we wished to narrate what we had been working on for the past two years: from the first steps to understanding better the context and mapping the territory; from obtaining the necessary authorisations to developing the app and translating the questionnaires. [less ▲]

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See detailFaithful Semantical Embedding of a Dyadic Deontic Logic in HOL
Benzmüller, Christoph UL; Farjami, Ali UL; Parent, Xavier UL

Report (2018)

A shallow semantical embedding of a dyadic deontic logic by Carmo and Jones in classical higher-order logic is presented. This embedding is proven sound and complete, that is, faithful. The work presented ... [more ▼]

A shallow semantical embedding of a dyadic deontic logic by Carmo and Jones in classical higher-order logic is presented. This embedding is proven sound and complete, that is, faithful. The work presented here provides the theoretical foundation for the implementation and automation of dyadic deontic logic within off-the-shelf higher-order theorem provers and proof assistants. [less ▲]

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See detailAdministration parlementaire, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2018)

Administration parlementaire, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg dans une démarche néo-institutionnaliste

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See detailUniversity of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES) Fall 2017 Newsletter
Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley; Paravantis, Spero UL

Report (2018)

The Fall 2017 newsletter of the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES). I was a Visiting Scholar at IES from August 2017 to Feb 2018, and from March 1st 2018, I will ... [more ▼]

The Fall 2017 newsletter of the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of European Studies (IES). I was a Visiting Scholar at IES from August 2017 to Feb 2018, and from March 1st 2018, I will become an IES Senior Fellow. My bio is on page 8, and summaries of my lectures are on page 30 (Migration) and 31 (WWI and WWII Reparations and European Integration). [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings - 2017 ILILAS Distinguished Lectures
Bouvry, Pascal UL; Bisdorff, Raymond; Schommer, Christoph UL et al

Report (2018)

The Proceedings summarizes the 12 lectures that have taken place within the ILIAS Dinstguished Lecture series 2017. It contains a brief abstract of the talks as well as some additional information about ... [more ▼]

The Proceedings summarizes the 12 lectures that have taken place within the ILIAS Dinstguished Lecture series 2017. It contains a brief abstract of the talks as well as some additional information about each speaker. [less ▲]

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See detailParlements et Gouvernance économique européenne: Comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2018)

Gouvernance économique européenne : Comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg, dans une perspective ... [more ▼]

Gouvernance économique européenne : Comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg, dans une perspective néo-institutionnaliste [less ▲]

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See detailTutorial Big Data Analytics: Overview and Practical Examples
Varrette, Sébastien UL

Report (2018)

This tutorial will offer a synthetic view of Big Data Analytics challenges, the tools permitting to address these challenges and focus on one of these tool through a practical session with a set of ... [more ▼]

This tutorial will offer a synthetic view of Big Data Analytics challenges, the tools permitting to address these challenges and focus on one of these tool through a practical session with a set of concrete examples. Level: beginner - advanced [less ▲]

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See detailOn Rational Entailment for Propositional Typicality Logic
Casini, Giovanni UL; Meyer, Thomas; Varzinczak, Ivan et al

Report (2018)

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, obtained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator capturing the most typical (alias normal or conventional ... [more ▼]

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, obtained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator capturing the most typical (alias normal or conventional) situations in which a given sentence holds. The semantics of PTL is in terms of ranked models as studied in the well-known KLM approach to preferential reasoning and therefore KLM-style rational consequence relations can be embedded in PTL. In spite of the non-monotonic features introduced by the semantics adopted for the typicality operator, the obvious Tarskian definition of entailment for PTL remains monotonic and is therefore not appropriate in many contexts. Our first important result is an impossibility theorem showing that a set of proposed postulates that at first all seem appropriate for a notion of entailment with regard to typicality cannot be satisfied simultaneously. Closer inspection reveals that this result is best interpreted as an argument for advocating the development of more than one type of PTL entailment. In the spirit of this interpretation, we investigate three different (semantic) versions of entailment for PTL, each one based on the definition of rational closure as introduced by Lehmann and Magidor for KLM-style conditionals, and constructed using different notions of minimality. [less ▲]

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See detailThere is no one human scale - Reflections on urban development practice in Luxembourg
Carr, Constance UL; Lutz, Rebecca; Schutz, Kevin

Report (2018)

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See detailThe Hague Conference on Private International Law "Judgments Convention"
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; de Miguel Asensio, Miguel; Franzina, Pietro et al

Report (2018)

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, provides an assessment of the ongoing work of ... [more ▼]

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, provides an assessment of the ongoing work of the Hague Conference on the Judgments Convention. The analysis focuses on the November 2017 Draft Convention, its interplay with international and Union instruments in the field, as well as its potential future impact on the regulation of civil and commercial cross-border disputes. [less ▲]

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See detailNational Education Reports in Selected European Countries.
Breit, Simone; Gurtner-Reinthaler, Saya; Haugberg, Tonje et al

Report (2018)

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See detailData Visualisation
During, Marten UL

Report (2018)

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See detailÉvolution en compréhension écrite en allemand et en mathématiques entre la classe de 3e et la classe de 9e
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Avec les tests ÉpStan de l’automne 2016, une série de données qui donne une vue de l’évolution des compétences scolaires entre le grade 3 (cycle 3.1) et le grade 9 (5e ou 9e) est disponible pour la ... [more ▼]

Avec les tests ÉpStan de l’automne 2016, une série de données qui donne une vue de l’évolution des compétences scolaires entre le grade 3 (cycle 3.1) et le grade 9 (5e ou 9e) est disponible pour la première fois. Le présent chapitre donne de premiers éléments sur l’évolution longitudinale des compétences dans les domaines de la compréhension écrite en allemand et des mathématiques. Pour cela, les résultats des tests des cohortes d’élèves des ÉpStan 2010 du grade 3 (cycle 3.1) seront comparés aux performances au grade 9 (5e ou 9e) au cours de l’année 2016. [less ▲]

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