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See detailUsing Passive Data Collection Methods to Learn Complex Mobility Patterns: An Exploratory Analysis
Toader, Bogdan UL; Cantelmo, Guido UL; Popescu, Mioara et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

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See detailComparing Offline and Online Testing of Deep Neural Networks: An Autonomous Car Case Study
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

There is a growing body of research on developing testing techniques for Deep Neural Networks (DNN). We distinguish two general modes of testing for DNNs: Offline testing where DNNs are tested as ... [more ▼]

There is a growing body of research on developing testing techniques for Deep Neural Networks (DNN). We distinguish two general modes of testing for DNNs: Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained independently from the DNNs under test, and online testing where DNNs are embedded into a specific application and tested in a close-loop mode in interaction with the application environment. In addition, we identify two sources for generating test datasets for DNNs: Datasets obtained from real-life and datasets generated by simulators. While offline testing can be used with datasets obtained from either sources, online testing is largely confined to using simulators since online testing within real-life applications can be time consuming, expensive and dangerous. In this paper, we study the following two important questions aiming to compare test datasets and testing modes for DNNs: First, can we use simulator-generated data as a reliable substitute to real-world data for the purpose of DNN testing? Second, how do online and offline testing results differ and complement each other? Though these questions are generally relevant to all autonomous systems, we study them in the context of automated driving systems where, as study subjects, we use DNNs automating end-to-end control of cars' steering actuators. Our results show that simulator-generated datasets are able to yield DNN prediction errors that are similar to those obtained by testing DNNs with real-life datasets. Further, offline testing is more optimistic than online testing as many safety violations identified by online testing could not be identified by offline testing, while large prediction errors generated by offline testing always led to severe safety violations detectable by online testing. [less ▲]

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See detailA short Survey on the Cyber Security in Control Systems
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Voos, Holger UL

Scientific Conference (2020, July)

In the present survey paper, we give a short, yet exhaustive state-of-the-art about the cyber-security applied to control systems, especially the event-based strategy. Indeed, in the past few years, due ... [more ▼]

In the present survey paper, we give a short, yet exhaustive state-of-the-art about the cyber-security applied to control systems, especially the event-based strategy. Indeed, in the past few years, due to a highest degree of connectivity in modern systems, new related control-specific cyber-physical systems security challengesarise and novel approaches integrating the cyber aspect are developed.Our goal in this paper is then to provide an overview of attack-modeling and security analysis approaches in recent works thatexplore networked control systems subject to cyber-attacks attacks. To this end, we look at the control, estimation, and modeling problems. [less ▲]

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See detailConstcamer Paintings as Epistemic Images: Early Modern Theaters of Wisdom
Koeleman, Floor UL

Scientific Conference (2020, April)

This paper argues, against existing literature, that 17th-cent. constcamer paintings were objects to think with, functioning as the two-dimensional space of artificial memory. In turn, these artworks ... [more ▼]

This paper argues, against existing literature, that 17th-cent. constcamer paintings were objects to think with, functioning as the two-dimensional space of artificial memory. In turn, these artworks complicate conventional definitions of epistemic images more broadly. I focus on an analysis of constcamer paintings accounting for the reception of the ancients and the mnemonic and propaedeutic role of images, entailing concepts such as wonder or thauma (from Greek θεάομαι), the drive to gather knowledge, memory as the locus of this ‘collection’, and recollecting as the intellectual process of interaction with memorized knowledge. The term inventor, referring to the creator of a given collection, is derived from the rhetorical technique for the retrieval of information. The theatre or ‘place for viewing’ provided the physical context for the collected wisdom. Inventors of constcamer paintings – often artists themselves – vitally participated in knowledge formation contributing to contemporary intellectual debates. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing Overloading Incidents on Smart Grids: A Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization Approach
Antoniadis, Nikolaos UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Sifaleras, Angelo et al

Scientific Conference (2020, February)

Cable overloading is one of the most critical disturbances that may occur in smart grids, as it can cause damage to the distribution power lines. Therefore, the circuits are protected by fuses so that ... [more ▼]

Cable overloading is one of the most critical disturbances that may occur in smart grids, as it can cause damage to the distribution power lines. Therefore, the circuits are protected by fuses so that, the overload could trip the fuse, opening the circuit, and stopping the flow and heating. However, sustained overloads, even if they are below the safety limits, could also damage the wires. To prevent overload, smart grid operators can switch the fuses on or off to protect the circuits, or remotely curtail the over-producing/over-consuming users. Nevertheless, making the most appropriate decision is a daunting decision-making task, notably due to contractual and technical obligations. In this paper, we define and formulate the overloading prevention problem as a Multiobjective Mixed Integer Quadratically Constrained Program. We also suggest a solution method using a combinatorial optimization approach with a state-of-the-art exact solver. We evaluate this approach for this real-world problem together with Creos Luxembourg S.A., the leading grid operator in Luxembourg, and show that our method can suggest optimal countermeasures to operators facing potential overloading incidents. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Organiser, European Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee Meeting
Wolff, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2020, February)

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See detailWhen a Master Dies: Speculation and Asset Float”
Penasse, Julien UL; Renneboog,, Luc; Scheinkman, José A.

Scientific Conference (2020, January 30)

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See detailWhy is the Market Skewness-Return Relationship Negative?
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January 23)

The observed negative relationship between market skewness and excess return or the negative price of market skewness risk in the cross-section of stock returns is somewhat counterintuitive when we ... [more ▼]

The observed negative relationship between market skewness and excess return or the negative price of market skewness risk in the cross-section of stock returns is somewhat counterintuitive when we consider the usual interpretation of e.g. option-implied skewness as an indicator of jump risk or downside risk. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are factors affecting option-implied market skewness other than jump risk in the stock market. In this paper, I find that price pressure associated with “crowded trades” of mutual funds is an important endogenous factor. Given that retail investors are prone to herding, the directional trading of mutual funds is correlated, and their collective actions can generate short-term price pressure on aggregate stock prices. Short sellers systematically exploit these patterns not only in the equity lending market, but also in the options market. In line with this economic channel, I find that firstly, the significant negative relationship between market skewness and returns becomes insignificant, once I control for price pressure. Secondly, the negative relationship is only present for the “bad” downside component of risk-neutral skewness, associated with out-of-the-money put options. For the “good” upside component of risk-neutral skewness, associated with out-of-the-money call options, the relationship is always positive. Thirdly, price pressure affects the skewness-return relationship, which can be clearly distinguished from the impact of flows on the volatility-return relationship in terms of the leverage effect. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents’ perceptions of instructional quality: Validating 3 dimensions on a lesson-to-lesson basis
Talic, Irma UL; Möller, Jens; Niepel, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January 17)

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See detail„Entweder man kann’s oder man lässt es bleiben.“ Kritische Gedanken zur Ausbildung von Blasmusikdirigenten
Sagrillo, Damien UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January 17)

Diesen Karl Böhm in den Mund gelegten Satz passt zu seinem Naturell. Sein Sarkasmus und Zynismus waren bekannt. Karl Böhm hat nie ein Dirigierstudium absolviert. Dennoch gehörte er zu den Großen seines ... [more ▼]

Diesen Karl Böhm in den Mund gelegten Satz passt zu seinem Naturell. Sein Sarkasmus und Zynismus waren bekannt. Karl Böhm hat nie ein Dirigierstudium absolviert. Dennoch gehörte er zu den Großen seines Fachs. In der Fachzeitschrift „das Orchester“ ist im Zusammenhang mit dem berufsausbildenden Angebot für Blasorchesterdirigenten folgendes zu lesen: „Marschmusik oder leichtere Muse haben keinen Platz im Curriculum, die Konzentration liegt auf der Literatur für Sinfonisches Blasorchester“ Diese Aussage gehört kritisch hinterfragt. In meinem Vortrag steht infolgedessen zweierlei im Vordergrund. Zum einen: Was ist ein sinfonisches Blasorchester bzw. eine Bläserphilharmonie – wo kommen die Begriffe her, worauf zielen sie ab? Zum anderen: Marchmusik und sog. „leichte Muse“ gehören zum Wesen lokaler Musikvereine. Wieso finden diese als Tradition zu bezeichnenden Genres der Blasmusik in der Ausbildung keinen Platz? In der Zusammenfassung der beiden voraus gestellten Fragen lassen sich Schlussfolgerungen für die Ausbildung von Blasmusikdirigenten ziehen. [less ▲]

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See detailConditionality in the European Union External Migration Policy – A Critical Appraisal
Silga, Janine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, January)

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See detailUnderstanding Walking Meetings: Drivers and Barriers
Damen, Ida; Lallemand, Carine UL; Brankaert, Rens et al

Scientific Conference (2020)

There is increased interest in reducing sedentary behavior of office workers to combat the negative health effects of prolonged sitting. Walking meetings offer a promising solution to this problem as they ... [more ▼]

There is increased interest in reducing sedentary behavior of office workers to combat the negative health effects of prolonged sitting. Walking meetings offer a promising solution to this problem as they facilitate a physically active way of working. To inform future development of technologies supporting these type of meetings, in-depth qualitative insights into people’s experiences of walking meetings are needed. We conducted semi-structured walking interviews (N=16) to identify key drivers and barriers for walking meetings in a living lab setting by using the ‘WorkWalk’. The ‘WorkWalk’ is a 1.8 km walking route indicated by a dotted blue line with outdoor meeting points, integrated into the room booking system. Our findings provide insights into how walking meetings are experienced and affect the set-up and social dynamics of meetings. We propose design recommendations for the development of future technologies and service design elements to support walking meetings and active ways of working. [less ▲]

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See detailMeeting Designers Where They Are: Using Industry Events as a Research Venue for HCI and Design Methods Development
Lockton, Dan; Lallemand, Carine UL

Scientific Conference (2020)

There is much work in the CHI community about the ‘industry-academia divide’, and how to bridge it. One key crossover between HCI/UX scientists and practitioners is the development and use of tools and ... [more ▼]

There is much work in the CHI community about the ‘industry-academia divide’, and how to bridge it. One key crossover between HCI/UX scientists and practitioners is the development and use of tools and methods—boundary objects between academia and practice. Among other forms of collaboration, there is an underdeveloped opportunity for academics to make use of industry events (conferences, meetups, design jams) as a research venue in the context of tool and method development. This paper describes three cases from work in academia-industry engagement over the last decade, in which workshops or experiments have been run at industry events as a way of trialling and developing tools directly with practitioners. We discuss advantages of this approach and extract key insights and practical implications, highlighting how the CHI community might use this method more widely, gathering relevant research outcomes while contributing to knowledge exchange between academia and practice. [less ▲]

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See detailAdversarial Embedding: A robust and elusive Steganography and Watermarking technique
Ghamizi, Salah UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020)

We propose adversarial embedding, a new steganography and watermarking technique that embeds secret information within images. The key idea of our method is to use deep neural networks for image ... [more ▼]

We propose adversarial embedding, a new steganography and watermarking technique that embeds secret information within images. The key idea of our method is to use deep neural networks for image classification and adversarial attacks to embed secret information within images. Thus, we use the attacks to embed an encoding of the message within images and the related deep neural network outputs to extract it. The key properties of adversarial attacks (invisible perturbations, nontransferability, resilience to tampering) offer guarantees regarding the confidentiality and the integrity of the hidden messages. We empirically evaluate adversarial embedding using more than 100 models and 1,000 messages. Our results confirm that our embedding passes unnoticed by both humans and steganalysis methods, while at the same time impedes illicit retrieval of the message (less than 13% recovery rate when the interceptor has some knowledge about our model), and is resilient to soft and (to some extent) aggressive image tampering (up to 100% recovery rate under jpeg compression). We further develop our method by proposing a new type of adversarial attack which improves the embedding density (amount of hidden information) of our method to up to 10 bits per pixel. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance evaluation of weight-constrained conditioned portfolio optimization
Schiltz, Jang UL; Boissaux, Marc UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 20)

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See detailFrom home to early childhood education: beliefs, language ideologies and OPOL
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 18)

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See detailHome literacy environment and family language policy of immigrant families in Luxembourg
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebic, Dzoen Dominique UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 18)

Early literacy skills are critical for children’s later academic achievement. A wealth of research showed that children’s home languages should not be abandoned, as they are crucial for promoting dynamic ... [more ▼]

Early literacy skills are critical for children’s later academic achievement. A wealth of research showed that children’s home languages should not be abandoned, as they are crucial for promoting dynamic multilingualism, assuring cross-linguistic transfer and developing identities. To explore home literacy environment and family language policy of language minority preschool children in Luxembourg, we obtained 603 parent questionnaires, tested 226 children age 4 to 6 in their home languages and Luxembourgish, and interviewed 31 families. The results from the questionnaires showed that the home resources and parent involvement influenced children’s language awareness and their print knowledge irrespective of parent’s education and their wealth. Concerning children’s competences in Luxembourgish, children with positive attitudes towards their school did better than their peers in other schools. In the interviews, parents explained that maintaining home language is important for keeping connections with family, friends and their culture. This is the language parents feel emotionally connected to and the easiest to transmit to their children. Language maintenance is mostly achieved through conversations, movies, games and books in the home languages, children’s attendance of language schools on weekends, celebrations of traditions as well as holidays in the native country of the parents. The home language is, however, not something parents enforce too strictly, as they mostly correct the children’s linguistic mistakes by simple repetition. It is often with great pride that parents report their children having an excellent proficiency in their home language. Finally, through our professional development training in translanguaging we are helping teachers to integrate children’s different home languages and cultures into the classroom and strengthen the home-school collaboration in order to support children’s well-being, learning and identities. [less ▲]

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See detailYoung emergent multilingual children's agency in learning new language in trilingual Luxembourg
Mortini, Simone UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 14)

Studies on translanguaging suggest that opportunities to use languages flexibly in the classroom may give children some agency over their language use and facilitate their language learning (García ... [more ▼]

Studies on translanguaging suggest that opportunities to use languages flexibly in the classroom may give children some agency over their language use and facilitate their language learning (García & Kleifgen, 2010). In the emerging field of preschool bilingual education, scholars investigate the concept of child agency in relation to the learning of multiple languages (Schwartz, 2018). Children were shown to actively and creatively contribute to their language learning through choosing to interact in a particular language. Studies on young children’s translanguaging and agency nevertheless remain scarce, especially in multilingual contexts involving more than two languages (Schwartz et al., forthcoming). The present study focuses on eight children’s agentive behaviour in multilingual practices in two formal and two non-formal early childhood education institutions participating in a larger longitudinal research project on the development of multilingual pedagogies in trilingual Luxembourg. I drew on multidimensional qualitative research methods, including 65 days of participant observations, fieldnotes, video-recordings and semi-structured interviews with the practitioners. The findings show that all the children made use of various non-linguistic strategies and at least four named languages and translanguaged for various purposes (e.g. demonstrating knowledge, meaning making). Moreover, they showed two types of agentive behaviour: ‘participatory agency’ (e.g. adapting learning to practitioners’ requirements) and ‘controlling agency’ (e.g. influencing or changing peers’ or practitioners’ language use). The findings should deepen our understanding of the interplay between agency and translanguaging. García, O., & Kleifgen, J. (2010). Educating Emergent Bilinguals. Policies, Programs and Practices for English Language Learners. New York: Teachers College Press. Schwartz, M. (2018). Preschool Bilingual Education: Agency in Interactions between Children, Teachers, and Parents. Dordrecht: Springer. Schwartz, M., Kirsch, C., & Mortini, S. (forthcoming). Young children’s language-based agency in multilingual contexts in Luxembourg and Israel. (Applied Linguistic Review). Manuscript accepted for publication. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy is the Market Skewness-Return Relationship Negative?
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 13)

The observed negative relationship between market skewness and excess return or the negative price of market skewness risk in the cross-section of stock returns is somewhat counterintuitive when we ... [more ▼]

The observed negative relationship between market skewness and excess return or the negative price of market skewness risk in the cross-section of stock returns is somewhat counterintuitive when we consider the usual interpretation of e.g. option-implied skewness as an indicator of jump risk or downside risk. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are factors affecting option-implied market skewness other than jump risk in the stock market. In this paper, I find that price pressure associated with “crowded trades” of mutual funds is an important endogenous factor. Given that retail investors are prone to herding, the directional trading of mutual funds is correlated, and their collective actions can generate short-term price pressure on aggregate stock prices. Short sellers systematically exploit these patterns not only in the equity lending market, but also in the options market. In line with this economic channel, I find that firstly, the significant negative relationship between market skewness and returns becomes insignificant, once I control for price pressure. Secondly, the negative relationship is only present for the “bad” downside component of risk-neutral skewness, associated with out-of-the-money put options. For the “good” upside component of risk-neutral skewness, associated with out-of-the-money call options, the relationship is always positive. Thirdly, price pressure affects the skewness-return relationship, which can be clearly distinguished from the impact of flows on the volatility-return relationship in terms of the leverage effect. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Vertical Land Movement estimates from the IGS TIGA combined solution to derive Global Mean Sea Level changes
Bogusz, Janusz; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, December 13)

Global mean sea level (GMSL) is now widely recognized to have risen between 1 to 2 mm/yr depending on location since the 20th century. Prior to the satellite altimetry era, GMSL was primarily estimated ... [more ▼]

Global mean sea level (GMSL) is now widely recognized to have risen between 1 to 2 mm/yr depending on location since the 20th century. Prior to the satellite altimetry era, GMSL was primarily estimated from a set of secular tide gauge records relative to coastal benchmarks. Recent measurements of GPS (Global Positioning System) have been demonstrated as a useful tool of a direct estimate of Vertical Land Motion (VLM) induced by both long and short-term geophysical and human-induced processes in a geocentric reference frame. This presentation will provide the results of a combination performed using the CATREF software of three independent GPS daily solutions provided by British Isles continuous GNSS Facility – University of Luxembourg consortium (BLT), German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and University of La Rochelle (ULR) under the auspices of the Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG), that results in a spatially comprehensive map of VLM near or close to tide gauge benchmarks. The combination was performed in accordance with the second re-processing campaign (repro2) of the IGS (International GNSS Service). Long coastal tide gauge records from the archives maintained at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) were extracted for relative sea level estimates. To cross-compare the sea level rates over the years, we employed observations between 1900-2016. Then, the time series were cut and analyzed separately, ceteris paribus, for the period 1960-2016. This analysis was aimed at a cross-comparison of relative sea level trends and their changes over the years. The stochastic part of the tide gauge records was analyzed with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and assumed several different combinations of noise models with the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) providing a means to identify the preferred one. The relative sea level estimates were corrected by the inverted barometric effect to the tide-gauge records using data from the 20th century Reanalysis project version V2C, the effect of wind stress on the surface of the ocean in both, zonal and meridional components, as well as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) influencing Pacific tide gauge records. The GPS-based velocities were corrected by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effect using ICE-6G(VM5a) model with associated geoid rate and post seismic decays using ITRF2014 estimates. Also, environmental loading models were employed to account for present-day elastic loading in VLM. The Mean Sea Level (MSL) trends from tide gauges and VLM-corrected MSL trends using GIA model (TG+GIA) and the TIGA combination (TG+TIGA) were determined. Our final reconstruction of GMSL based on the MSL records from 1900 to 2016 where the VLM uncertainty is smaller than 0.7 mm/yr indicate a long-term trend of 1.75 +/- 0.2 mm/yr and is in good agreement with several similar determinations. [less ▲]

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See detailConventional EO Satellites vs. CubeSats; FDL - AI flood detection onboard a Nano Satellite
Backes, Dietmar UL; Schumann, Guy; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 11)

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See detailParameter identification problem in bimaterial human skin and sensitivity analysis : Uncertainties in biomechanics of skin
Sutula, Danas; Elouneg, Aflah; Sensale, Marco UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, December 09)

The proposed paper concerns the prediction of the numerical response of a biomechanical structure submitted to an unknown external loading state. The methodology is based on homogeneous and then ... [more ▼]

The proposed paper concerns the prediction of the numerical response of a biomechanical structure submitted to an unknown external loading state. The methodology is based on homogeneous and then heterogeneous structures such as healthy or pathological cutaneous tissues that can be mechanically tested in vivo under a patchy knowledge of boundary conditions. Experimental data corresponding to the extension of a piece of skin located between two pads with displacement enslavement, represent input data to the numerical model. Data are reaction force on one pad and displacement field between the two pads and all around. The numerical model consists of a representation of the bi-material domain geometry with neo-hookean behaviors. The boundary conditions and loadings of the experimental extension test are imposed. The materials parameters have been identified by inverse method starting from a constrained cost function minimizing the difference between the calculated displacements field and experimental displacements field obtained by digital image correlation and taking into account the reaction force as a constraint. An analysis of the model sensitivity to material parameters is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical parameters identification of keloid and surrounding healthy skin using Digital Image Correlation measurements in vivo
Elouneg, Aflah; Sutula, Danas; Sensale, Marco UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, December 09)

The human skin behaves as an elastic membrane initially prestressed but not uniformly. The presence of anatomical sites favorable to the appearance of some tumors, a keloid in our case, while other sites ... [more ▼]

The human skin behaves as an elastic membrane initially prestressed but not uniformly. The presence of anatomical sites favorable to the appearance of some tumors, a keloid in our case, while other sites never develop them attests to the importance of the mechanical environment of the tissue. Thus, a mechanical characterization of the tumored skin is necessary to understand the keloid expansion from a mechanical point of view. Our case study consists in modeling a bi-material structure composed of a keloid skin surrounded by healthy skin located on upper left arm of a young female. From the experimental measurements in vivo, by combining force sensor, displacement sensor and Digital Image Correlation techniques, we perform a mechanical analysis to characterize the mechanical stress fields over the entire area and on the interface ‘healthy skin/keloid skin’. Since the mechanical behavior of the tumorous skin is unknown, many physical models can be implemented and assessed very easily inside the specific digital software to fit with the real data. Once a set of mechanical parameters for both the healthy skin and the keloid skin are identified, the stress fields around the keloid are calculated. Next steps consist in determining matching preferential directions in order to define as precisely as possible the specifications of a device for preventing the growth of keloids. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychiatric knowledge dissimination at international conferences (1860-1914): 'those who have the interest of science at heart, don't distinguish between nationalities'
Andersen, Eva UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 06)

The amount of international conferences that were organised over the nineteenth century increased rapidly, and formed an ideal environment for discussions amongst peers and establishing knowledge ... [more ▼]

The amount of international conferences that were organised over the nineteenth century increased rapidly, and formed an ideal environment for discussions amongst peers and establishing knowledge transfers. Medical and psychiatric conferences were no exception. However, a study into psychiatric conferences on a larger scale has not yet been conducted. Adopting a transnational perspective is essential, and while this approach is gaining more attention from historians more generally, it is only slowly reaching the history of psychiatry. To gain insights into the (inter)national knowledge dissemination that happened within psychiatry, we will examine different organisational aspects such as the locations where conferences were held, its organisation and the subjects and questions that were included in the conference program, as well as studying the mutual connections between congresses and the connections between the participants. This will help to discover the key players and whether it was well-known psychiatrists that were most involved in these international conferences. These interwoven sub-questions will help to establish in how far an international community existed within psychiatry and thus if such international congresses were an epicentre of transnational knowledge dissemination or if they were rather a manifestation of national encounters. This research is based on the minutes and membership lists found within conference proceedings of the “Congrès internationale médecine mentale”, “Congrès international de neurologie, psychiatrie et de physiologie”, “Congrès international de l’assistance aux aliéné” and the “Congrès international de médecine” that also often included a section dedicated to psychiatry. These all took place between the 1860’s and the first decade of the twentieth century. [less ▲]

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See detailAccommodation of non-nationals in Luxembourg
Wronska, Iwona; Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 05)

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg within its current borders was established in the end of 19th century. In the space of less than 150 years the population of this state more than doubled - largely ... [more ▼]

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg within its current borders was established in the end of 19th century. In the space of less than 150 years the population of this state more than doubled - largely attributable to immigration. Today, 48% of the population are foreigners. We would like to argue that the current immigration policy of Luxembourg is based on the strategy of accommodation. We can identify three major pillars of this strategy. The first pillar creates welcome conditions to adaptation within the host society. The second pillar brings liberal provisions for naturalization and the third pillar offers open and generous admission of refugees. [less ▲]

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See detailDreaming of Constructivist Technology Integration Strategies in Future Teacher Students
Reuter, Robert UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 27)

Based on previous experiences in preparing future teachers for technology integration (Reuter & Busana, 2017), and based on the recommendations from Kolb’s (2017) Triple E framework about effective uses ... [more ▼]

Based on previous experiences in preparing future teachers for technology integration (Reuter & Busana, 2017), and based on the recommendations from Kolb’s (2017) Triple E framework about effective uses of ICT in education, we have adapted the Educational Technology course in our Initial Teacher Training. Over the years, we have indeed observed that, when given the choice of the type of technology integration strategies, many students designed ICT-based learning and teaching scenarios that implemented a rather teacher-centred teaching model (Roblyer & Doering, 2013). These scenarios were often far from innovative nor did they implement the disruptive potential of ICT in education (Christensen, Horn & Johnson, 2008). In the winter semester 2018-2019 we thus decided to ask our students to design and develop constructivist technology integration scenarios. We assessed the success of this adaptation with the help of our own observations, the semester reports produced by our students and their answers to an end-of-semester course evaluation. In general, we saw that students were able to design rather attractive constructivist learning activities. We also observed that our students were quite surprised that such activities do not require complicated and expensive tools, but that they can be implemented with standard productivity tools. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Multilingual Pedagogies in Early Childhood: a review of the project MuLiPEC
Aleksic, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Mortini, Simone UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, November 27)

Developing Multilingual Pedagogies in Early Childhood: a review of the project The project MuLiPEC (2016-2019) addresses the need for multilingual pedagogies in early childhood education in Luxembourg. It ... [more ▼]

Developing Multilingual Pedagogies in Early Childhood: a review of the project The project MuLiPEC (2016-2019) addresses the need for multilingual pedagogies in early childhood education in Luxembourg. It offered a professional development (PD) course to develop the practitioners’ knowledge and skills in relation to multilingualism and effective pedagogies as well as their practices, and analysed the effects of the PD on the practitioners and the children’s languaging. We offered a first 15-hour course to 46 practitioners from formal and non-formal education settings. Of these, seven continued during one academic year. They were coached and took part in six network meetings where we discussed their practices. To analyse the results, we drew on observations of the PD and in the research settings, video-recorded activities, and interviews. The results show that all 46 participants opened up to multilingual education and deepened their understanding of multilingualism, language development and multilingual pedagogies. Furthermore, the seven focus practitioners implemented activities in multiple languages and deployed effective language supportive strategies. Five of them developed holistic and child-centred multilingual pedagogies. This paper presents these positive findings and raises questions related to the sustainability of PD course and the need to continue the implementation of these effective pedagogies. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Challenges and opportunities
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Dzoen, Bebic-Crestany

Scientific Conference (2019, November 27)

In Luxembourg, the new law in 2017 has declared multilingual early education mandatory. Not only that teachers need to help children develop their Luxembourgish, but also they need to familiarize them ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourg, the new law in 2017 has declared multilingual early education mandatory. Not only that teachers need to help children develop their Luxembourgish, but also they need to familiarize them with French and value their home languages. In order to support preschool teachers in this endeavour, our project aims to: (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging, (2) involve children’s families to reinforce home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children’s cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We use a panoply of measures to reach our aims: focus groups and teacher questionnaires (aim 1), parent questionnaires and interviews (aim 2), a test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home languages, teacher assessment of children’s socio-emotional development and video observations with children (aim 3). Translanguaging, the main topic of our 22 hour PD course (June – December 2019), is the use of a full linguistic repertoire to make meaning (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). In eight sessions, we explore multilingual ecology, parental involvement, and oracy and early literacy. We will present preliminary findings of the focus groups with teachers and tests in early literacy and numeracy in children’s home and school languages. Challenges and opportunities that emerged during the course will be explored as well. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Entstehung einer Hauptstadtregion als deutsch-belgische Beziehungsgeschichte
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 22)

Vom 14. Mai - 23. Juli und vom 19. September - 31.Oktober 1972 fand zunächst im Kölner Museum Schnütgen und dann in den Brüsseler Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire die bis heute größte Schau rheinisch ... [more ▼]

Vom 14. Mai - 23. Juli und vom 19. September - 31.Oktober 1972 fand zunächst im Kölner Museum Schnütgen und dann in den Brüsseler Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire die bis heute größte Schau rheinisch-maasländischer Kunst statt. Unter dem Titel „Rhein und Maas. Kunst und Kultur 800-1400“ wurde sie zu einem großen Publikumserfolg, der auch in der Scientific Community der Kunsthistoriker einige Aufmerksamkeit erregte. Die Entstehung der Ausstellung sagt einiges über die Geschichte der Wissenschaftsbeziehungen zwischen Deutschland und Belgien seit 1945 aus, aber auch, so die Ausgangshypothese meines Beitrags, über die Veränderungen der in Belgien vorherrschenden Mental Maps von Deutschland seit der Verlagerung des politischen Schwerpunktes an den Rhein mit der Gründung der Bundesrepublik. Der belgische Deutschlanddiskurs knüpfte dabei durchaus an bereits bestehende Deutschlandbilder an, die gerade das Maasland als Zwischenraum inszenierten , doch kam durch das Zusammenrücken der westeuropäischen Länder im Zuge von Kaltem Krieg und beginnender europäischer Integration, gerade auch unter dem Signum des Abendlandes, eine neue Dimension ins Spiel. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich hob die rheinische Bonner Republik die durch den Ersten Weltkrieg hervorgerufene Distanz zwischen dem belgischen Staat und (West-)Deutschland auf, politikgeschichtlich fanden deutsche und belgische „Suche nach Sicherheit“ (E. Conze) ein enges Kooperationsfeld. Zum Zentrum der belgischen Aktivität im Rheinland wurde Köln, das nach dem durch die Wahl als Regierungssitz notwendig gewordenen Verlassen Bonns durch die belgischen Truppen in Deutschland 1950 zu deren neuem Hauptquartier wurde. Dort etablierte sich zudem rasch das Belgische Haus als Drehscheibe für politischen, konsularischen, aber auch kulturellen Austausch. Die Ausstellung „Rhein und Maas“ dient als Aufhänger für den Beitrag, der sowohl das Ende einer langen Nachkriegszeit als auch das Ankommen Belgiens in der Bonner Republik herausstellen kann. Auch die Anfang der 1970er Jahre erfolgten ersten gegenseitigen Staatsbesuche geben Aufschluss über Inszenierung und Wahrnehmung der Hauptstadtregion. Der Beitrag wirft somit eine beziehungsgeschichtliche Perspektive auf Bonn-Köln-Düsseldorf zwischen 1949 und den 1970er Jahren und fragt mit Bezug auf die Hauptstadtregion auf die belgische(n) Wahrnehmung(en) des Rheinischen, aber auch nach Rückwirkungen auf Brüssel als belgischer und europäischer Hauptstadt. [less ▲]

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See detailAu-delà du cours magistral: Vers des apprentissages autonomes et collaboratifs basés sur de « grandes questions »
Busana, Gilbert UL; Reuter, Robert UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 22)

Nous enseignions depuis quelques années un cours de première année sur "l'éducation à l'ère numérique", dans la formation initiale des futur-e-s enseignant-e-s du fondamental, sous forme d’un cours ... [more ▼]

Nous enseignions depuis quelques années un cours de première année sur "l'éducation à l'ère numérique", dans la formation initiale des futur-e-s enseignant-e-s du fondamental, sous forme d’un cours magistral afin de véhiculer certaines connaissances théoriques et pratiques dans ce domaine. Cependant, nous avons observé au cours des dernières années que (1) de nombreux étudiants échouaient à l'examen et que (2) beaucoup d'entre eux, lorsqu'ils étaient en 4e année, avaient oublié la plupart des fondements. Ces considérations nous ont amenés à repenser et à remanier nos méthodes d'enseignement et notre façon d'évaluer les résultats d'apprentissage des étudiant-e-s. Après une première implémentation de notre nouvelle approche pédagogique combinant diverses méthodes actives d'apprentissage au semestre d’hiver 2018 (décrite et réfléchie dans Reuter & Busana, 2018), nous avons effectué quelques modifications basées (a) sur nos propres observations et réflexions ainsi que (b) sur les commentaires des étudiant-e-s tirées de l’évaluation du cours (organisée par notre université). Dès à présent, plutôt que de les faire travailler sur de « grandes questions » (c.-à-d. des questions pour lesquelles il n'y a pas de réponses simples et faciles à consulter) au cours des séances en présentiel, nous demandons maintenant à nos étudiant-e-s (1) de construire individuellement des connaissances en amont du séminaire sur base de ressources fournies ou tirés de recherches bibliographiques autonomes ; (2) de les présenter, discuter et développer de manière collaborative en petits groupes pendant les séminaires ; puis (3) de les partager et discuter avec nous et leurs pairs et finalement (4) de les conserver dans un portfolio numérique personnel. L’évaluation des apprentissages des étudiant-e-s est effectuée à l’aide de ce portfolio numérique en fin de semestre. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Teachers’ stance, design, and shifts
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 14)

The school population in Luxembourg is highly socially, culturally, and linguistically diverse. The new law in 2017 has declared multilingual early education mandatory, with the focus not only on the ... [more ▼]

The school population in Luxembourg is highly socially, culturally, and linguistically diverse. The new law in 2017 has declared multilingual early education mandatory, with the focus not only on the development of Luxemburgish, but also familiarizing children with French and valuing their home languages. Thus, our project aims to: (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging to preschool teachers, (2) involve children’s families to reinforce home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children’s cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. With teachers, we use focus groups, questionnaires, and language portraits, with parents, we employ questionnaires and interviews, and with children, a test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language and video observations. Translanguaging is the use of a full linguistic repertoire to make meaning (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). Translanguaging pedagogy is the main topic of our 22 hour PD course (June – December 2019) for 40 teachers. In the focus groups, the teachers shared their negative translanguaging stance towards the use of children’s home languages in the classroom, convinced that it hindered the development of Luxembourgish. Teachers, however, in some instances incorporated a translanguaging design (e.g. multilingual stories, morning greetings) and translanguaging shift (e.g. translations by older children). The project addresses these negative translanguaging stances through practical activities and a close collaboration with parents, children and organisational stakeholders. The preliminary results from parent questionnaires and tests with children will provide a bigger picture of the effect of translanguaging pedagogy from our PD course on all the actors involved. References Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistic Review, 6(3), 281–307. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2004 Afghan Constitution and Islam Merits and Challenges
Al Hajjaji, Shams Al Din UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 11)

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See detailWorkplace bullying exposure and subjective well-being – The mediating role of the frustration of the need for relatedness. A longitudinal six-wave study
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 08)

Workplace bullying is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior. Drawing on self-determination theory, we propose that bullying ... [more ▼]

Workplace bullying is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior. Drawing on self-determination theory, we propose that bullying exposure thwarts employee’s need for relatedness with the result of decreased well-being. Studies examining these mechanisms used either a cross-sectional design (Trépanier et al., 2013) or a longitudinal design with (not theoretically justified) long time intervals (i.e., 12-month time lag; Trépanier et al., 2015). Therefore, the aim of our study was to test this mediation in a longitudinal design with much shorter time intervals (i.e. monthly), whether to see if the bullying exposure also shows short-term effects on well-being. A six-wave online survey design with monthly time lag was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The sample consists of 1,595 respondents (55.8% females, n=890, ageM = 36.9, ageSD =10.3). Workplace bullying exposure was assessed with the S-NAQ (Notelaers et al., 2018), frustration of the need for relatedness with the Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale (Bartholomew et al., 2011) and well-being with the WHO-5 well-being-index (Topp et al., 2015). Cross-lagged mediation analysis within a structural equation modeling framework confirmed the mediation model: Bullying exposure was significantly related to a change in frustration of relatedness and frustration of relatedness was significantly related to a change in well-being across all waves. The study findings advance the field through showing that bullying exposure has not only a long-term effect on well-being but also a short one, and that this effect is mediated through the frustration of relatedness. [less ▲]

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See detailDimensional and Social Comparison Effects on Domain-Specific Academic Self-Concepts and Interests with First- and Third-Grade Students
van der Westhuizen, Lindie UL; Arens, Katrin; Keller, Ulrich UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, November 06)

Academic self-concepts (ASCs) are self-perceptions of one’s own academic abilities. The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model (Marsh, 1986) explains the formation of domain-specific ASCs ... [more ▼]

Academic self-concepts (ASCs) are self-perceptions of one’s own academic abilities. The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model (Marsh, 1986) explains the formation of domain-specific ASCs through a combination of social (i.e. comparing one’s achievement in one domain with the achievement of others in the same domain) and dimensional (i.e. comparing one’s achievement in one domain with one’s achievement in another domain) comparisons. This results into positive achievement-self-concept relations within the math and verbal domains, but into negative achievement-self-concept relations across these domains. The generalized internal/external frame of reference (GI/E) model (Möller, Müller-Kalthoff, Helm, Nagy, & Marsh, 2015) extends the I/E model to the formation of other domain-specific academic self-beliefs such as interest. Research on the validity of the (G)I/E model for elementary school children is limited, especially for first-graders. This study examined the associations between verbal and math achievement and corresponding domain-specific self-concepts and interests for first-graders and third-graders. Two fully representative Luxembourgish first-grader cohorts and two fully representative third-graders cohorts (N=21,192) were used. The analyses were based on structural equation modeling. The findings fully supported the (G)I/E model for third-graders: Achievement was positively related to self-concept and interest within matching domains. Negative relations were found between achievement and self-concept and between achievement and interest across domains. For first-graders, achievement was positively related to self-concept and interest within matching domains. However, the majority of cross-domain relations were non-significant, except for the negative path between math achievement and verbal interest. Hence, while the formation of domain-specific ASCs and interests seem to rely on social and dimensional comparisons for third-graders, only social comparisons seem to be in operation for first-graders. Gender and cohort invariance was established for both grade levels. The findings are discussed within the framework of ASC differentiation and dimensional comparison theory applied to elementary school students. [less ▲]

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See detailSimilarities and differences of value-added scores from models with different covariates: A cluster analysis
Levy, Jessica UL; Brunner, Martin; Keller, Ulrich UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, November 06)

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See detailNeed for Cognition across school tracks: The importance of learning environments
Colling, Joanne UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL; Keller, Ulrich UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, November 06)

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See detailMath and Reading Difficulties in a Multilingual Educational Setting
Martini, Sophie Frédérique UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL; Ugen, Sonja UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 06)

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See detailVon Eupen-Malmedy nach Ostbelgien. Eine deutsch-belgische Beziehungsgeschichte seit 1920
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November 01)

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See detailTowards Dynamic Zero Emission Zone Management for Plug-in Hybrid Buses
Seredynski, Marcin UL; Viti, Francesco UL

Scientific Conference (2019, November)

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See detailGraceful Interactions and Social Support as Motivational Design Strategies to Encourage Women in Exercising
Menheere, Daphne; Lallemand, Carine UL; Faber, Ilse et al

Scientific Conference (2019, November)

Increasingly aware of the importance of active lifestyles, many people intend to exercise more. Yet the main challenge remains to translate these intentions into action. Wearable devices supporting ... [more ▼]

Increasingly aware of the importance of active lifestyles, many people intend to exercise more. Yet the main challenge remains to translate these intentions into action. Wearable devices supporting exercise regrettably tend to adopt a one-size-fits-all approach by monitoring activity through quantified data as a motivation strategy. Since certain individuals are driven by social motives to exercise, less addressed through quantification, the impact of these devices on user experience and motivation is questionable. We contribute to the field by defining interaction attributes of graceful interactions in product design. We then embedded these in designing Grace, a piece of jewelry enabling women to share exercise intentions with friends to encourage social support. Instead of focusing on quantification, we rely on a qualitative approach using graceful interaction. Through this we extend the design space of sport-related wearables for women and inform how to design for exercise motivation through social support and graceful interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailTeachers’ translanguaging stance, design, and shifts in a professional development course
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebic, Dzoen Dominique UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 28)

Classrooms in Luxembourg are highly socially, culturally, and linguistically diverse. About 65% of 4 year-old children do not speak Luxembourgish, of which 28% speak Portuguese (MENJE, 2018). In 2017, the ... [more ▼]

Classrooms in Luxembourg are highly socially, culturally, and linguistically diverse. About 65% of 4 year-old children do not speak Luxembourgish, of which 28% speak Portuguese (MENJE, 2018). In 2017, the new law has declared multilingual early education mandatory. Until that time, the focus was solely on the development of Luxemburgish, whereas now teachers should also familiarize children with French and value their home languages. To support preschool teachers, our project aims to: (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging, (2) involve children’s families to reinforce home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children’s cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We use focus groups, questionnaires, and language portraits with teachers and a test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language and video observations with children. Translanguaging, the main topic of our 22 hour PD course (June – December 2019), is the use of a full linguistic repertoire to make meaning (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). Through focus groups, we identified teachers’ negative translanguaging stance towards children’s proficiency in their home language that hinders the development of Luxembourgish. Translanguaging design was related to teachers’ use of multilingual stories and morning greetings, while translanguaging shifts concerned frequent translations by involving older children. Our main goal is to address the negative translanguaging stance by offering practical activities during the course and collaborating with parents, children, and organisational stakeholders. References Ministry of National Education, Childhood and Youth [MENJE]. (2018). Key numbers of the national education: statistics and indicators – School year 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/index.html Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistic Review, 6(3), 281–307. [less ▲]

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See detailRebuilding the Office around the Mainframe: IBM’s S/360 in Context
van Herck, Sytze UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 27)

The Oxford English Dictionary states that originally, a mainframe only defined the central processing unit and primary memory of a computer, whereas now a mainframe describes any large or general-purpose ... [more ▼]

The Oxford English Dictionary states that originally, a mainframe only defined the central processing unit and primary memory of a computer, whereas now a mainframe describes any large or general-purpose computer, specifically supporting numerous peripherals or subordinate computers. The IBM System/360, announced in 1964 and first installed at around 1967, consists of a collection of peripherals that can be connected to any central processing unit in the system family. Due to the size of both the individual components and the entire system, the design and layout of the office often needed to accommodate for the machine. Furthermore, “the experiences of weight, surface texture, sound and smell are part of the physicality of object” (Dannehl 2013, 130) so in order to experience the environment of a designated computer room, several museums have reconstructed at least some of the structure of a computer room. At the Living Computers Museum+Labs in Seattle the entrance to the separately airconditioned room is up a ramp, because of the raised floor that supports the weight of the computer and hides the very thick cables. Purchasing and installing an IBM System/360 required careful planning in terms of physical requirements and site selection, taking into account environmental, electrical, and signal factors. Besides the system and associated personnel, other furniture including storage cabinets, work tables, chairs, and desks also influenced planning. Furthermore, the length of the cables connecting the machines limited the distance between the system components. The schedule proposed by IBM encouraged customers to order six months before delivery and finalizing the layout two months later to allow for building alterations and time to process the cable order (IBM, 1975). Once the machine was installed, the dimensions and layout continuously influenced the workflow and working conditions of the users. Dannehl, Karin. 2013. “Object biographies. From production to consumption.” In History and Material Culture: A Student’s Guide to Approaching Alternative Sources, edited by Harvey, Karen, 123-138. Routledge. IBM System/360 Model 20 Installation Manual-Physical Planning. Systems Reference Library. Atlanta, Georgia: International Business Machines Corporation, 1975. Living Computers Museum+Labs, IBM, Box 1, 76027. [less ▲]

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See detailFacing parallel inventions: the French telecommunications strategies in the digital field (mid-1950s to mid-1990s)
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 26)

This panel on parallel inventions is an opportunity to rethink 15-years of research on data networks and digitization from the perspective of simultaneity. The subject of parallel inventions in the field ... [more ▼]

This panel on parallel inventions is an opportunity to rethink 15-years of research on data networks and digitization from the perspective of simultaneity. The subject of parallel inventions in the field of data networks immediately brings to mind the outset of packet switching, a key concept of Arpanet and Internet (Bay, 2019) that was developed in the 1960s by several players, namely Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation, Leonard Kleinrock at UCLA and Donald Davies at the NPL (National Physical Laboratory) in Great Britain. Yet this Zeitgeist surrounding packet switching is not the only example of parallel ideas and projects within the history of data networks, nor is it limited to the US context. My presentation therefore aims to shift the focus to deepen our understanding of simultaneous inventions, turning away from the cumbersome examination of the “great figures” towards collective innovation and adoption. To do so, we will look at the telecommunications sector. Since the 1950s, this sector in the United States, France, Great Britain and other European countries has been confronted with computer needs and the challenge of building data networks based on their infrastructure – communication lines were mainly monopolized by telecommunication companies in Europe until the end of the 1980s. Several parallel paths were experimented during the period from the transition to electronic switching in phone equipment to the development of standards such as X25, which competed with Internet protocols in the 1980s and 1990s, demonstrating that innovation is not a linear process. Rather than discuss AT&T’s hostility towards packet switching as implemented in Arpanet, which has already been well documented (Abbate, 1999), this study will look at the French telecommunications administration and show how those responsible for the communication lines needed for French networks were positioning themselves to face the changes that had begun in the 1950s, whilst assessing parallel inventions that were either internal or external to the administration. Our paper will therefore focus less on invention per se than on the response to simultaneous inventions, and will review several simultaneous paths in the history of digital networks that French telecommunications had to face, and the associated process of collective decision-making. We will start by presenting the parallel development of spatial and temporal switching in the second half of the 1950s, then look at the simultaneous experiment of Caducée and Hermès networks (early 1970s). Complementary case studies will cover the debate about virtual circuits and datagrams from the 1970s to the 1990s, standardization within the field of telematics and the first Web offers in the transition period from the Minitel to the Web in the 1990s. Our analysis aims to establish a typology of the administration’s choices and attitudes, which differ according to whether the alternative is an internal solution or from an external source, but also according to the periods, from the telecommunications monopoly to the 1990s deregulation. In this way, we aim to reveal how inventions were not only connected to the technical context and knowledge, but were also shaped by those who were interested in the resulting technology. [less ▲]

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See detailInformation Content of Systematic and Idiosyncratic Risk Disclosure
Weber, Véronique UL; Muessig, Anke UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 24)

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See detailThe Occupied Museum. Culture and Science in Luxemburg during the Nazi Occupation, 1940–1944
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 24)

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See detailThe association between workplace bullying exposure and workplace bullying perpetration – The role of frustration of the need for relatedness
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 24)

Workplace bullying (WB) is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior (Nielsen & Einarsen, 2012). WB is seen as an escalated ... [more ▼]

Workplace bullying (WB) is a serious phenomenon that has serious detrimental effects on victim’s health, attitudes, and work-related behavior (Nielsen & Einarsen, 2012). WB is seen as an escalated conflict, where both parties engage in increasing overt acts of aggression (e.g., Einarsen et al., 2011). This perspective is supported by one of the most robust finding in WB and aggression literature, the association between experienced workplace aggression and enacting in workplace aggression (e.g., Baillien et al., 2016). However, there are only a few studies that have researched the mechanism between these phenomena (Samnani & Singh 2012). Self-determination theory (SDT) might explain this link. As need frustration is linked to less self-control (Vansteenkiste & Ryan, 2012), the frustration of the need for relatedness might also lead to increased aggressive behavior. Drawing on SDT, we propose that bullying exposure thwarts employee’s need for relatedness that increase aggressive behavior. Thus, the aim of our study was to test this mediation in a longitudinal design with short time intervals (i.e. monthly). A six-wave online survey design with monthly time lag was employed and data were collected among U.S. employees. The sample consists of 1,595 respondents (55.8% females, n=890, ageM = 36.9, ageSD =10.3). Workplace bullying exposure was assessed with the S-NAQ (Notelaers et al., 2018). Being a perpetrator of bullying was measured by the same nine items of the S-NAQ, however, formulated in an active manner (e.g., Baillien et al., 2011). Finally, frustration of the need for relatedness was assessed with the Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale (Bartholomew et al., 2011). Cross-lagged mediation analysis within a path modeling framework only partially confirmed the proposed model: WB exposure was significantly related to a change in frustration of relatedness. However, frustration of relatedness did (most of the time) not increase WB perpetration, but WB exposure. These longitudinal findings underline the vicious circle nature of WB exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-Preserving Processing of Filtered DNA Reads
Fernandes, Maria UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Volp, Marcus UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, October 22)

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See detailSoftware Engineering for Dataset Augmentation using Generative Adversarial Networks
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoît UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 19)

Software engineers require a large amount of data for building neural network-based software systems. The engineering of these data is often neglected, though, it is a critical and time-consuming activity ... [more ▼]

Software engineers require a large amount of data for building neural network-based software systems. The engineering of these data is often neglected, though, it is a critical and time-consuming activity. In this work, we present a novel software engineering approach for dataset augmentation using neural networks. We propose a rigorous process for generating synthetic data to improve the training of neural networks. Also, we demonstrate our approach to successfully improve the recognition of handwritten digits using conditional generative adversarial networks (cGAN). Finally, we shortly discuss selected important issues of our process, presenting related work and proposing some improvements. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussion of "Do ETFs Increase Liquidity?" by Mehmet Saglam, Tugkan Tuzun and Russ Wermers
Holcblat, Benjamin UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 18)

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See detailRussische Immigration nach Luxemburg 1918-1935: Einwanderer aus einem nicht-existierenden Land
Ganschow, Inna UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 18)

Die Einwanderer_innen aus dem früheren Russischen Reich trugen zur Arbeiterlandschaft im Süden, Norden und Osten Luxemburgs nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg bei. Nimmt man diese „Russen“ genauer unter die Lupe ... [more ▼]

Die Einwanderer_innen aus dem früheren Russischen Reich trugen zur Arbeiterlandschaft im Süden, Norden und Osten Luxemburgs nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg bei. Nimmt man diese „Russen“ genauer unter die Lupe, zeigen sich mindestens drei neue Gruppen, die die bereits vor 1914 bestehende russische Gemeinde vergrößerten. Die ersten sind die ehemaligen Kriegsgefangenen aus den Lagern in Frankreich, Belgien und Deutschland. Ein Teil ist vor Kriegsende als Flüchtlinge im Lande, die anderen kommen nach dem Waffenstillstand im November 1918. Sie wollen nicht zurück nach Russland, wo der Bürgerkriegt tobt. Die zweite Gruppe kommt im Laufe des Bürgerkrieges um 1926-1929 aus Bulgarien und Serbien nach. Es handelt sich um noch zusammenhaltende Weißgardisten, die zu der über die Krim in die Türkei evakuierte Armee von Petr Wrangel gehörten. Schließlich ist die dritte Gruppe der zivilen politischen Flüchtlinge zu erwähnen, die seit den frühen 1920ern meistens über Deutschland nach Luxemburg kamen und öfters Angehörigen der jüdischen Glaubensgemeinschaft waren. Viele von ihnen sind bereits seit den intensivierten Pogromen der ersten russischen Revolution von 1905 in Europa. Die Wanderungsstrukturen dieser verschiedenen und sehr heterogenen Gruppen von „Russen“ stehen im Mittelpunkt des Vortrags. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring du système scolaire – Le modèle luxembourgeois (invited talk)
Fischbach, Antoine UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (6 UL)
See detailRegards belges sur le Luxembourg 1919-1921
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL)
See detailApproche européenne sur l'entreprise : de la nouveauté ?
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 UL)
See detailRegards allemands sur le Luxembourg
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 17)

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See detailTravail frontalier en Suisse et au Luxembourg : mobilités, profils et défis
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Helfer, Malte UL; Belkacem, Rachid

Scientific Conference (2019, October 15)

La Suisse et le Luxembourg sont particulièrement concernés par le travail frontalier. Ces deux pays accueillent à eux seuls plus d’un demi-million de travailleurs frontaliers et recourent à la main ... [more ▼]

La Suisse et le Luxembourg sont particulièrement concernés par le travail frontalier. Ces deux pays accueillent à eux seuls plus d’un demi-million de travailleurs frontaliers et recourent à la main-d’œuvre frontalière depuis plusieurs décennies. Petits pays dynamiques ayant d’importants besoins de main-d’œuvre, ils se caractérisent par des différentiels liés à la présence de frontières (différentiels de prix immobiliers, de taux de chômage, de salaires, de niveaux d’activité économique … avec les pays voisins). Ces différentiels entretiennent la dynamique du travail frontalier (Belkacem et Pigeron-Piroth, 2016). [less ▲]

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See detailInside the Trading Zone: Doing Digital Hermeneutics in an Interdisciplinary Setting
van der Heijden, Tim UL; Tatarinov, Juliane UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 11)

Our contribution examines the conference theme of digital hermeneutics from the perspective of the Doctoral Training Unit (DTU) in ‘Digital History and Hermeneutics’, a four-year interdisciplinary ... [more ▼]

Our contribution examines the conference theme of digital hermeneutics from the perspective of the Doctoral Training Unit (DTU) in ‘Digital History and Hermeneutics’, a four-year interdisciplinary research and training program hosted by the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) at the University of Luxembourg. The DTU is designed as an experimental platform for collaboration or ‘trading zone’, in which thirteen doctoral candidates with different disciplinary backgrounds – from history, linguistics and philosophy to computer and information science – study and reflect on the epistemological and methodological implications of the ‘digital turn’ on historical research. This presentation reflects on the project’s first year, in which the doctoral candidates were introduced to various skills and methods in digital humanities, including text mining, digital source criticism, database structures, data visualization, GIS analysis, tool criticism and algorithmic critique; and its second year, when data collections had been created and research tools identified that were going to be applied to it. By doing so, it presents some of the main practical and epistemological opportunities and challenges of “thinkering” with digital tools and technologies in the Digital History Lab of the C2DH, and it reflects scientific dissemination strategies for the group and the individual. The analysis is informed by studies on interdisciplinarity, digital humanities infrastructures and communities of practice. It furthermore draws on a series of semi-structured interviews and self-reflexive training reports, in which the doctoral candidates of the DTU reflect on their experiences in doing digital hermeneutics in an interdisciplinary setting. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ESP estimator
Holcblat, Benjamin UL; Sowell, Fallaw

Scientific Conference (2019, October 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL)
See detailL’UniGR-Center for Border Studies et ses outils d’analyse
Wille, Christian UL; Dethier, Perrine

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

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See detailWYLD Special Symposium: Technological Innovations in Dementia Diagnosis and Care
Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

Researchers and entrepreneurs present technological innovations in dementia diagnosis and care, particularly through the use of wearables, apps, and novel data analysis techniques. These innovations ... [more ▼]

Researchers and entrepreneurs present technological innovations in dementia diagnosis and care, particularly through the use of wearables, apps, and novel data analysis techniques. These innovations address complex challenges of differential dementia diagnosis and ensuring high-quality and safe home and formal care. [less ▲]

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See detailFlood Detection On Low Cost Orbital Hardware
Mateo-Garcia, Gonzalo; Oprea, Silviu; Smith, Lewis et al

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

Satellite imaging is a critical technology for monitoring and responding to natural disasters such as flooding. Despite the capabilities of modern satellites, there is still much to be desired from the ... [more ▼]

Satellite imaging is a critical technology for monitoring and responding to natural disasters such as flooding. Despite the capabilities of modern satellites, there is still much to be desired from the perspective of first response organisations like UNICEF. Two main challenges are rapid access to data, and the ability to automatically identify flooded regions in images. We describe a prototypical flood segmentation system, identifying cloud, water and land, that could be deployed on a constellation of small satellites, performing processing on board to reduce downlink bandwidth by 2 orders of magnitude. We target PhiSat-1, part of the FSSCAT mission, which is planned to be launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) near the start of 2020 as a proof of concept for this new technology. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECTS OF MULTIPLE OSCILLATOR PHASE NOISE IN PRECODING PERFORMANCE
Martinez Marrero, Liz UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

Satellite Precoding is a promising technique to meet the target data rates of the future high throughput satellite systems and the costs per bit as required by 5G applications and networks, but it ... [more ▼]

Satellite Precoding is a promising technique to meet the target data rates of the future high throughput satellite systems and the costs per bit as required by 5G applications and networks, but it requires strict synchronization among the transmitted waveforms, in addition to accurate channel state information. Most of the published work about this topic consider ideal oscillators, but in practice, the output of an oscillator is not a single spectral line at the nominal frequency. This paper proposes a model for the oscillator phase noise and analyzes the resulting received signal to interference plus noise ratio (SNIR) in a satellite communication system using Precoding. Simulations of a communication satellite system with a two-beam transponder and two receivers were performed to compute the effective SNIR. This work uses a simulator which also considers practical impairments such as time misalignment, errors in the channel state information, interference, thermal noise and phase noise masks for satellite oscillators. The Precoding methods used for the analysis are Zero Forcing (ZF) and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE). The obtained results prove that there is a degradation in the performance due to the use of independent oscillators but this effect is compensated by the precoding matrix. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (15 UL)
See detailDie Maske des Bösen : Lombroso, Fu-Manchu, Mabuse
Kohns, Oliver UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

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See detailGender inequalities across the life course: A societal perspective on gender differences in dementia
Leist, Anja UL; Ford, Katherine Joy UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

Introduction. Women are at increased risk of developing dementia, which can only partly be explained with differences in longevity, sex biology, or differences in detection/diagnosis. A promising approach ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Women are at increased risk of developing dementia, which can only partly be explained with differences in longevity, sex biology, or differences in detection/diagnosis. A promising approach at the population level is the systematic investigation of life course conditions for men and women across countries and cohorts in order to detect if schooling or work opportunities differ by gender. In the cognitive reserve framework, education and work reflect opportunities for cognitively stimulating activities, which increase cognitive reserve across the life course, and which could delay cognitive decline and the diagnosis of dementia. Method. We develop a framework for systematizing gender inequalities across different life stages and life domains, with a focus on systematic disadvantages for women that could be relevant barriers to cognitive reserve development. For the empirical analysis, we gather individual information and performance on cognitive tests from several harmonized cross-national aging surveys, i.e. the U.S. Health and Retirement Study and sister studies (SHARE, ELSA, SAGE), separated by cohort. Historical figures on gender inequalities for countries and cohorts, and their relevant timings in the life course of the older respondents, e.g. during schooling, were gathered from different sources, and merged with the individual-level data. Results. The new framework leads to testable hypotheses in both the Western and global context regarding life-course socialization and schooling and work opportunities that have been different for men and women. We will present preliminary evidence of how female (dis)advantages on different cognitive tests – memory, executive functioning – are mirroring societal gender inequalities. Discussion. We need to better understand how different life-course opportunities for men and women can create gender differences in dementia at old ages in order to identify individuals at risk today and improve conditions for future generations. [less ▲]

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See detailP3LS : Plausible Deniability for Practical Privacy-Preserving Live Streaming
Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Boutet, Antoine; Yu, Jiangshan et al

Scientific Conference (2019, October)

Video consumption is one of the most popular Internet activities worldwide. The emergence of sharing videos directly recorded with smartphones raises important privacy concerns. In this paper we propose ... [more ▼]

Video consumption is one of the most popular Internet activities worldwide. The emergence of sharing videos directly recorded with smartphones raises important privacy concerns. In this paper we propose P3LS , the first practical privacy-preserving peer-to-peer live streaming system. To protect the privacy of its users, P3LS relies on k-anonymity when users subscribe to streams, and on plausible deniability for the dissemination of video streams. Specifically, plausible deniability during the dissemination phase ensures that an adversary is never able to distinguish a user’s stream of interest from the fake streams from a statistical analysis (i.e., using an analysis of variance). We exhaustively evaluate P3LS and show that adversaries are not able to identify the real stream of a user with very high confidence. Moreover, P3LS consumes 30% less bandwidth than the standard k-anonymity approach where nodes fully contribute to the dissemination of k streams. [less ▲]

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See detailThree models of flexible talent management
Usanova, Ksenia; Geraudel, Mickaël UL; D'Armagnac, Sophie et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 30)

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See detailHow To Attract And Retain Talents In Not-For-Profit Organizations?
Usanova, Ksenia; Telitsina, Aleksandra; Geraudel, Mickaël UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 UL)
See detailThe Discovery of Ghijsbrecht Donckere’s Perpetuum Mobile: Visual Proof of the First Barometer?
Koeleman, Floor UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 27)

Ghijsbrecht Donckere is sometimes associated with the invention of the barometer, based on two textual sources from about 1620. No visual record was known of Donckere’s instrument, which was referred to ... [more ▼]

Ghijsbrecht Donckere is sometimes associated with the invention of the barometer, based on two textual sources from about 1620. No visual record was known of Donckere’s instrument, which was referred to as a perpetuum mobile, until now. The rediscovery of a third source, and more importantly, the identification of his device on a contemporary painting, calls for a reassessment. The surroundings of the perpetual motion machine as represented in paint place this instrument at the intersection of natural philosophy and mechanical engineering. Donckere’s invention appears to be loosely based on Cornelis Drebbel’s perpetuum mobile (ca. 1607), and was commissioned by a courtly couple that was already partially informed about the hidden cause of motion of this machine. Nevertheless, the symbolic meaning of the object, rather than an understanding of its actual workings, is put on display. Donckere’s instrument is thus inextricably linked to one of the Aristotelian senses, and to concepts of astronomy and harmony, such as the primum mobile and musica universalis. Even though the textual evidence suggests that the device was at some point used to predict the weather, a reinterpretation particularly emphasizes the rhetoric of the time. The sources do not indicate that the effect of atmospheric pressure was already known. Taking these observations into account, the label of barometer does not seem applicable to Donckere’s perpetuum mobile. The newly revealed visual proof portrays the instrument instead as a collector’s item to be interpreted intellectually by an elite clientele in the early seventeenth century. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative interviewing in multilingual research
Kalocsanyiova, Erika UL; Shatnawi, Malika

Scientific Conference (2019, September 27)

A growing body of research in super-diverse societies is conducted, by necessity, in multiple languages. Multilingual research practices can play a fundamental role in empowering participants and ... [more ▼]

A growing body of research in super-diverse societies is conducted, by necessity, in multiple languages. Multilingual research practices can play a fundamental role in empowering participants and privileging their voices, especially in migration-related studies. Yet, questions of cross-language interviewing are for the most part avoided or ignored in mainstream research. This contribution seeks to bring cross-language communication back into the focus of methodological discussions. Our paper builds on multilingual interview material extracted from a two-year linguistic ethnographic research project on forced migrants’ integration trajectories in Luxembourg. It looks at interpreter-mediated research encounters, as well as interviewees’ translation and translanguaging moves. Audio recordings and field notes from collaborative data analysis sessions underpin the data for this contribution. Our examples show that there is merit in fixing our analytical gaze on the minute details of language use across different codes, as these allow for a novel inquiry into specific moments of meaning making, role performances and rapport-building in qualitative interviewing. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-time Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation with the Front-End GNSS Interference eXcisor (FENIX)
Querol Borras, Jorge UL; Perez, Adrian; Munoz-Martin, Joan Francesc et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 26)

The number of applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) has been increasing in the last years. With its proliferation, Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) has become one of the most ... [more ▼]

The number of applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) has been increasing in the last years. With its proliferation, Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) has become one of the most concerning topics on GNSS-based devices for navigation, positioning and timing, but also for Earth Observation purposes such as GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) and GNSS-Radio Occultations (GNSS-RO) due to the corruption of the received signal and the corresponding geophysical measurements. The Front-End GNSS Interference eXcisor (FENIX) mitigates the problem of RFI by providing a plug-and-play solution which, placed between the antenna and the receiver, excises virtually any kind of interference signal, as its mitigation algorithm is agnostic on the particular type of RFI. The new version of FENIX is also capable of operating with large signal bandwidths ($\sim$50 MHz) and dual-band applications (e.g. L1 + L2 or L1/E1 + L5/E5). This paper shows the performance of the system for commercial GNSS receivers and GNSS-R applications. The use of FENIX in Microwave Radiometers is also possible, but it is out of the scope of this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailTHE MARKET SKEWNESS-RETURN RELATIONSHIP, Plenary Talk
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 25)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 UL)
See detailMoney Laundering and Cryptocurrencies
Allegrezza, Silvia UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 24)

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See detailEarly-stage topological and technological choices for TSN-based communication architectures
Navet, Nicolas UL; Villanueva, Josetxo; Migge, Jörn

Scientific Conference (2019, September 24)

A main issue in the design of automotive communication architectures is that the most important design choices pertaining to the topology of the networks and the technologies to use (protocols, data rate ... [more ▼]

A main issue in the design of automotive communication architectures is that the most important design choices pertaining to the topology of the networks and the technologies to use (protocols, data rate, hardware) have to be made at a time when the communication requirements are not entirely known. Indeed, many functions only becomes available along the development cycle, and vehicle platforms have to support incremental evolutions of the embedded system that may not be fully foreseeable at the time design choices are made. The problem is becoming even more difficult and crucial with the introduction of dynamically evolving communication requirements requiring network re-configuration at run-time. We present how the use of synthetic data, that is data generated programmatically based on past vehicle projects and what can be foreseen for the current project, enables the designers to make such early stage choices based on quantified metrics. The proposals are applied to Groupe Renault's FACE service-oriented E/E architecture with the use of a software-implemented function we called “Topology Stress Test”. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the Deduktionstreffen 2019
Schon, Claudia; Steen, Alexander UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 23)

The annual meeting Deduktionstreffen is the prime activity of the Special Interest Group on Deduction Systems (FG DedSys) of the AI Section of the German Society for Informatics (GI-FBKI). It is a meeting ... [more ▼]

The annual meeting Deduktionstreffen is the prime activity of the Special Interest Group on Deduction Systems (FG DedSys) of the AI Section of the German Society for Informatics (GI-FBKI). It is a meeting with a familiar, friendly atmosphere, where everyone interested in deduction can report on their work in an informal setting. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 UL)
See detailWann kam die Grenze auf die Karte? Zur Konstruktion von Herrschaftsgebieten zwischen Reich und Frankreich in der Frühen Neuzeit
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 19)

Feste politische Grenzen, wie man sie heute kennt, die ein Staatsgebiet nach innen wie nach außen umfassend begrenzen, sind im Raum zwischen Maas und Rhein ein Produkt des späten 18. Jahrhunderts. Für ... [more ▼]

Feste politische Grenzen, wie man sie heute kennt, die ein Staatsgebiet nach innen wie nach außen umfassend begrenzen, sind im Raum zwischen Maas und Rhein ein Produkt des späten 18. Jahrhunderts. Für diese Region wird nach dem Ursprung dieser festen Grenzlinien gesucht, die heute ein selbstverständlicher Bestandteil von Karten sind. Seit dem späten 16. Jahrhundert wurden im Westen des Heiligen Römischen Reiches erstmals historische Karten publiziert und im Druck verbreitet, die unser Bild der territorialen Landschaft bis heute prägen. Ab wann aber werden solche Grenzlinien zur Darstellung territorial-räumlicher Verhältnisse verwendet? Und welche Rolle kommt ihnen bei der Konstruktion von Herrschaft im Raum zu? Diesen Fragen widmet sich der Beitrag für die Region zwischen Maas und Rhein. Sie liegt an der Schnittstelle von Germania und Romania und ist durch Einflüsse beiderseits der Sprachgrenze geprägt. [less ▲]

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See detail(Im)mobilizing languages
Kalocsanyiova, Erika UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 19)

This presentation is concerned with the impact of multilingualism on forced migrants’ trajectories. It reports the findings of a two-year qualitative research project, which used ethnographic research ... [more ▼]

This presentation is concerned with the impact of multilingualism on forced migrants’ trajectories. It reports the findings of a two-year qualitative research project, which used ethnographic research methods, including narrative and go-along interviews, classroom and participant observations and linguistic analysis of interactional data. The project set out to investigate how forced migrants reflect, position, and affirm themselves – through languages – in multilingual societies. Our contribution aligns itself with the body of research that challenges hegemonic monolingual and monocultural practices (Grzymala-Kazlowska/Phillimore 2018, Van Avermaet 2009). Other major influences were Juffermans and Tavares’s (2017) research on south-north trajectories and linguistic repertoires, Stevenson’s (2014, 2017) work on language (hi)stories and Busch’s (2017) biographical explorations of Spracherleben. In this talk, the focus will be on the experiences of three men from Syria and Iraq who have obtained humanitarian protection in Luxembourg, but aspire to fulfil their integration aspirations across multiple locations and countries. A careful analysis of divergent trajectories sheds light on how experiences of linguistic inequality and/or success are imprinted on forced migrants’ repertoires and shape their understanding of (successful) integration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL)
See detailSize-dependent spatial magnetization profile of Manganese-Zinc ferrite nanoparticles
Bersweiler, Mathias UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 UL)
See detailThe real problem with Rawlsian reasonableness
Burks, Deven UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 17)

In The Law of Peoples, Rawls states that, if “political liberalism offers no way of proving that this specification [of reasonableness] is itself reasonable”, this is no great loss, for “it is simply ... [more ▼]

In The Law of Peoples, Rawls states that, if “political liberalism offers no way of proving that this specification [of reasonableness] is itself reasonable”, this is no great loss, for “it is simply politically reasonable to offer fair terms of cooperation to other free and equal citizens, and it is simply politically unreasonable to refuse to do so” (Rawls 1999: 87-8). While Rawls is undoubtedly right that public reason liberalism analytically requires some standard of reasonableness, it is less obvious this standard must take Rawls’s preferred form. Yet criticisms of Rawlsian “reasonableness” as “loaded” (Stout 2004: 184), “chimerical” (Young 2005: 308) or “entirely circular” (Mulhall and Swift 2003: 483) often equivocate on the meaning of reasonableness and so fall afoul of the “equivocation defense” (Freeman 2004: 2063-5). In this paper, I improve on those earlier criticisms by means of a narrow, immanent criticism whereon the two basic aspects of reasonableness – (A1) proposing and abiding by fair terms of cooperation and (A2) recognizing the “burdens of judgment” (Rawls 1996: 54-8) – may plausibly conflict: in some instances, accepting (A2) may give persons reason to disagree over the need to accept (A1). To show this, I first restate two aspects of reasonableness as a biconditional: a person is reasonable iff (A1) and (A2) obtain. I then examine whether Rawls’s burdens give reason to doubt the requirement in (A1). Insofar as the third, fourth and fifth burdens give reason to doubt just this requirement, I conclude that Rawlsian reasonableness should be reformulated. This reformulation preserves what Rawls gets right about reasonableness – namely, the burdens – but replaces the old standard with “reasonableness pluralism”, from which it follows that public reason cannot represent all the necessary conditions of political justification under circumstances of reasonable pluralism. [less ▲]

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See detailLe blanchiment: évolution du cadre européen et nouvelles formes numériques
Allegrezza, Silvia UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 UL)
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See detailMale vs female gamers: Testing the stereotype threat effect in video gaming
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Wagener, Gary Lee; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 17)

Stereotype threat (ST), defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s own group, has been demonstrated in various social contexts. Regarding video games, for example, informing ... [more ▼]

Stereotype threat (ST), defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s own group, has been demonstrated in various social contexts. Regarding video games, for example, informing female participants that men would outperform women in gaming leads to gender differences in performance. To date, however, these studies have not looked into the mechanisms of this ST effect in gaming. In two lab studies (N=186), some participants were confronted with ST-related information before playing a video game. In Study 1, half of the participants read a bogus article confirming the “standard” gender stereotype (“men outperform women”). In Study 2, a reverse stereotype was presented to half of the participants (“women have outpaced men in some game genres”). In contrast to hypotheses, both studies failed to show the expected significant interaction effect of gender and ST condition on performance, although female participants confronted with the “standard” gender stereotype reported greater frustration in Study 1, for example. In sum, results indicate a complex relationship between gender, social identity, experience with the game genre, and behavior. Identifying oneself as a gamer and being experienced in a particular game genre were found to be better performance predictors than reading stereotype threatening information. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in physical activity among children with physically active and inactive parents
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 13)

Objectives: Parental physical activity is considered as positively related to children´s physical activity (PA; Sallis, Prochaska & Taylor, 2000). Since parents serve as role models, have the potential to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Parental physical activity is considered as positively related to children´s physical activity (PA; Sallis, Prochaska & Taylor, 2000). Since parents serve as role models, have the potential to influence the health-related behavior and, for instance, to alter a mainly sedentary lifestyle of their children (Beets, Cardinal & Alderman, 2010), the impact of parental PA has become a key issue in research. Many studies report associations between parental PA and the PA behavior of their children, e.g., the direct involvement of the parents in activities with their children is related to increased levels of their PA (Adkins, Sherwood, Story, & Davis, 2004; Beets, Vogel, Chapman, Pitetti, & Cardinal, 2007). However, the mechanisms of parental influence are still poorly understood and besides recent studies are based on self-reported data. Therefore, this study aims to examine if parental PA is related to the subjectively and objectively measured PA of their children. Methods: 237 Luxembourgish children and adolescents (134 girls and 103 boys) aged from 10-18 years participated in the study. Via a digital questionnaire, the children indicated if their mother and father are physically active on a regular basis and if they are active together with their parents. Furthermore, the children and adolescents indicated if they are active at least 60 minutes/ day and if they own a membership in a sports club (MoMo physical activity questionnaire). Additionally, children’s PA behavior was objectively assessed by wearing an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X-BT) for a period of seven consecutive days. Activity was categorized as sedentary, light physical activity or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using age-specific thresholds. Results: A multivariate ANOVA revealed significant differences in self-reported physical activity if the mother was physically active (F (2, 166) = 5.4, p < .01). Thus, children reported subjectively higher daily activity duration (p < .05) and more activities in a regular week (p < .01). There was no impact on self-reported PA if the father was active or the children were active with their parents together. Regarding the objective data, there were no significant differences between children with active parents and children with inactive parents. If the parents were active with their children together there were significant differences (F (3, 229) = 3.2, p < .05), thus MVPA per day was higher (p < .05) and the sedentary time was lower (p < .01). Neither subjective nor objective data revealed gender-specific differences. Discussion: In contrast to other studies, only the mother seems to have an influence on the subjective PA behavior of the children. The fact, that parents being active or in a sports club does not appear to enhance the PA of the children objectively. However, the objective PA is merely affected by being active together. According to this finding, joint activities of parents and children seem to be necessary to promote children’s PA effectively. It is important to note that in our study the parental PA was rated by the children. In future studies, parents should be included via self-report questionnaires and/or accelerometer. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (2 UL)
See detailSocial stratification in higher education trajectories: A sequence-analytical approach
Haas, Christina UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 UL)
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See detailDigital History as Trading Zone? Reflections from a Doctoral Training Unit
van der Heijden, Tim UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 12)

This paper addresses the question how Digital History “trading zones” are being constituted in practice and how they are situated in physical working environments. The analysis is based on a case study of ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the question how Digital History “trading zones” are being constituted in practice and how they are situated in physical working environments. The analysis is based on a case study of the Doctoral Training Unit (DTU) “Digital History and Hermeneutics”, an interdisciplinary research and training programme that was established at the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) of the University of Luxembourg. The DTU is designed as an interdisciplinary “trading zone”, in which thirteen doctoral candidates with different disciplinary backgrounds – from history, linguistics and philosophy to computer and information science – reflect on the epistemological and methodological challenges of doing digital history and humanities research (Fickers 2015, 2012). The paper reflects on the project’s first year, in which the doctoral researchers were introduced to various skills and methods in digital humanities as part of the so-called “DH incubation phase”. This phase included trainings in text mining, digital source criticism, database structures, data visualization, GIS analysis, tool criticism and algorithmic critique. The paper presents some of the main practical and epistemological opportunities and challenges of “thinkering”: the playful experimentation with digital tools and technologies for doing historical research. It furthermore reflects on the practical and institutional challenges of constituting an interdisciplinary trading zone, like the DTU. As such, it addresses a number of critical questions: How to build bridges between different knowledge domains in a specific research environment? How to stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration and to get scholars out of their disciplinary or methodological comfort zones? What is at stake in such interdisciplinary trading zones? Who are the traders – and what is being traded? The analysis is informed by studies on interdisciplinarity (Klein 2015, Deegan and McCarty 2012, Stehr and Weingart 2000), trading zones (Collins et al. 2007, Galison 1996, Kemman 2019) and communities of practice (Wenger 1998). Empirically, it draws on a series of semi-structured interviews and thirty-nine self-reflexive training reports, in which the doctoral researchers of the DTU discuss their experiences of doing digital history and hermeneutics in an interdisciplinary setting. Finally, the paper evaluates the suitability of the trading zone concept as analytical framework for studying interdisciplinary collaborations in Digital History as a field. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome Inequality and the Strength of the Origins-Health Gradient in 20 European Countries
Chauvel, Louis UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 12)

Health is determined by socio-economic position not only of the individual, but also by that of their parents. The intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status is suggested ... [more ▼]

Health is determined by socio-economic position not only of the individual, but also by that of their parents. The intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status is suggested to vary according to contextual factors such as income inequality. Earlier studies with a comparative perspective had a limited number of countries available. This study uses 20 countries at up to five waves from the European Social Survey (2008-2016) and SWIID in order to examine the extent to which income inequality is related to the origins-health gradient. The higher the income inequality of a given country and year, the stronger the origins-health gradient. Contrary to earlier findings, this association can be fully explained by intergenerational transmission of status, i.e. education. Implications of this finding are that health is largely determined by educational attainment and associated health behaviors, giving societal context a less prominent role than earlier studies suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison between conventional Earth Observation Satellites and CubeSats; Requirements, Capabilities and Data Quality
Backes, Dietmar UL; Hassani, Saif Alislam UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 11)

From its early beginning as an educational tool in 1999, cubesats have evolved into a popular platform for technology demonstrations and scientific instruments. Ideas and innovations sparked from an ... [more ▼]

From its early beginning as an educational tool in 1999, cubesats have evolved into a popular platform for technology demonstrations and scientific instruments. Ideas and innovations sparked from an enthusiastic community led to the development of new Earth Observation (EO) technology concepts based on large constellations of satellites with high-resolution optical imagers previously considered as infeasible. Probably the most significant constellation today is deployed by Planet who are currently operating a fleet larger than 120 3U Dove satellites, which provide an imaging service with up to 3m Ground Sample Distance (GSD). The number of low-cost EO Cubesat systems is constantly increasing. However, for a number of reasons there still seems to be a reluctance to use such data for many EO applications. A better understanding of the capabilities of the current generation of small Cubesats compared to the traditional well-established bigger operational missions of high and medium resolution EO satellites is required. What are the critical capabilities and quality indicators? Due to the limited size and weight of Cubesats, critical system components, e.g. for navigation and communication, always compete with operational payloads such as optical camera/sensor systems. A functional EO system requires balanced payload, which provides adequate navigational capabilities, that match the requirements of the optical imagers (camera) deployed with the system. This study reviews the current performance and capabilities of Cubesats for optical EO and compares them to the capabilities of conventional, dedicated high and medium resolution EO systems. We summarise key performance parameters and quality indicators to evaluate the difference between the systems. An empirical study compares recent very high-resolution (VHR) imagery from big EO satellite missions with available images from Cubesats for the use case in disaster monitoring. Small and agile Nanosatellites or Cubesats already show remarkable performance. Although it is not expected that their performance and capability will match those of current bigger EO satellite missions, they are expected to provide a valuable tool for EO and remote sensing, in particular for downstream industry applications. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Operation of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings using Mixed Integer Linear Programming
Rafii-Tabrizi, Sasan UL; Hadji-Minaglou, Jean-Régis UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 10)

This paper proposes a deterministic mixed integer linear programming model for the optimal operation of an energy system providing thermal and electrical energy for a residential and commercial nearly ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a deterministic mixed integer linear programming model for the optimal operation of an energy system providing thermal and electrical energy for a residential and commercial nearly zero energy building. The space heating and space cooling demand of the buildings is simulated using a resistive-capacitive model within a quadratic program respectively. Thermal energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water is buffered in thermal energy storage systems. A dual source heat pump provides thermal energy for space heating and domestic hot water, whereas space cooling is covered by an underground ice storage. The environmental energy sources of the heat pump are ice storage or wind infrared sensitive collectors. The collectors are further used to regenerate the ice storage. Further space heating demands are covered by a combined heat and power unit, which also produces electricity. Photovoltaic panels produce electrical energy which can be stored in a battery storage system. The electrical energy system is capable of selling and buying electricity from the public power grid. A mixed integer linear programming model is developed to minimise the operation cost of the combined commercial and residential nearly zero energy building over a scheduling horizon of 24h. The developed model is tested on two typical days, which are representative for the summer and winter season. Furthermore, it is investigated how external incentives such as varying electricity prices impact the optimal scheduling of the energy system. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining grades, achievement test scores, and three intelligence facets within an extended I/E model
Hausen, Jennifer UL; Möller, Jens; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 10)

Domain-specific academic self-concepts (ASCs) are mental representations of one’s abilities that are specific to a particular school subject. According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E ... [more ▼]

Domain-specific academic self-concepts (ASCs) are mental representations of one’s abilities that are specific to a particular school subject. According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model, achievement influences the formation of ASCs via social and dimensional comparison processes: within one domain students not only compare their achievement with their peers (social comparison) but also with their own achievements in other domains (dimensional comparison). However, students’ intelligence as an indicator of achievement has been neglected within the I/E model framework. Yet, intelligence is known to be an important determinant of academic success and thus it can be assumed to influence the formation of academic self-concepts, too. Hence, this research examined the links between verbal, numerical, figural intelligence and domain-specific ASCs while controlling for grades and achievement test scores. We drew on N = 382 German students to analyze verbal, numerical, and figural intelligence, German and math achievement, domain-specific self-reported grades and ASCs in math, physics, German, and English. We performed structural equation modeling using Mplus 8 with grades, achievement scores and intelligence facets specified as manifest predictors and domain-specific ASCs as latent criteria. Positive within-domain relations indicating social comparison effects were found between math, physics, German, and English grade to their corresponding self-concept as well as from math achievement to math ASC. Dimensional comparison effects are implied by a positive cross-domain path between physics grade and math ASC and by negative cross-domain paths from math grade to German, physics, and English ASC. Further, a positive cross-domain relation was found between math achievement and physics ASC while a negative cross-domain path was found between German achievement and math ASC. With regard to the intelligence facets, positive paths were found between numerical intelligence and physics ASC as well as between verbal intelligence and English ASC. Our findings thus suggest numerical and verbal intelligence to be valid predictors of ASC formation in an extended I/E model beyond grades and test scores. Overall, the proposed I/E model permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-specific achievement indicators and ASCs suggesting that these variables provide incremental validity. [less ▲]

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