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See detailSchool tracking in Luxembourg: the longitudinal impact of student characteristics and school composition
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Ottenbacher, Martha UL; Alieva, Aigul et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 05)

Research question: The current study aimed to investigate the influence of student and school level factors on school tracking in secondary education. We were especially interested in the association ... [more ▼]

Research question: The current study aimed to investigate the influence of student and school level factors on school tracking in secondary education. We were especially interested in the association between student characteristics and school composition in Grade 3 and school track in Grade 9. Data source: Data were collected as part of the Luxembourg school monitoring programme “Épreuves Standardisées” (ÉpStan; Fischbach et al., 2014). The study cohort include all students enrolled in the Luxembourg public education system in Grade 3 in November 2013 combined with data from the same students in Grade 9 in November 2017-2019 for students following advanced or regular educational pathways, completed with data from November 2020 and 2021 for students that repeated once or twice (N≈3600). Theoretical approach: The study draws upon theoretical frameworks and empirical findings (e.g., Boudon, 1974; Bourdieu, 1984), that have demonstrated students´ socio-demographic characteristics are associated with (dis)advantages for specific groups of students in education systems as well as more recent work focusing on school composition (e.g., Baumert et al., 2006), especially as tracked school systems are known to be prone to social segregation (e.g., Hadjar & Gross, 2016). To date, most research on school segregation in tracked education systems such as Luxembourg has focused on individual student´s characteristics. However, with increasing heterogeneity of student cohorts and known differences in educational opportunities related to the social and ethnic composition of the school’s student body (e.g., Thrupp et al., 2002), the current research extents the existing literature by considering both individual (including prior academic achievement and socio-demographic characteristics) and school level factors (mean academic level and percentage of students from lower socio-economic and migration background) in predicting school track placement. Main findings: Results of a multilevel random effect logistic regression analysis in which we estimated marginal effects on the probability to be placed in the highest, middle or lowest track in Luxembourg show that even after controlling for student´s academic achievement, track placement is affected by the gender and socio-economic background of the student, whereby boys and students from low SES families have less chance to be placed in the highest track. The association with socio-economic background is not only visible on the student level but also on school level, whereby students attending primary schools with a higher percentage of low SES families have less chance to be orientated to the higher track compared to the middle track, regardless of the student´ individual academic performance. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Beam Pattern Selection and Resource Allocation for NOMA-Based LEO Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei; Hu, Xin et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 04)

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See detailForschungsergebnisse und Forschungslücken zu Mehrsprachigkeit in der non-formalen Bildung in Luxemburg
Neumann, Sascha; Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 17)

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See detailThe crucial role of language in mathematical development
Hornung, Caroline UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 17)

Basic mathematics skills build on nonverbal number sense But these innate non-verbal skills are insufficient to develop symbolic exact number concepts and to learn arithmetic. Language development allows ... [more ▼]

Basic mathematics skills build on nonverbal number sense But these innate non-verbal skills are insufficient to develop symbolic exact number concepts and to learn arithmetic. Language development allows the acquisition of number words and math vocabulary, crucial for developing basic exact number concepts and arithmetic skills. This presentations highlights five key aspects on how language influences mathematical development. First, language is a building block for basic math skills. Second, number naming systems affect number transcoding. Third, multilingual students calculate better in the language in which they have learned numbers. Forth, children's home language influences their mathematics achievement. And finally, the mastery of the language of instruction has a strong impact on mathematics achievement. The implication of these key aspects are discussed with regard to education and instruction in schools. [less ▲]

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See detailFairness as seen by students - a differentiated look at perceived assessment fairness by 7th and 9th graders in Luxembourg
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Inostroza Fernandez, Pamela Isabel UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 10)

Assessment is probably the central factor in every educational biography: On the one hand, through direct consequences for school career decisions, on the other hand, through repercussions on each ... [more ▼]

Assessment is probably the central factor in every educational biography: On the one hand, through direct consequences for school career decisions, on the other hand, through repercussions on each student’s self-concept in the respective subject, for one's own work behavior and the perception of institutional fairness in general. A crucial factor is the subjective, perceived fairness of assessment, which has been shown to influence students' satisfaction, motivation, and attitudes toward learning (Chory-Assad, 2002; Wendorf & Alexander, 2005). The current study examines how Luxembourgish students experience fairness of assessment on the basis of representative samples of the 7iéme (N > 700 students) and 9iéme/ 5iéme (N > 2200, 35% of the total cohort) and gives a first insight into the connection with school interest and self-concept. Special attention is given to the heterogeneity of the Luxembourgish student population: the extent to which language background, socioeconomic status, and gender are related to these perceptions of fairness will be analyzed. Data was collected as part of the nationwide Épreuves standardisées in fall 2021 using the Fairness Barometer (Sonnleitner & Kovacs, 2020) - a standardized instrument to measure informational and procedural fairness in student assessment. The analyses are theoretically based on Classroom Justice Theory and educational psychology (Chory-Assad and Paulsel, 2004; Chory, 2007; Duplaga & Astani, 2010) and utilize latent variable models (SEM) to study the complex interplay between perceived assessment practices and students’ school-related motivational factors. The insights offered by this study are internationally unique in their scope and provide a first glimpse on fairness perceptions of groups of Luxembourgish students in known disadvantaged situations. Results aim to sensitize especially active teachers and educators to the central importance of assessment in schools and offer some concrete advice how to improve it. References: Chory, R. M. (2007). Enhancing student perceptions of fairness: the relationship between instructor credibility and classroom justice. Commun. Educ. 56, 89–105. doi: 10.1080/03634520600994300 Chory-Assad, R. M., and Paulsel, M. L. (2004). Classroom justice: student aggression and resistance as reactions to perceived unfairness. Commun. Educ. 53, 253–273. doi: 10.1080/0363452042000265189 Chory-Assad, R. M. (2002). Classroom justice: perceptions of fairness as a predictor of student motivation, learning, and aggression. Commun. Q. 50, 58–77. doi: 10.1080/01463370209385646 Duplaga, E. A., and Astani, M. (2010). An exploratory study of student perceptions of which classroom policies are fairest. Decision Sci. J. Innov. Educ. 8, 9–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4609.2009.00241.x Sonnleitner, P., & Kovacs, C. (2020, February). Differences between students’ and teachers’ fairness perceptions: Exploring the potential of a self-administered questionnaire to improve teachers’ assessment practices. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 5, p. 17). Frontiers Media SA. Wendorf, C. A., and Alexander, S. (2005). The influence of individual- and class-level fairness-related perceptions on student satisfaction. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 30, 190–206. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.07.003 [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a test battery to diagnose specific learning disorder in reading in a multilingual education context
Romanovska, Linda UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 10)

Providing timely and adequate support to children experiencing difficulties in reading and writing is key to minimize the impact on children’s academic achievements, social and emotional well-being ... [more ▼]

Providing timely and adequate support to children experiencing difficulties in reading and writing is key to minimize the impact on children’s academic achievements, social and emotional well-being, particularly for children with specific learning disorders. However, the diagnostic process is especially challenging in Luxembourg’s multilingual educational system with changing instruction languages (Luxembourgish, German, French) and multilingual population. The chosen language of the diagnostic tool is usually identical to the main language of instruction at school, which at time of diagnosis (typically grade 3) is German. This may especially affect the diagnosis of children who do not speak German or Luxembourgish at home as data from the Luxembourgish national school monitoring program reveals significant differences in German reading comprehension in grade 3 depending on the language spoken at home (Hoffmann et al., 2018; Martini et al., 2021). Furthermore, the diagnostic tools currently employed in Luxembourg are developed in countries with primarily one language of instruction, challenging the validity of the diagnostic process in a multilingual population (Ugen et al., 2021). The aim of the current project is to develop a diagnostic tool adapted to the Luxembourgish educational curriculum, that takes children’s potential proficiency differences in the test language into account in the instructions, tasks and resulting norms. This way, over-diagnosis of reading and writing disorders in children who do not speak the main language(s) of instruction at home and underdiagnosis of children who do, can be avoided. The developed test battery assesses children’s performance in key domains relevant for reading and writing comprising phonological skills, (non)word and text reading (fluency and accuracy), reading comprehension, writing, and vocabulary. We will present the pre-test results of 9 sub-tests completed by 214 children, providing the first insights into the test development and validation process.   References Hoffmann, D., Hornung, C., Gamo, S., Esch, P., Keller, U., & Fischbach, A. (2018). Schulische Kompetenzen von Erstklässlern und ihre Entwicklung nach zwei Jahren. In T. Lentz, I. Baumann, & A. Küpper (Eds.), Nationaler Bildungsbericht (pp. 84–96). University of Luxembourg & SCRIPT. Martini, S., Schiltz, C., Fischbach, A., & Ugen, S. (2021). Identifying Math and Reading Difficulties of multilingual children: Effects of different cut-offs and reference group. In M. Herzog, A. Fritz-Stratmann, & E. Gürsoy (Eds.), Diversity Dimensions in Mathematics and Language Learning (pp. 200–228). De Gruyter Mouton. Ugen, S., Schiltz, C., Fischbach, A., & Pit-ten Cate, I. M. (2021). Einleitung: Lernstörungen im multilingualen Kontext – Eine Herausforderung. In Ugen, S., Schiltz, C., Fischbach, A., & Pit-ten Cate, I. M. (Eds.), Lernstörungen im multilingualen Kontext. Diagnose und Hilfestellungen (pp3-7). Luxembourg: Melusina Press. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a fairer assessment of cognitive abilities in multilingual children
Kijamet, Dzenita UL; Ugen, Sonja UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November 10)

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See detailTeacher-Student-Relationships and Student Outcomes in Heterogeneous Educational Settings: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Emslander, Valentin UL; Holzberger, Doris; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, November 09)

Especially in diverse educational settings, positive relationships between students and their teachers can foster students’ learning and help alleviate systematic inequalities. Characterized by emotional ... [more ▼]

Especially in diverse educational settings, positive relationships between students and their teachers can foster students’ learning and help alleviate systematic inequalities. Characterized by emotional warmth or closeness, positive teacher-student relationships (TSR) can improve several student outcomes. For instance, existing meta-analyses suggest significant links between TSR and students’ peer relations, school engagement, academic achievement, emotions, executive functions, general well-being, and reductions in aggressive or disruptive behaviors. However, the evidence on these links is scattered, and a comprehensive overview of the associations with TSR integrating academic, behavioral, socio-emotional, motivational, and general cognitive outcomes is lacking. Furthermore, researchers have been unequivocal about possible moderators, such as how these relationships vary with student age or gender. In light of these research gaps, we systematically reviewed the meta-analytic literature and examined (a) the extent to which academic, behavioral, socio-emotional, motivational, and general cognitive student outcomes are related to TSR in the meta-analytic literature; (b) which moderators influence this association; and (c) the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses. We included meta-analyses with preschool or K-12 samples in our dataset which reported some measure of the relation between TSR and student outcomes. With this dataset, we systematically mapped the evidence on (a) the TSR-outcome relationship; (b) the moderators; and (c) the methodological quality of the meta-analyses. We will present our core findings and discuss future research with this second-order, meta-analytic dataset and the impact of positive TSR in diverse and heterogeneous settings. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool Segregation in Primary and Secondary Education in Luxembourg: Track Placement and Academic Achievement
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Alieva, Aigul et al

Scientific Conference (2022, November 09)

Known as a highly stratified education system with early tracking (similar to Dutch, German, Austrian, and German-speaking Swiss systems), Luxembourg features additional properties that add to its ... [more ▼]

Known as a highly stratified education system with early tracking (similar to Dutch, German, Austrian, and German-speaking Swiss systems), Luxembourg features additional properties that add to its complexity in the educational realm (Backes & Hadjar, 2017). It is a simultaneously multilingual system that also has the largest share of students born outside of Luxembourg or parents born abroad. While most migrants come from within Europe, they frequently come from either a particularly high or low socio-economic background. It has been scientifically established that the educational inequalities in Luxembourg are driven mostly by social origin and immigration/language background. Gender is another critical dimension of disadvantage; for example, boys are less motivated to obtain higher education than girls (Hadjar, Scharf, & Hascher, 2021). In addition, gender often intersects with other factors such as immigrant background in shaping disadvantages. However, evidence shows that – beyond individual background characteristics – schools’ social composition also perpetuates inequalities in student achievement (Martins & Veiga, 2010). Therefore, we focus on the role of school-level segregation on student’s academic outcomes over time using data of a longitudinal cohort from the School Monitoring Programme (Éprueve Standardisée (ÉpStan)) with 5097 students in Grade 3 observed in 2013 and later in Grade 9 observed in 2019 (regular pathways) and 2020 and 2021 (irregular pathways, i.e., class repetitions). School segregation is an aggregate measure of the proportion of students who belong to low socio-economic background and the proportion of students born abroad and/or do not speak instruction language at home. Our contribution aims to provide insights into the following questions: 1. Does school-level segregation in primary education (G3) predict student’s track placement in secondary education? 2. Does school-level segregation in primary education (G3) predict student’s math and German achievement in secondary education (G9)? 3. How strongly are achievement outcomes in G9 correlated with within- and between-track segregation in G9? The findings will serve as a complementary base for tailored policy making with respect to the long-term impact of school composition for teaching and learning, especially within a tracked school system. References Becker, S., & Hadjar, A. (2017). Educational trajectories through secondary education in Luxembourg: How does permeability affect educational inequalities? Schweizerische Zeitschrift Für Bildungswissenschaften, 39(3), 437–460. https://doi.org/10.25656/01:16659 Hadjar, A., Scharf, J., & Hascher, T. (2021). Who aspires to higher education? Axes of inequality, values of education and higher education aspirations in secondary schools in Luxembourg and the Swiss Canton of Bern. European Journal of Education, 56(1), 9–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12435 Martins, L., & Veiga, P. (2010). Do inequalities in parents’ education play an important role in PISA students’ mathematics achievement test score disparities? Economics of Education Review, 29(6), 1016–1033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2010.05.001 [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Diagnostic Classification Models to map first graders’ cognitive development pathways in the Luxembourgish school monitoring program: a pilot study in the domain of numbers & operations
Inostroza Fernandez, Pamela Isabel UL; Michels, Michael Andreas UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2022, November)

Educational large-scale assessments aim to evaluate school systems’ effectiveness by typically looking at aggregated levels of students’ performance. The developed assessment tools or tests are not ... [more ▼]

Educational large-scale assessments aim to evaluate school systems’ effectiveness by typically looking at aggregated levels of students’ performance. The developed assessment tools or tests are not intended or optimized to be used for diagnostic purposes on an individual level. In most cases, the underlying theoretical framework is based on national curricula and therefore too blurry for diagnostic test construction, and test length is too short to draw reliable inferences on individual level. This lack of individual information is often unsatisfying, especially for participating students and teachers who invest a considerable amount of time and effort, not to speak about the tremendous organizational work needed to realize such assessments. The question remains, if the evaluation could not be used in an optimized way to offer more differentiated information on students’ specific skills. The present study explores the potential of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM) in this regard, since they offer crucial information for policy makers, educators, and students themselves. Instead of a ranking of, e.g., an overall mathematics ability, student mastery profiles of subskills are identified in DCM, providing a rich base for further targeted interventions and instruction (Rupp, Templin & Henson, 2010; von Davier, M., & Lee, Y. S., 2019). A prerequisite for applying such models is well-developed, and cognitively described items that map the assessed ability on a fine-grained level. In the present study, we drew on 104 items that were developed on base of detailed cognitive item models for basic Grade 1 competencies, such as counting, as well as decomposition and addition with low numbers and high numbers (Fuson, 1988, Fritz & Ricken, 2008, Krajewski & Schneider, 2009). Those items were spread over a main test plus 6 different test booklets and administered to a total of 5963 first graders within the Luxembourgish national school monitoring Épreuves standardisées. Results of this pilot study are highly promising, giving information about different student’s behaviors patterns: The final DCM was able to distinguish between different developmental stages in the domain of numbers & operations, on group, as well as on individual level. Whereas roughly 14% of students didn’t master any of the assessed competencies, 34% of students mastered all of them including addition with high numbers. The remaining 52% achieved different stages of competency development, 8% of students are classified only mastering counting, 15% of students also can master addition with low numbers, meanwhile 20% of students additionally can master decomposition, all these patterns reflect developmental models of children’s counting and concept of numbers (Fritz & Ricken, 2008; see also Braeuning et al, 2021). Information that could potentially be used to substantially enhance large-scale assessment feedback and to offer further guidance for teachers on what to focus when teaching. To conclude, the present results make a convincing case that using fine-grained cognitive models for item development and applying DCMs that are able to statistically capture these nuances in student response behavior might be worth the (substantially) increased effort. References: Braeuning, D. et al (2021)., Long-term relevance and interrelation of symbolic and non-symbolic abilities in mathematical-numerical development: Evidence from large-scale assessment data. Cognitive Development, 58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2021.101008. Fritz, A., & Ricken, G. (2008). Rechenschwäche. utb GmbH. Fuson, K. C. (1988). Children's counting and concepts of number. Springer-Verlag Publishing. Rupp, A. A., Templin, J. L., & Henson, R. A. (2010). Diagnostic measurement: Theory, methods, and applications. New York, NY: Guildford Press. Von Davier, M., & Lee, Y. S. (2019). Handbook of diagnostic classification models. Cham: Springer International Publishing. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation and Psychometric Analysis of 32 cognitive item models spanning Grades 1 to 7 in the mathematical domain of numbers & operations
Michels, Michael Andreas UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, November)

Today’s educational field has a tremendous hunger for valid and psychometrically sound items to reliably track and model students’ learning processes. Educational large-scale assessments, formative ... [more ▼]

Today’s educational field has a tremendous hunger for valid and psychometrically sound items to reliably track and model students’ learning processes. Educational large-scale assessments, formative classroom assessment, and lately, digital learning platforms require a constant stream of high-quality, and unbiased items. However, traditional development of test items ties up a significant amount of time from subject matter experts, pedagogues and psychometricians and might not be suited anymore to nowadays demands. Salvation is sought in automatic item generation (AIG) which provides the possibility of generating multiple items within a short period of time based on the development of cognitively sound item templates by using algorithms (Gierl & Haladyna, 2013; Gierl et al., 2015). The present study psychometrically analyses 35 cognitive item models that were developed by a team of national subject matter experts and psychometricians and then used for algorithmically producing items for the mathematical domain of numbers & shapes for Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the Luxembourgish school system. Each item model was administered in 6 experimentally varied versions to investigate the impact of a) the context the mathematical problem was presented in, and b) problem characteristics which cognitive psychology identified to influence the problem solving process. Based on samples from Grade 1 (n = 5963), Grade 3 (n = 5527), Grade 5 (n = 5291), and Grade 7 (n = 3018) collected within the annual Épreuves standardisées, this design allows for evaluating whether psychometric characteristics of produced items per model are a) stable, b) can be predicted by problem characteristics, and c) are unbiased towards subgroups of students (known to be disadvantaged in the Luxembourgish school system). After item calibration using the 1-PL model, each cognitive model was analyzed in-depth by descriptive comparisons of resulting IRT parameters, and the estimation of manipulated problem characteristics’ impact on item difficulty by using the linear logistic test model (LLTM, Fischer, 1972). Results are truly promising and show negligible effects of different problem contexts on item difficulty and reasonably stable effects of altered problem characteristics. Thus, the majority of developed cognitive models could be used to generate a huge number of items (> 10.000.000) for the domain of numbers & operations with known psychometric properties without the need for expensive field-trials. We end with discussing lessons learned from item difficulty prediction per model and highlighting differences between the Grades. References: Fischer, G. H. (1973). The linear logistic test model as an instrument in educational research. Acta Psychologica, 36, 359-374. Gierl, M. J., & Haladyna, T. M. (Eds.). (2013). Automatic item generation: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Routledge. Gierl, M. J., Lai, H., Hogan, J., & Matovinovic, D. (2015). A Method for Generating Educational Test Items That Are Aligned to the Common Core State Standards. Journal of Applied Testing Technology, 16(1), 1–18. [less ▲]

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See detailMO-Gym: A Library of Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning Environments
Alegre, Lucas Nunes; Felten, Florian UL; Talbi, El-Ghazali UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, November)

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See detailAUSLEGUNG eines BIOMECHANISCHEN TESTSTANDES für das BECKEN einschließlich der MUSKELKRÄFTE des GANGZYKLUS
Soliman, Ahmed Abdelsalam Mohamed UL; Ricci, Pierre-Louis; Kedziora, Slawomir UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 28)

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See detailLearning to Grasp on the Moon from 3D Octree Observations with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Orsula, Andrej UL; Bøgh, Simon; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 24)

Extraterrestrial rovers with a general-purpose robotic arm have many potential applications in lunar and planetary exploration. Introducing autonomy into such systems is desirable for increasing the time ... [more ▼]

Extraterrestrial rovers with a general-purpose robotic arm have many potential applications in lunar and planetary exploration. Introducing autonomy into such systems is desirable for increasing the time that rovers can spend gathering scientific data and collecting samples. This work investigates the applicability of deep reinforcement learning for vision-based robotic grasping of objects on the Moon. A novel simulation environment with procedurally-generated datasets is created to train agents under challenging conditions in unstructured scenes with uneven terrain and harsh illumination. A model-free off-policy actor-critic algorithm is then employed for end-to-end learning of a policy that directly maps compact octree observations to continuous actions in Cartesian space. Experimental evaluation indicates that 3D data representations enable more effective learning of manipulation skills when compared to traditionally used image-based observations. Domain randomization improves the generalization of learned policies to novel scenes with previously unseen objects and different illumination conditions. To this end, we demonstrate zero-shot sim-to-real transfer by evaluating trained agents on a real robot in a Moon-analogue facility. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacting the computerization and Digitalization in Luxembourg: the case of teachers and education
Noguera, Carmen UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 21)

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See detail“Challenge accepted”. The many sources to catch the history of virality and memes
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 20)

Gifs and memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016), “buzz” on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Godwin’s Law, Dancing babies, Hamster Dance, cf ... [more ▼]

Gifs and memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016), “buzz” on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Godwin’s Law, Dancing babies, Hamster Dance, cf. McGrath, 2019). Virality has developed and changed over time, may it be related to forms (macro images, videos, etc.) and platforms (YouTube, 4Chan, Twitter, TikTok, etc.), audiences, curation and dissemination (with features encouraging spreadability within social platforms), etc., while relying on some patterns that were identified by Shifman (2014), Milner (2018), Jenkins (2009) and others. However, history and diachronic approaches still remain underrepresented in studies of online virality, although Finn Brunton’s Spam, Jason Eppink’s visual history of gifs (2014), or the Memes entry in The Sage Handbook of Web History (McGrath, 2019) can be mentioned. Historicizing virality through times, spaces and platforms is at the heart of the Hivi project at C2DH, University of Luxembourg (https://hivi.uni.lu). While starting to historicize these “Internet phenomena”, may it be Numa Numa Guy, Leave Britney Alone, Grumpy Cat, the Harlem Shake, Distracted Boyfriends, etc., challenges related to sources become more and more obvious: researchers have to deal with ephemerality as well as data overload, with several spaces of heritagization on the live and archived web, with gaps, silences and noises, issues of searchability in web archives, etc. This presentation focused on a case study, the Harlem Shake, to first demonstrate the variety of sources and spaces (physical and digital) that may be used to retrieve and rebuild this phenomenon (i.e., press, audiovisual content, archived web in several institutions, live web and platforms, etc.). It then presented the challenges related to this kind of reconstruction that is also strongly intertwining vernacular and commercial cultures; sound, video, textual contents; local as well as international spaces, etc. [less ▲]

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See detail“Small is impactful”. Memes and Politics
Pailler, Fred UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 20)

From the Hampster Dance and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to the hijacking meme of Bernie and his mittens at the US presidential inauguration or the images of the Evergreen blocked in ... [more ▼]

From the Hampster Dance and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to the hijacking meme of Bernie and his mittens at the US presidential inauguration or the images of the Evergreen blocked in the Suez Canal, memes have become in the last twenty years an important part of our digital cultures (Shifman, 2014), whose often absurd, playful, corrosive and viral character cannot hide also multiple political dimensions. To the question "Do Memes have politics", to paraphrase Langdon Winner (1980), the answer is undoubtedly yes and this presentation aims to analyse the many levels of politics and agencies at stake when studying memes and their impact, in terms of digital cultures, governance, curation, sharing (John, 2017), appropriation by several communities, but also writing of their history. The first part of the presentation unfolded several levels of politics, starting with the most obvious (memes address political aspects, see for example Denisova, 2019 or Askanius and Keller, 2021) to the more hidden levels (politics of meme generators, of heritagization platform like Know your Meme (Pettis, 2021), of curation …). Relying on a diachronic approach, from the Godwin Law to Distracted Boyfriend, through Leave Britney Alone, this part aimed to address both complementary sides of these Internet phenomena: memes as political forms and politics of memes, while underlying some economic, gendered, affective dimensions which are part of their impact. We then examined the consequences of the notion of “impact” and “politics” for the shaping of an history of memes, which is at stake in the Hivi (A history of online virality) project, we are currently conducting, may it be in terms of sources, methods (“scalable” and “medium” reading), or topics (notably claiming for a study of circulation and flow (Jenkins, 2009), of processes, of participation (Milner, 2018) and appropriation, beyond a sole semiotic approach of memes). References Tina Askanius, Nadine Keller, “Murder fantasies in memes: fascist aesthetics of death threats and the banalization of white supremacist violence”, Information, Communication & Society, 2021, vol. 0, n° 0, p. 1 18. Anastasia Denisova, Internet memes and society: social, cultural, and political contexts, New York, Routledge, 2019. Nicholas A. John, The age of sharing, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2017. Henry Jenkins, If It Doesn’t Spread, It’s Dead (Part One): Media Viruses and Memes, 2009 (http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html). Ryan Milner, The world made meme: Public conversations and participatory media, Cambridge MA, The MIT Press, 2018. Ben Tadayoshi Pettis, “Know your Meme and the Homogeneization of Web History”, Internet Histories, 2021 (to be soon published). Limor Shifman, Memes in digital culture, Cambridge MA, The MIT Press, 2014. Langdon Winner, “Do artifacts have politics ?”, Daedalus, vol. 109, n°1, 1980, p. 121-136. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial ECREA panel : Rethinking digital sources — making web archives useful for future scholars
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 20)

The aim of this panel was to draw attention to the large number of archived web collections, and to rethink the challenges and possibilities that they constitute for studies of past and present mediated ... [more ▼]

The aim of this panel was to draw attention to the large number of archived web collections, and to rethink the challenges and possibilities that they constitute for studies of past and present mediated communication. The point of departure is the international network WARCnet, Web ARChive studies net- work researching web domains and events (warcnet.eu), that is composed of humanities scholars, IT-developers, and web archivists, and that aims at promoting national and transnational research that will help us to understand the history of (trans)national web domains and of transnational events on the web, drawing on the increasingly important digital cultural heritage held in national web archives. [less ▲]

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See detailLet’s talk about web archiving … three institutions, many possibilities
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 18)

This presentation focused on three oral interviews I conducted during the COVID crisis, respectively with the BnL (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg, Els, 2020) in Luxembourg and with INA (Institut ... [more ▼]

This presentation focused on three oral interviews I conducted during the COVID crisis, respectively with the BnL (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg, Els, 2020) in Luxembourg and with INA (Institut national de l’audiovisuel, Schafer, 2020b) and BnF (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Gebeil et al., 2020) in France, to document their web archiving practices and choices during the pandemic. Oral histories not only document the collections and often hidden practices of crawling, selecting, curating and preserving data. They also provide a lot of information on living collections, on the challenges at stake and on human participation in this process. It also enlightens values and governance of web archives and web archiving practices (Schafer and Winters, 2021). Moreover, documenting web archiving is necessary for the current and future work of researchers and may help them to better understand their datasets, the representativeness of collections, bias and limits as well as the strengths of these web archives. Our presentation first compared the practices in the three institutions we selected as case studies for this presentation, in terms of perimeters, curation, stakeholders, targets - INA being a specific case as it focused more precisely on Twitter and retrieved data from the Twitter API, while the BnL and BnF targeted websites more widely (and some social networks but in a less systematic way). We also explained how these oral histories may help to better understand the shaping of web archives. We finally gave several concrete examples of the usefulness of this material for researchers who conduct research on web archives, and more specifically on the COVID crisis, in terms of transnational approaches, and silences and noises in web archives (Brügger, 2018), etc. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieve me if you can... Women and COVID through Web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 18)

The COVID crisis has been a shared worldwide and collective experience from March 2020 and lot of voices have echoed each other, may it be related to grief, lockdown, masks and vaccines, homeschooling ... [more ▼]

The COVID crisis has been a shared worldwide and collective experience from March 2020 and lot of voices have echoed each other, may it be related to grief, lockdown, masks and vaccines, homeschooling, etc. However, this unprecedented crisis has also deepened asymmetries and failures within societies, in terms of occupational fields, economic inequalities, health and sanitary access, and we could extend the inventory of these hidden and more visible gaps that were reinforced during the crisis. Women and gender were also at stake when it came to this sanitary crisis, may it be to discuss the better management of the crisis by female politicians, domestic violence during the lockdown, decreasing production of papers by female research scientists, homeschooling and mental load of women, etc. In December 2021, our AWAC2 team submitted several topics to the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) community and invited the international organization to select one of them that the team would investigate in depth, based on the unique IIPC Covid collection of web archives. Women, gender and COVID was the winning topic. As a cohort team within the AUT (Archives Unleashed Team) program, the AWAC2 team benefited from a privileged access to this collection, thanks to Archive-It and through ARCH, and from regular mentorship by the AUT team. It allowed us to investigate and analyse this huge collection of 5.3 TB, 161 757 lines for the CSV on domain frequency CSV, 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text of web pages. Accepting the challenge, the AWAC2 team organized a datathon in March 2022 in Luxembourg to investigate and retrieve the many traces of women, gender and COVID in web archives, while mixing close and distant reading. This panel, chaired by Valérie Schafer, aimed to present this research, entwining technical, epistemological, and methodological issues and challenges with our results. Valérie Schafer began the panel by presenting an overview of the project, including a presentation of the IIPC corpus, of the AUT cohort program and of the research topic. Karin de Wild and Joshgun Sirajzade presented the AUT tools and interfaces, the technical challenges of the corpus, the choices we made (and notably with regards to multilingualism) as well as the tools and methodologies that were used. Finally, Susan Aasman and Sophie Gebeil presented some results and challenges of this research. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieving traces of the Luxembourg WebSphere through its first websites
Noguera, Carmen UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 18)

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See detailKeynote by panel on Looking ahead: after web (archives)?
Noguera, Carmen UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 18)

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See detailHistoire des territoires belges annexés au IIIe Reich
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 15)

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See detailLiteracy mit Kleinkindern mit Erzieher*Innen und Eltern in Kindertagestätten
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 14)

In 2017 führte Luxemburg ein mehrsprachiges Programm in der frühkindlichen Bildung ein: kleine Kinder lernen Luxemburgisch und machen sich mit Französisch vertraut, außerdem werden ihre Familiensprachen ... [more ▼]

In 2017 führte Luxemburg ein mehrsprachiges Programm in der frühkindlichen Bildung ein: kleine Kinder lernen Luxemburgisch und machen sich mit Französisch vertraut, außerdem werden ihre Familiensprachen wertgeschätzt. Literacy Aktivitäten in mehreren Sprachen sowie eine enge Zusammenarbeit mit Eltern sollen dies gewährleisten. Eine Umfrage sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „Zusammenarbeit mit Eltern und Multiliteracies“ (COMPARE) zeigen, dass viele Erzieher*Innen Kindern in mehreren Sprachen vorlesen, dass die Qualität der Interaktionen aber sehr unterschiedlich ist. Eine Umfrage mit Eltern verdeutlicht zudem, dass etwa die Hälfte der Teilnehmer ihren Kindern in der Familiensprachen vorlasen. Dieser Beitrag wird Einblicke in die ersten Ergebnisse der Studie COMPARE geben mit besonderem Fokus auf die Literacy Aktivitäten, die Eltern gemeinsam mit Erzieher*Innen in drei Kindertagesstätten in 2020-2021 durchführten. Wir zeigen, dass die gemeinsamen Aktivitäten mit den Eltern zur Entwicklung von Multiliteracy Praktiken und der Wertschätzung von Familiensprachen führen kann, wenn die Erzieher*Innen ein gutes Verständnis von Literacy haben, in Bildungspartnerschaften investieren und sich Sprachhierarchien bewusst sind. [less ▲]

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See detailNvidia Omniverse for Active Space Debris Removal Missions, an Overview
Li, Xiao UL; Richard, Antoine UL; Loumpasefski, Olga-Orsalia UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 13)

Earth orbits have an increasingly worrying space debris pollution problem caused by millions of human-made objects left in space. These are becoming a hazard for current and future space missions. Many ... [more ▼]

Earth orbits have an increasingly worrying space debris pollution problem caused by millions of human-made objects left in space. These are becoming a hazard for current and future space missions. Many solutions to deal with space debris problems have been proposed, including Active Space Debris Removal (ASDR) methods. In this thriving field, various technologies are under development, among them, systems based on tethers, nets, lasers, or robotic arms can be found. However, testing such systems on earth is challenging, recreating space-like conditions, such as accurate contact dynamics under microgravity, is particularly difficult. Nonetheless, it is of paramount importance to offer testing environments for clean space technologies, as space is unforgiving, and space devices must go through thorough evaluation processes to ensure peak efficiency. The HELEN project aims at fulfilling this very need. Building on one of the most advanced simulation frameworks, it will provide photo-realistic rendering, an accurate physical simulation of the space environment, and eventually, through Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL), simulation of microgravity in ground facilities. This project is the result of the collaboration between SpaceR (University of Luxembourg), and Spacety (Industry). This simulation will be used to test FlexeS, an ASDR capturing system, which is under development. In HELEN, the accuracy of the physics is particularly important, as FlexeS will be validated through simulated HIL scenarios. Hence, a lifelike depiction of the microgravity environment, as well as the collisions, is critical. Moreover, to intercept and grab the debris FlexeS will rely on computer vision algorithms, thus photo-realistic graphics, allowing for lifelike visualizations are required. Furthermore, for future HIL testing, the ROS bridge and real-time communication capacity are crucial to connect the virtual world with the Zero-G robotic facility of the University of Luxembourg. In such a manner, FlexeS will be visualized in the space surroundings while simultaneously undergoing hardware experiments. With all these constraints in mind, Nvidia's Issac Sim was selected to create on-orbit dynamic scenarios. It not only meets all the requirements above but also provides a variety of sensors. Consequently, HELEN is creating on-orbit simulations featuring a CubeSat embedded with FlexeS, and debris circling the Earth. The scenarios showcase the digital twin of the capturing system intercepting debris, corresponding to the approaching phase in ASDR missions. Visually speaking, the RTX render engine allows for photo-realistic image generation. Regarding the motion of these objects, force-based astrodynamics is implemented into the simulation following the gravitational equation. Faithful velocities, position, and contacts are inferred by Nvidia's physics engine, PhysX. Scaled real-life values are used for the mass, as well as the orbital velocity and altitude. Thus, accurate simulations of contact dynamics between the system and the debris can be achieved. In the future, using a ROS bridge, the simulation will be connected to the HIL testing system of the Zero-G facility, amounting to a wholesome ASDR testing framework. Overall, the realistic simulations created with Isaac Sim are promising for analyzing clean space technologies. They combine photo-realistic scenes, accurate physics, and in the future, a means to test real hardware systems. [less ▲]

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See detailCentralized or not Centralized? Topology Analysis of the XRP Ledger
Tumas, Vytautas UL; Rivera, Sean UL; Magoni, Damien et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 12)

XRP is one of the oldest, well-established cryptocurrencies. Despite the popularity of XRP, little is known about its underlying peer-to-peer network. The structural properties of a network impact its ... [more ▼]

XRP is one of the oldest, well-established cryptocurrencies. Despite the popularity of XRP, little is known about its underlying peer-to-peer network. The structural properties of a network impact its efficiency, security and robustness. We aim to close the knowledge gap by providing a detailed analysis of the XRP overlay network. In this paper we examine the graph-theoretic properties of the XRP Network topology and its temporal characteristics. We crawl the XRP Network over two months and collect 1,290 unique network snapshots. We uncover a small group of nodes that act as a networking backbone. In addition, we observe a high network churn, with a third of the nodes changing every five days. Our findings have strong implications for the resilience and safety of the XRP Ledger. [less ▲]

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See detailConcept of an Active Debris Removal 2-step capturing system for small satellites in Low Earth Orbit
Hubert Delisle, Maxime UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 12)

Space debris brings up two main critical issues: not only a non-sustainable space environment for satellite missions, with orbit saturation, but also the creation of an unsafe place for human-related ... [more ▼]

Space debris brings up two main critical issues: not only a non-sustainable space environment for satellite missions, with orbit saturation, but also the creation of an unsafe place for human-related space missions. Despite being extremely challenging, catching autonomously and harmlessly an uncooperative object tumbling at high velocity demand reliability, compliance, and robustness. Grasping an object in microgravity means having control during the impact, but also keeping the link between the chaser satellite and the debris secure enough to handle the deorbiting phase. Supposing that the GNC installed tackles the synchronization with the debris rotation, so that only a linear translation is necessary to capture, three main problems can occur. The first problem can occur at the impact between the servicer and the debris. Due to the motion-reaction law, the debris could be pushed away if the capturing system does not prevent that motion. Besides, a high stiffness of the system, added to an unexpected strong impact, could damage either the servicer and/or the debris, resulting in a mission failure. Moreover, the need for a secure attach is required to go-on with the deorbit phase without losing the debris. That’s why, thanks to the fruitful collaboration between industry and academia (Spacety Luxembourg - SpaceR research group at the University of Luxembourg), a cutting-edge concept of a two-step capturing mechanism is being designed. Data analysis of trackable objects in LEO reveals an abundant number of CubeSat-shaped satellites, that future constellations might also take advantage of. Consequently, the concept presented is focusing on capturing these, at their end of life. A first ‘soft capture’ ensures that the debris is received softly while dampening any vibrations generated. A gecko-inspired adhesive surface will first receive the debris, preventing it from being pushed away. The property of such dry adhesive is that they do not require a high preload to stick to the surface, while having a very strong adhesion. To absorb most of the vibrations or movements due to the first impact, a compliant mechanism will be integrated behind the adhesive part. To that extent, if the alignment is not perfect, the system has some degrees of freedom, so that no damage can be generated. This compliant and sticky system would prevent the first main two issues of capturing an uncooperative target in microgravity. Then, a ‘hard capture’ secures the debris so that it would be deorbited without being released on the way. This part of the system would either gently squeeze the debris, using controlled adhesive flexible arms, or encircle it, and would be designed in compliance of ESA guidelines for demise. A two-step capturing mechanism is here proposed, taking advantage of bio-inspired dry adhesive technology, and compliant mechanisms, while having ESA guidelines in mind. Bringing the advantage of removing a vast range of objects in orbit, it also allows a reliable capturing, removing risks of generating more debris. Later works would bring attention to architecture that would fit more than a box shape. [less ▲]

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See detailRace and gender homophily in collaborations and citations
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R. et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 09)

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See detail3D Modelling for AR and 3D printing in Teacher Training
Ulbrich, Eva; El Bedewy, Shereen; Handl, Julia et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October 07)

School activities integrating students’ environments into teaching aim to develop skills and strategies to solve problems in real-world situations and can be useful in hybrid teaching. Such activities can ... [more ▼]

School activities integrating students’ environments into teaching aim to develop skills and strategies to solve problems in real-world situations and can be useful in hybrid teaching. Such activities can encourage and motivate exploring skills in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM). Hybrid teaching usually uses technologies and connects virtual and physical worlds. We use technologies like 3D modelling for Augmented Reality (AR) or 3D printing with GeoGebra and created an exercise introducing them in a lecture for pre-service mathematics students. The exercise combines the possibility to introduce these technologies, can be used in hybrid teaching and connects to the Austrian mathematics curriculum. The exercise consists of 3D modelling mathematical mazes that can be explored using AR on handheld devices and can also be 3D printed. We used it in online, offline and hybrid scenarios with pre- and in-service teachers and will show resulting presentations of teacher projects. [less ▲]

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See detailAugmented Reality in primary education: New learning opportunities for students with learning difficulties in mathematics education
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavizcza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2022, October 06)

Although there are manifold connections between mathematics, foremost geometry, and the real-world (e.g., architecture, arts, functional objects), integration seldom happens in daily learning lessons in ... [more ▼]

Although there are manifold connections between mathematics, foremost geometry, and the real-world (e.g., architecture, arts, functional objects), integration seldom happens in daily learning lessons in mathematics primary education. Learning three-dimensional geometric shapes, for example, is mainly done in a two-dimensional setting using textbooks instead of three-dimensional settings using technology or didactical material. This circumstance, however, makes it far more difficult for students with learning difficulties in mathematics to understand mathematical properties, recognize shapes in the real world, and understand the possibilities of modulating shapes. Students with learning difficulties learn efficient strategies to apply mathematics to their environment when shapes and connections are visualized with Augmented Reality within the real world. Based on several experiences and studies, we will present and discuss learning mathematics with Augmented Reality in primary education for students with learning difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailL'espace frontalier franco-luxembourgeois vu depuis le Luxembourg
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 02)

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See detailNon-Coherent Massive MIMO Integration in Satellite Communication
Monzon Baeza, Victor UL; Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Querol, Jorge UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, October)

Massive Multiple Input-Multiple Output (mMIMO) technique has been considered an efficient standard to improve the transmission rate significantly for the following wireless communication systems, such as ... [more ▼]

Massive Multiple Input-Multiple Output (mMIMO) technique has been considered an efficient standard to improve the transmission rate significantly for the following wireless communication systems, such as 5G and beyond. However, implementing this technology has been facing a critical issue of acquiring much channel state information. Primarily, this problem becomes more criticising in the integrated satellite and terrestrial networks (3GPP-Release 15) due to the countable high transmission delay. To deal with this challenging problem, the mMIMO-empowered non-coherent technique can be a promising solution. To our best knowledge, this paper is the first work considering employing the non-coherent mMIMO in satellite communication systems. This work aims to analyse the challenges and opportunities emerging with this integration. Moreover, we identified the issues in this conjunction. The preliminary results presented in this work show that the performance measured in bit error rate (BER) and the number of antennas are not far from that required for terrestrial links. Furthermore, thanks to mMIMO in conjunction with the non-coherent approach, we can work in a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, which is an excellent advantage for satellite links. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren’s perspectives on their learning experiences during the pandemic
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October)

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See detailEnabling Elements of Simulations Digital Twins and its Applicability for Information Superiority in Defence Domain
Aggarwal, Kapish; Bögel, Elias; La Rosa Betancourt, Manuel et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September 29)

The emerging concept of digital twins is the key enabler for modelling and simulations needs of any future-ready entity. Digital twins enable rapid transformation of requirements into capabilities at much ... [more ▼]

The emerging concept of digital twins is the key enabler for modelling and simulations needs of any future-ready entity. Digital twins enable rapid transformation of requirements into capabilities at much lower costs, compared to conventional methods, through enhancement of modularity and scalability. Elements of a modelling and simulations digital twin are discussed in this paper. These capabilities include, but are not limited to, surrogate modelling, optimization, parallelization, high performance computing, cloud architecture design, etc. These concepts are relevant for the integration of modelling and simulations technologies into a single interface digital twin for rapid prototyping and qualification of engineering systems. Use of these emerging technologies leads to significantly less simulation computation time (reduced from hours/days to seconds or even micro-seconds) compared to the conventional methods. Ease-of-collaboration with all stakeholders, reduced testing time, minimal on-site infrastructure requirements are the key cost-reducing advantages found in this study. Applicability of such intelligent and online digital twins for information superiority to enhance cybersecurity and on-board threat assessment of space-based (defence) services is analysed. The use of these synchronized and interoperable capabilities mitigates both reversible and non-reversible physical and cyber threats to defence space infrastructure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of media in language teaching
Lejot, Eve UL; Krames, Marion

Scientific Conference (2022, September 24)

Multilingual teaching and the promotion of multilingualism among students are important principles of the University of Luxembourg. For their implementation, a variety of e-learning resources are used ... [more ▼]

Multilingual teaching and the promotion of multilingualism among students are important principles of the University of Luxembourg. For their implementation, a variety of e-learning resources are used, adapted to the needs of the learners. We will give an overview of new multimodal communication practices and methods used by learners in multilingual contexts which naturally lead teachers to rethink their approach and incorporate media into their teaching strategies. The hybrid nature of devices (computers, tablets, televisions, smartphones, paper, interactive whiteboards, etc.) and digital tools (document sharing platforms, online correction tools, interactive exercises, online learning programmes, dictionaries, video editing software, automatic pronunciation correction, etc.) offer a great potential to interactive and mobile teaching and learning. We will illustrate this potential by giving an example of how to develop text production competence in Chinese as a foreign language in a motivating way using the content management system Moodle. Our reflection aims at optimising the quality of language teaching both in and out of the classroom. [less ▲]

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See detailHardware-in-the-loop Proximity Operations in Cislunar Space
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Makhdoomi, Mohatashem Reyaz UL; Barad, Kuldeep Rambhai UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September 20)

Space missions to Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) in the Earth-Moon system are upcoming. A rendezvous technique in the cislunar space is proposed in this investigation, one that leverages coupled ... [more ▼]

Space missions to Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) in the Earth-Moon system are upcoming. A rendezvous technique in the cislunar space is proposed in this investigation, one that leverages coupled orbit and attitude dynamics in the Circular Restricted Three-body Problem (CR3BP). An autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technique is demonstrated in which a chaser spacecraft approaches a target spacecraft in the southern 9:2 synodic-resonant L2 Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit (NRHO), one that currently serves as the baseline for NASA's Gateway. A two-layer control approach is contemplated. First, a nonlinear optimal controller identifies an appropriate baseline rendezvous path, both in position and orientation. As the spacecraft progresses along the pre-computed baseline path, optical sensors measure the relative pose of the chaser relative to the target. A Kalman filter processes these observations and offers precise state estimates. A linear controller compensates for any deviations identified from the predetermined rendezvous path. The efficacy of the GNC technique is tested by considering a complex scenario in which the rendezvous operation is conducted with a non-cooperative tumbling target. Hardware-in-the-loop laboratory experiments are conducted as proof-of-concept to validate the guidance algorithm, with observations supplemented by optical navigation techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailA Communal Struggle: Team-Teaching at the University of Luxembourg
Rivas, Salvador UL; Bes Izuel, Maria Asuncion UL; Zutavern, Jan UL

Scientific Conference (2022, September 15)

INTRODUCTION Team-teaching, also known as collaborative-teaching, co-teaching and pair-lecturing has been practiced for ages (Buckley 2000). It is generally described as a positive pedagogical practice ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Team-teaching, also known as collaborative-teaching, co-teaching and pair-lecturing has been practiced for ages (Buckley 2000). It is generally described as a positive pedagogical practice that can both enhance learning among students and the experience of teaching among instructors (Plank 2011, 2014). While it is acknowledged that team-teaching is not simple and requires great coordination among instructors, it is presented in gleaming terms for both instructors and students alike. More recent work highlights an increased necessity for collaborative-teaching due to the growing complexity in higher education combined with dwindling resources (Minett-Smith and Davis 2020), or as a deliberate cost-saving measure (Liebel et al. 2017). Yet, little quantitative evidence can be found in the literature showing the positive efficacy of this methodology, relative to Student Evaluation Teaching (SET) measures (for exception see: Carpenter et al. 2007). Thus, this study aims to answer: 1) how prevalent is team-teaching; 2) what are the most common team compositions (number of instructors, gender, instructor status and seniority); 3) are there any significant differences in SET scores relative to differences in composition; and 4) what can we learn from the open-text feedback to help us understand, or contextualize, any quantitative differences found between solo- versus team-taught courses? DATA & METHODS To address our research questions and investigate the contours of team teaching in the Faculty of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (FHSE) at the University of Luxembourg, we use SET data (course feedback), as an indirect measure of quality of education (Marsh 2007). We use descriptive statistics and regression analysis to examine the quantitative feedback for a total of 2908 courses collected over eight semesters (Winter semester 2015-Summer semester 2019). We compliment these results with content analysis of open-text comments that help us understand and contextualize the quantitative findings. PRELIMINARY RESULTS While course feedback data does not directly measure the quality of learning experienced by students (i.e., whether students learn better in team-taught courses vs. solo instructor courses), it does however shed light on the general sentiment experienced and reported by participating students. Preliminary analyses indicate that approximately 30% of courses are team-taught (60% with two-person teams and 40% with teams of 3 and 4+ instructors). Furthermore, we found that, on average, team-taught courses receive significantly lower ratings from students than solo instructor courses. In the remainder of this article, we analyse this basic finding and discuss the implications for team teaching. [less ▲]

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See detail3D printed mathematics visualisations by STEAM teachers
Ulbrich, Eva; Tejera, Mathias; Haas, Ben et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September 12)

Visualising abstract concepts such as for example geometrical objects in mathematics can be a valuable support for learners. Visualisation, however, is a process involving several steps that influence ... [more ▼]

Visualising abstract concepts such as for example geometrical objects in mathematics can be a valuable support for learners. Visualisation, however, is a process involving several steps that influence each other. Duval (1998) uses steps connecting reasoning by an explanation or proof to a construction step involving tools creating a visualisation to a production of a visual representation leading to new insights about a geometrical object. Vágová (2020) argues that visualising geometrical objects needs the ability to create, manipulate, and transform mental images by an internal and an external representation which both require information about the spatial arrangement. 3D modelled and then visualised geometrical objects can support the development and train visualisation skills. Steps of visualisation processes require visuospatial competencies and are also important for other subjects in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM) education (Ng 2017). Being able to understand representations and their spatial rotations, transitions between 2D and 3D and being able to manipulate representations are valuable for STEAM related subjects (Kok 2020). Martin-Dorta et al. (2008) says that spatial abilities can be improved using real and computer-aided models. 3D printing can therefore be an interesting activity as it also combines the mentioned steps in a mathematical modelling way. This approach was used in a beginners course for pre-service mathematics teachers and some of them chose to create mathematical proofs as visualisation. We will look at 3D printed objects, which concepts they visualise and what teachers' ideas behind visualisations were. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre chien et loup de Christiane Jatahy (2021-2022) : un théâtre au présent, témoin des formes contemporaines de fascisme
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, September 09)

Nous entendons nous intéresser à la rencontre qui s’est déroulée, le lundi 7 mars 2022 à 20h au cinéma Mk2 Nation (Paris, 12ème), entre la mettrice en scène brésilienne, Christiane Jatahy, la philosophe ... [more ▼]

Nous entendons nous intéresser à la rencontre qui s’est déroulée, le lundi 7 mars 2022 à 20h au cinéma Mk2 Nation (Paris, 12ème), entre la mettrice en scène brésilienne, Christiane Jatahy, la philosophe Marylin Maeso, autrice de La petite fabrique de l’inhumain et la psychanalyste Clotilde Leguil, venant de publier Céder n’est pas consentir. Cet échange fut dédié à Entre chien et loup, dernier spectacle en date, voulu par l’artiste carioca précitée — à la notoriété grandissante en Europe depuis près de vingt ans — d’après le scénario du film de Lars von Trier : Dogville avec Nicole Kidman dans le rôle-titre de Grace. Cet événement liminaire nous servira à démontrer, à terme, combien cette création se révèle être un théâtre éminemment ancré dans le présent, témoignant de toutes les formes contemporaines de fascisme, par le truchement, précisément, du personnage de Grace, devenu, pour les besoins de la mise en scène, Gracia, jeune femme d’origine brésilienne, interprétée par Julia Bernat, actrice fétiche de Christiane Jatahy grâce à laquelle elle peut faire pleinement entendre sa propre voix d’artiste politiquement engagée. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging pedagogy and creative activism for early education in multilingual Luxembourg
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2022, September 07)

Luxembourg is a highly linguistically and culturally diverse country. In early education, there are 64 % of four-year old children who not speak Luxembourgish at home (MENJE, 2018). From 2017 ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is a highly linguistically and culturally diverse country. In early education, there are 64 % of four-year old children who not speak Luxembourgish at home (MENJE, 2018). From 2017, multilingual early education is mandatory, which obliges teachers to develop children’s Luxembourgish, familiarizing them with French, and valuing their home languages. Therefore, the present project aimed to: (1) offer an 18-hours professional development (PD) course in translanguaging pedagogy to 40 teachers over 6 months, (2) strengthen home-school collaboration, and (3) support children’s linguistic, socio-emotional, and cognitive development and engagement in the classroom. The results from teacher questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews, showed that there was some positive change regarding the attitudes towards children’s home languages. The interviews with 17 parents indicated that there was a need for more home-school collaboration. The tests in early literacy and numeracy with 23 preschool children over one year, identified that children performed higher in their home languages. The video observations showed that when the teachers used children’s languages in the classroom, this impacted positively their well-being. Following the principles of creative activism, the author produced: (1) the website with over 100 practical activities on how teachers can involve children’s languages and families, (2) the illustrated book Sumak for parents, showing difficulties with integration in a new country, and (3) the illustrated book, Mara’s song for preschool children, showing how Mara finds her way in the new classroom. [less ▲]

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See detail1848 und die Folgen. Geburtsstunde der Laienmusik in Luxemburg
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2022, September 06)

Im Jahr 1789 hat Luxemburg als selbstständiger und unabhängiger Staat noch nicht existiert. Es bedurfte des Wiener Kongresses (1815) und der belgischen Revolution (1830), um aus Luxemburg ein souveräner ... [more ▼]

Im Jahr 1789 hat Luxemburg als selbstständiger und unabhängiger Staat noch nicht existiert. Es bedurfte des Wiener Kongresses (1815) und der belgischen Revolution (1830), um aus Luxemburg ein souveräner Staat werden zu lassen. Bürgerliche Freiheiten wurden den Luxemburgern allerdings erst unter König-Großherzog Wilhelm II zugestanden. Mit dem Versammlungsrecht wurde der Bevölkerung auch das Vereinigungsrecht gewährt. Das Jahr 1848 bedeutet den Startpunkt und eine erste Wegmarke im Werden der Laienmusik im Großherzogtum. Im Jahr 1940 kam es mit der deutschen Besetzung zu einem abrupten Bruch einer Freiheit, die den Luxemburgern in fast einem Jahrhundert in Fleisch und Blut übergegangen zu sein schien. Der Neubeginn ab dem Jahr 1944 bedeutete eine weitere Wegmarke im Sinne von kultureller Betätigung in einer freiheitlichen Grundordnung. Im Diskurs um weitere Wegmarken sind keine politische, sondern eher soziale, pädagogische und technologische Umwälzungen ins Visier zu nehmen. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and comparison of gait impairments in patients with Parkinson’s disease and normal pressure hydrocephalus using wearable sensors and machine learning algorithms
Magni, Stefano UL; Bremm, René Peter UL; Lecossois, Sylvie et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September 05)

Objectives. Gait impairments in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) are visually assessed by movement disorders experts for diagnoses and to decide on ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Gait impairments in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) are visually assessed by movement disorders experts for diagnoses and to decide on pharmaceutical and surgical interventions. Despite standardised tests and clinicians’ expertise, such approaches entail a considerable level of subjectivity. The recent development of wearable sensors and machine learning offers complementary approaches providing more objective, quantitative assessments of gait impairments. We aim to employ the data gathered from an inertial measurement unit synchronized with a novel foot pressure sensor embedded in the patient’s shoes to characterize gait impairments. We focus on distinguishing PD from NPH and on assessing gait impairment before and after surgical intervention. Methods. A cohort of 10 PD and 10 NPH patients was assembled and patients performed standardised walking tests. Measurements were performed employing wearable sensors comprising a three-axes gyroscope, a three-axes accelerometer and eight pressure sensors embedded in each patient’s shoe. To analyse the generated data, existing algorithms were implemented and adapted. These allow to compute gait cycle parameters such as step time and metrics characterizing the swing and stance phases. Machine learning algorithms where employed to identify major changes in gait cycle parameters between the two groups of patients, and for individual patients before and after surgical intervention as DBS implantation in PD and Shunt implantation in NPH. Results. The gait impairments of both disease groups were measured and quantified. An algorithm to extract gait cycle parameters from sensors was implemented, tested and employed on such patients. Gait cycle parameters within and between the groups of PD and NPH patients were compared, assessing what gait cycle parameters allow to distinguish between these groups. Gait cycle impairments of patients before and after surgery were compared, assessing the effect of DBS or Shunt implantation and which gait cycle parameters allow to monitor symptoms improvement. Conclusions. Wearable sensors measuring pressure, combined with gait cycle parameters extraction and machine learning algorithms, have a great potential for objective evaluation of gait impairment. In particular, they allow to characterize what differentiate such impairments between PD and NPH patients, and what allow to assess motor symptoms improvement after surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailIndicators for assessing the necessity of power system flexibility: a systematic review and literature meta‐analysis
Bhuiyan, Rajon UL; Weissflog, Jan; Schoepf, Michael et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September)

There are different flexibility options to align power systems to volatile feed-in of renewable electricity sources. The flexibility options differ in the dimensions of time, spatiality, and resource type ... [more ▼]

There are different flexibility options to align power systems to volatile feed-in of renewable electricity sources. The flexibility options differ in the dimensions of time, spatiality, and resource type. To make policy decisions on future energy systems, it is necessary to get a top-down indication of how much power system flexibility is needed. With the ongoing energy transition, there is yet no comprehensive overview of indicators that describe which dimension of flexibility will be necessary to what extent for different energy systems. Therefore, this paper provides a first overview of indicators that can be used to assess the necessity of power system flexibility. Thus, we do a systematic literature review to identify indicators that allow us to estimate the necessity of power system flexibility. We conduct a meta-analysis of these indicators and categorize them as indicators that either stand for an increasing or decreasing necessity of power system flexibility. Our paper can help inform policy, assess needed changes to system operations, increase stakeholder acceptance and investor confidence in implementing new technology and measures. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Overview of Channel Models for NGSO Satellites
Monzon Baeza, Victor UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (22 UL)
See detailPolishing the Image of a Nation-State: Luxembourg and the Uses of the Past since the 1990s
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 18)

Since the 1990s the Luxembourg government has increasingly used the past to improve the country’s image. Though this use of history was not new, it has evolved significantly from the 1990s onward, both ... [more ▼]

Since the 1990s the Luxembourg government has increasingly used the past to improve the country’s image. Though this use of history was not new, it has evolved significantly from the 1990s onward, both due to international influences and to specifically Luxembourgish developments. The transformation of the cultural landscape, the organisation of large events, and the European integration process are some examples. The contribution will analyse the uses of the past by public authorities in Luxembourg within this context. The paper will cover a series of key events and initiatives since the 1990s. It aims to understand how history has been used and shaped to promote a national identity and improve Luxembourg’s image, from the 150th anniversary of independence in 1989 to the more recent nation-branding initiatives. It investigates what kind of narratives were disseminated, who the involved stakeholders were, and whether tensions existed in this process. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic Engagement with Web Archives
Brügger, Niels; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 17)

With a view to ensuring future access to digital cultural heritage, the first Web collections were established in the mid-1990s. To date there exist for example some 25 national Web archives in Europe ... [more ▼]

With a view to ensuring future access to digital cultural heritage, the first Web collections were established in the mid-1990s. To date there exist for example some 25 national Web archives in Europe that collect and preserve Web material and the Internet Archive has saved 651 billion pages since 1996. However, research projects based on the archived Web rarely engage with or include the general public. There are several reasons for this limited use of Web archives: there is a lack of awareness and a lack of examples demonstrating their value; to use them requires skills that many people do not have; and no quick and easy access is available (Winters, 2017). However, several research projects were developed which are of interest for the general public: some of them have studied national Web ('Probing a nation’s Web sphere — the historical development of the Danish Web' (DK, 2013-), 'Big UK Domain Data for the Arts and Humanities' (UK, 2014-15), etc.), others have focused on the web activity in relation to an event, for instance the terrorist attacks in France (‘Archives sauvegarde attentats Paris' (FR, 2016)). In 2020, a nationally funded researcher network has been established (WARCnet, DK). Web archiving initiatives have also been very reactive during the COVID crisis (and sometimes invited the public to nominate URLs). This resulted in huge national collections and a unique collection of international web archives gathered by the IIPC thanks to the collaboration of more than 30 web archiving institutions (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529). As leaders of and/or participants in several of these initiatives, the proposers aim to stimulate greater involvement of the public with the treasure trove to be found in Web archives. Web archives contain their histories, but these important stories are largely hidden from view. The proposers want to create a frame for developing an ambitious relationship with the public, by identifying the challenges and limits to their involvement in Digital Public History at the level of: - Web archiving How/why could we better include publics in the selection of archived content? What is the added value? What are the constraints (i.e legal deposit)? How can we make information about access to Web archives available and raise public awareness of Web archiving? - Selection and analysis of archives Web archives require good knowledge of the Web archiving process if they are to be used effectively. The identification of scarce existing resources for the general public will be coupled with a perspective on needs and tools. - Dissemination Legal and ethical issues (author rights, gender bias, etc.) must be taken into account and the very notion of what is public must be refined. All these elements advocate for an in-depth reflection and this working group is the starting point for a better inclusion of audiences in the creation/selection, use and enhancement of Web archives. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganising a “Temporary History Lab” in Esch-sur-Alzette (2019)
Harnoncourt, Julia UL; van de Maele, Jens UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 17)

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See detailUnlinkability of an Improved Key Agreement Protocol for EMV 2nd Gen Payments
Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL; Yurkov, Semen UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 10)

To address known privacy problems with the EMV standard, EMVCo have proposed a Blinded Diffie-Hellman key establishment protocol, which is intended to be part of a future 2nd Gen EMV protocol. We point ... [more ▼]

To address known privacy problems with the EMV standard, EMVCo have proposed a Blinded Diffie-Hellman key establishment protocol, which is intended to be part of a future 2nd Gen EMV protocol. We point out that active attackers were not previously accounted for in the privacy requirements of this proposal protocol, and demonstrate that an active attacker can compromise unlinkability within a distance of 100cm. Here, we adopt a strong definition of unlinkability that does account for active attackers and propose an enhancement of the protocol proposed by EMVCo. We prove that our protocol does satisfy strong unlinkability, while preserving authentication. [less ▲]

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See detailSOniCS: Interfacing SOFA and FEniCS for advanced constitutive models
Mazier, Arnaud UL; El Hadramy, Sidaty; Brunet, Jean-Nicolas et al

Scientific Conference (2022, August)

The Simulation Open Framework Architecture (SOFA) is a software environment for building simulations with a particular focus on real-time medical applications, e.g. surgery. Its scope is far broader than ... [more ▼]

The Simulation Open Framework Architecture (SOFA) is a software environment for building simulations with a particular focus on real-time medical applications, e.g. surgery. Its scope is far broader than the FEniCS Project, encompassing e.g. rigid body dynamics, interfacing with haptic devices, contact and visualisation. Naturally, it also includes some finite element models of soft tissue mechanics, but these capabilities are currently ‘pre-baked’ and limited to a few simple constitutive models. The goal of this work is to incorporate state-of-the-art code generation tools from the FEniCS Project into SOFA in order to hugely increase SOFA’s capabilities in terms of soft tissue mechanics. To this end we have developed a new SOFA plugin named SOniCS. For adding a new material model in SOniCS, the user describes its strain energy density function using UFL (Unified Form Language) syntax. Then, using FFCx (FEniCSx Form Compiler) we generate the C code associated with the kernels corresponding to the automatically differentiated cell-local residual and stiffness forms. Finally, we assemble these kernels in SOFA into global tensors and solve the resulting non-linear systems of equations. The result is that it is now possible to straightforwardly implement complex material models such as the Holzapfel-Ogden anisotropic model into SOFA, and to use them alongside SOFA’s existing strong feature set in medical simulation. [less ▲]

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See detailGoodness Groceries! A mobile sustainable food shopping app advocating for food literacy and ethical choices. Entailments for suppliers, consumers and researchers.
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Kapgen, Diane UL; Korjonen, Maria Helena UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, August)

Within the currently rising concerns around sustainability of food systems, in the related economic areas of regenerative production modes, responsible supply chains and informed consumption, there often ... [more ▼]

Within the currently rising concerns around sustainability of food systems, in the related economic areas of regenerative production modes, responsible supply chains and informed consumption, there often remains a practice gap between what people know they should do and what they actually do. This is preceded by a knowledge gap: the knowledge of what a sustainable product specifically is tends not to be entirely consensual, blurred with potentially contradicting injunctions between different claims of sustainability. Instead of trying to solve this puzzle with metrics, we propose an App that makes various components of sustainability transparent, thus qualifying sustainability complexity. Our aim is not to hierarchically determine ‘the best’ sustainable choice, but rather to relationally empower consumers to choose the product with the sustainability criteria that most fit their values and priorities. Goodness Groceries is a University of Luxembourg consumer study piloting a mobile sustainable food shopping app in partnership with a supermarket chain. The App acts as a virtual shopping companion providing eco-responsible and ethical product information of selected staple food products, each time for up to four types: local organic, local conventional, imported organic and imported conventional. The information provided is based on self-assessments made by product suppliers. Each food item is granted criteria in the four main areas of Environment, Social Well-being, Economic Well-being and Good Governance, subdivided into relevant indicators (cf. SAFA guidelines, FAO 2014) – marked with easy-to-recognise icons. The user-friendly App is designed to scan alternatives of the same product via a QR code whilst shopping, to analyse if this helps consumers make an informed choice – or not, and why. Starting in Spring 2022, entailments of the (ongoing) study and App in terms of structural obstacles for researchers, necessary supply chain adaptations for suppliers and analysis of consumers’ shopping habits and App usage feedback will be discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (4 UL)
See detailEtzels Vielvölkerhof – ein Modell europäisch vernetzter Herrschaft?
Bendheim, Amelie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (0 UL)
See detailMultilingualism as Challenge for Luxembourgish Literary Historiography
Glesener, Jeanne UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 UL)
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See detail"Mapping" biographies in relational databases - The case of Luxembourg soldiers in the Second World War
Janz, Nina UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 25)

The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg” researches the personal side of the history of Luxembourgish youth born between 1920 and 1927 who were enrolled into German services under the Nazi ... [more ▼]

The Impact and Legacy of War Experiences in Luxembourg” researches the personal side of the history of Luxembourgish youth born between 1920 and 1927 who were enrolled into German services under the Nazi occupation of Luxembourg during World War II. The research focuses on personal testimonies and their individual war experience to uncover these men, women, and families’ individual experiences. Using a relational database to represent their war experiences, we face several challenges, such as a data structure that is too rigid and strict to “map” the fluid and unpredictable life patterns of our study subjects. We developed a data model where we treat different life stations (military unit, POW camp etc.) as equal data levels like our recruits (as persons). Each “life station” or event we treat as a “person” and create a separate “biography” to include all relevant data. Afterwards, we link the life stations or events with the actual person in the database. The aim of my contribution is the “translation” of lives, with its twists and turns into a static data set such as a relational database to map the individual war experiences of our study object. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping collaborative practices in ECE in Luxembourg 
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 22)

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See detailHigh-Performance Computing for the simulation of particles with the Discrete Element Method
Besseron, Xavier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 21)

In this talk, we will give an overview of the main techniques used for the parallelization of numerical simulations on High-Performance Computing platforms, and provide a particular focus on the Discrete ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we will give an overview of the main techniques used for the parallelization of numerical simulations on High-Performance Computing platforms, and provide a particular focus on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), a numerical method for the simulation of the motion of granular materials. We will cover the main parallelization paradigms and their implementations (shared memory with OpenMP and distributed memory with MPI), present the performance bottlenecks and introduce load-balancing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging pedagogy and creative activism for preschool teachers, parents, and children
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 14)

There are 64 % of four-year old children who not speak Luxembourgish at home (MENJE, 2018). The government proclaimed multilingual early education mandatory in 2017, obliging teachers to develop ... [more ▼]

There are 64 % of four-year old children who not speak Luxembourgish at home (MENJE, 2018). The government proclaimed multilingual early education mandatory in 2017, obliging teachers to develop children’s Luxembourgish, familiarizing them with French, and valuing their home languages. Thus, the present project was threefold: (1) to offer an 18-hours professional development (PD) course in translanguaging pedagogy to 40 teachers over 6 months, (2) to strengthen home-school collaboration, and (3) to support children’s linguistic, socio-emotional, and cognitive development and engagement in the classroom. The results from teacher questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews, showed that there was some positive change regarding the attitudes towards children’s home languages. The interviews with 17 parents indicated that there was a need for more home-school collaboration. The tests in early literacy and numeracy with 23 preschool children over one year, identified that children performed higher in their home languages. The video observations showed that every time the teacher used children’s languages in the classroom, this impacted positively their well-being. Following the principles of creative activism, the author produced three outcomes: (1) the website with over 100 practical activities on how teachers can involve children’s languages and families, (2) the illustrated book Sumak for parents, showing difficulties with integration in a new country, and (3) the illustrated book, Mara’s song for preschool children, showing how Mara, a girl who is laughed at because of her language and culture, finds her way through singing a song inspired by a bird. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)
See detailJewish History and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 13)

This paper discusses the politics of Jewish Studies by focusing on the digitisation of Jewish cultural heritage and its effects for research into Jewish history(ies). In the past few years we have ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the politics of Jewish Studies by focusing on the digitisation of Jewish cultural heritage and its effects for research into Jewish history(ies). In the past few years we have witnessed the emergence of what could be termed the critical turn in digital humanities with an increasing focus on how digital resources shape various parts of the research process and its outcomes. One aspect of that turn is more attention to digital source criticism and the politics of digitisation of cultural heritage. There are many aspects of digitisation that can be considered “political”, from selection for digitisation to modes of access to broader questions about the political aspects of infrastructure or ‘infrapolitics’. None of these is specific to our digital age nor to Jewish Studies, and historical context is crucially important.  This paper builds upon my recent reseach into the politics of digitisation and considers the case of Jewish Studies, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation. It set outs a number of broad parameters for discussion, with the aim to encourage further debate. Questions to be addressed include: what Jewish heritage is being digitised and which stories about the Jewish past can (and cannot) be told on its basis? Which players are involved in digitisation and how do both top-down national strategies and bottom-up community initiatives guide the process? How do memory politics influence selection processes? And how does transnational heritage fare in an age where many digitisation programs are nationally framed and funded? The paper will use the historical example of the digitisation of Yiddish heritage to illustrate these questions and provide a concrete example.  [less ▲]

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See detailTowards practical Genome-Wide Association Studies: Overview and Challenges
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Volp, Marcus UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 11)

The popularization of large-scale federated Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) where multiple data owners share their genome data to conduct federated analytics uncovers new privacy issues that have ... [more ▼]

The popularization of large-scale federated Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) where multiple data owners share their genome data to conduct federated analytics uncovers new privacy issues that have remained unnoticed or not given proper attention. Indeed, as soon as a diverse type of interested parties (e.g., private or public biocenters and governmental institutions from around the globe) and individuals from heterogeneous populations are participating in cooperative studies, interdependent and multi-party privacy appear as crucial issues that are currently not adequately assessed. In fact, in federated GWAS environments, the privacy of individuals and parties does not depend solely on their own behavior anymore but also on others, because a collaborative environment opens new credible adversary models. For instance, one might want to tailor the privacy guarantees to withstand the presence of potentially colluding federation members aiming to violate other members' data privacy and the privacy deterioration that might occur in the presence of interdependent genomic data (e.g., due to the presence of relatives in studies or the perpetuation of previous genomic privacy leaks in future studies). In this work, we catalog and discuss the features, unsolved problems, and challenges to tackle toward truly end-to-end private and practical federated GWAS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (7 UL)
See detailIf there’s something strange in your [cyber]hood – who you gonna call?
Schmitz, Sandra UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 07)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 UL)
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See detailCentrality and city size effects on NO2 ground and tropospheric concentrations within European cities
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2022, July 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (20 UL)
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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
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See detailQuality of Work and Quality of Employment Profiles and their longitudinal impact on well-being
Sischka, Philipp UL; Fernandez de Henestrosa, Martha UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 06)

Many studies on job quality operationalize job quality as a composite indicator (Munoz de Bustillo et al., 2011) and investigate its link with different well-being outcomes or investigate the incremental ... [more ▼]

Many studies on job quality operationalize job quality as a composite indicator (Munoz de Bustillo et al., 2011) and investigate its link with different well-being outcomes or investigate the incremental effects of specific job characteristics on well-being. However, these variable-centered approaches on job quality ignore the fact that certain job characteristic configurations cluster in specific employee groups (Van Aeren et al., 2014). Thus, the current longitudinal study employs a person-centered approach (i.e., latent profile and transition analysis (LPA/LTA), e.g., Spurk et al., 2020) to identify groups of employees that show different job characteristic profiles (over time). Data were collected via CATI or CAWI within a stratified random sample from Luxembourg’s working population (nWave 1 = 1,689; nWave 2 = 848). The survey contains eleven quality of work and six quality of employment dimensions that were used as indicators for the latent profile analysis. Moreover, the survey contains different mental health and work-related attitudinal outcomes. Fit indices and substantive interpretability/utility were jointly considered to determine the number of profiles. To explore the relationships between the latent categorical variable and the other variables, we followed the three-step procedure (e.g., Asparouhov & Muthén, 2014) LPA revealed five profiles, i.e., poor working conditions (1), medium working conditions, high work intensity (2), high working conditions, medium work intensity (3), high working conditions, high work intensity and physical demands (4), medium working conditions, low work intensity (5). Cross-sectionally, these profiles were meaningfully linked with mental and attitudinal outcomes. LTA suggests the stability of these profiles within one year, with varying impact depending on mental health and work-related attitudinal outcome. Scholars and policy makers need to be aware of job characteristic configurations. To promote employee’s well-being organizations and policy makers need to redesign the ecological contexts of working conditions depending on its profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Risk and Price Jumps
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (1 UL)
See detailEconomic Sanctions and International Investment Law: Investor and State Defences
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 04)

This workshop examines the law and practice of economic sanctions in light of current developments in the Ukraine-Russia conflict. It explores the legality and implementation of, and possible challenges ... [more ▼]

This workshop examines the law and practice of economic sanctions in light of current developments in the Ukraine-Russia conflict. It explores the legality and implementation of, and possible challenges to, economic sanctions imposed by a number of international actors (including the US, the EU and the UK), as well as their potential impact on businesses and dispute resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailPourquoi les enseignants décident-ils de s'ouvrir aux familles ? résultats issus d'une consultation nationale au Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
Poncelet, Débora UL; Tinnes, Mélanie UL; Dierendonck, Christophe UL

Scientific Conference (2022, July 01)

En décembre 2021, une enquête, intitulée « Consultation des acteurs de l’école fondamentale. Une étude scientifique participative » a permis la collecte de données auprès des enseignants de l’école ... [more ▼]

En décembre 2021, une enquête, intitulée « Consultation des acteurs de l’école fondamentale. Une étude scientifique participative » a permis la collecte de données auprès des enseignants de l’école fondamentale et des éducateurs gradués. La thématique des relations école-famille a constitué un des aspects investigués dans l’étude. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, un intérêt croissant pour la thématique est observé. Une revue de la littérature récente (par exemple, Axford et al., 2019 ; Englund et al., 2004 ; Kim, Mok & Seidel, 2020, Roy & Giraldo-García, 2018 ; Huat See & Gorard, 2015), a montré à quel point les relations école-famille ainsi que l’engagement parental dans la scolarité de l’enfant pouvaient avoir une influence significative et positive à la fois sur les performances scolaires mais aussi sur des variables conatives (motivation scolaire, engagement ou adoption de comportements scolairement attendus). En outre, étant donné la grande diversité culturelle et socioéconomique des parents dont les enfants fréquentent l’école fondamentale comme la place accordée au partenariat avec les familles dans la loi scolaire, cette thématique est apparue comme incontournable pour le recueil de données. La théorie du comportement planifié (TCP) a été retenue comme un des modèles théorique et d’analyse des données collectées (voir exemple à ce sujet, Ajzen, 1991 ; Armitage et Conner, 2001). Ce modèle théorique vise à prédire et à expliquer un comportement au départ d’un processus cognitif et émotionnel incluant quatre éléments distincts : (1) les attitudes envers le comportement cible, (2) les normes subjectives en lien avec ce comportement, (3) le contrôle comportemental perçu et (4) l’intention d’adopter le comportement cible. Nous chercherons par conséquent à mettre en évidence l’intention des acteurs interrogés d’adopter des comportements propices à l’ouverture et à la communication envers les familles sur la base de leurs attitudes explicites. C’est ainsi que les conceptions et attitudes spécifiques, instrumentales comme affectives, ont été étudiées au départ de 6 items dont cinq sont originaux et un issu de l’instrument de Cárcamo-Vásquez & Rodríguez-Garcés (2015). En ce qui concerne les pratiques relatives à la relation école-famille, elles ont été observées par le biais de deux aspects : 1) la qualité des relations école-famille actuelles telles que perçues par les répondants (Vickers & Mincke, 1995 ; Dawson & Wymbs, 2016) et 2) les actions mises en œuvre pour susciter l’engagement des parents dans l’éducation scolaire de leur enfant soit à domicile, soit à l’école, soit par le biais des communications avec l’école (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005 ; Manz, Fantuzzo & Power, 2004). Après avoir décrit la population interrogée et fournit des informations importantes sur le contexte de l’institution scolaire luxembourgeoise en matière d’hétérogénéité des publics, nous présenterons les premiers résultats de l’enquête en ce qui concerne la thématique des relations école-famille selon la théorie du comportement planifié. Bibliographie Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. https://doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T Armitage, C. & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471-499. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466601164939 Axford, N., Berry, V., Lloyd, J., Moore, D., Rogers, M., Hurst, A., Blockley, K., Durkin,H. and Minton, J. (2019). How Can Schools Support Parents’ Engagement in their Children’s Learning? Evidence from Research and Practice. London: Education Endowment Foundation. Report available from: https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/evidence-summaries/evidence-reviews/parental-engagement/ (retrieved February 2022). Cárcamo-Vásquez, H., Rodríguez-Garcés, C. (2015). Rol parental educativo: aproximación a las percepciones que poseen los futuros profesores. Educ., 18(3), 456-470. https://DOI: 10.5294/edu.2015.18.3.5 Dawson, A. E., & Wymbs, B. T. (2016). Validity and Utility of the Parent–Teacher Relationship Scale–II. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(8), 751–764. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282915627027   Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. L., & Egeland, B. (2004). Children's Achievement in Early Elementary School: Longitudinal Effects of Parental Involvement, Expectations, and Quality of Assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 723–730. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.723 Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for OERI Grant # R305T010673. The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A Path to Enhanced Achievement. Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005. Huat See, B., & Gorard, S. (2015). The role of parents in young people’s education—a critical review of the causal evidence. Oxford Review of Education, 41, 346-366. Kim, Y., Mok, S.Y., & Seidel, T. (2020). Parental influences on immigrant students' achievement-related motivation and achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 30, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100327 Manz, P. H., Fantuzzo, J. W., & Power, T. J. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of family involvement among urban elementary students. Journal of School Psychology, 42(6), 461–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2004.08.002 Roy, M., & Giraldo-García, R. (2018). The role of parental involvement and social/emotional skills in academic achievement: Global perspectives. The School Community Journal, 28(2), 29–46. Vickers, H. S., & Minke, K. M. (1995). Exploring parent-teacher relationships: Joining and communication to others. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(2), 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0088300 [less ▲]

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See detailTowards real-time patient-specific breast simulations: from full-field information to surrogate model
Mazier, Arnaud UL; Lavigne, Thomas UL; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, July)

In breast cancer treatment, surgery is one of the most common practices [DeSantis et al., 2019]. The surgery involves a complex pipeline, principally due to the difference between the imaging and the ... [more ▼]

In breast cancer treatment, surgery is one of the most common practices [DeSantis et al., 2019]. The surgery involves a complex pipeline, principally due to the difference between the imaging and the surgical posture [Mazier et al., 2021]. Indeed, because of the stance difference, the surgeon has to rely on radioactive or invasive markers to predict the tumor position in the surgical setup. Biomechanical simulations could predict such complex tumor displacements but often require patient-specific data (material properties, organs geometries, or loading and boundary conditions). Full-field acquisitions coupled with landmark identifications allow obtaining relative deformation between the different configurations. Having this information and assuming a finite element model, an identification procedure of the model parameters can be carried out. Finally, finding a suitable computational model allowing for a compromise between accuracy and speed, one may consider surrogate models for real-time simulations (20 to 50 FPS). In this work, we obtained the patient-specific geometry through micro-computed tomography in 8 different configurations, including 15 bio-markers. Assessing the displacement of the bio-markers enabled us to infer the relative strains between the different configurations. A heterogeneous neo-Hookean model was assumed for simulating soft tissue behavior. Based on the displacements and the position of the biomarkers, model parameters identification was performed to calibrate the experimental data with the finite element method results. To overcome speed performance issues, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) trained with a synthetic simulation-based dataset generated by applying different gravity directions is used. Preliminary results show that CNN can predict the displacement of anatomical landmarks to millimetric precision and is 100 times faster than the finite element method, satisfying our real-time objective. Plus, the use of Bayesian inferences involves a longer prediction time but allows a 95% confidence interval of the biomarkers' displacements. For a given precision, contrary to CNNs, optimization methods are computationally expensive and depend on an initialization point. Although CNNs require new training for each patient, optimization algorithms can be applied regardless of the patient's geometry. Through this study, we observed that material properties were playing an essential role but not as much as the anatomical structures e.g. infra-mammary or Copper’s ligaments. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous control for satellite rendezvous in near-Earth orbits
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Zinys, Augustinas et al

Scientific Conference (2022, July)

CubeSats are being deployed for a number of activities including Earth observation, telecommunications, scientific experiments, and due to their low cost and flexibility, more often than not, they are ... [more ▼]

CubeSats are being deployed for a number of activities including Earth observation, telecommunications, scientific experiments, and due to their low cost and flexibility, more often than not, they are even being considered for use in On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) and debris removal missions. This investigation focuses on using the CubeSat technology to perform autonomous proximity operations with passive target bodies including satellites or space debris. The nonlinear coupled attitude and orbit dynamics for the chaser and the target bodies are modelled and simulated. A nonlinear optimal controller identifies an appropriate rendezvous path. A vision-based navigation system on the chaser satellite records the pose of the target body. The pose observations with stochastic uncertainties are processed using a Kalman filter, and offer state feedback along the satellite path. Such observations in conjunction with the postulated linear control algorithm anchor the chaser to approach the target by maintaining appropriate relative configuration. The linear controller delivers regular maneuvers to compensate for any deviations from the identified reference path. A close-range rendezvous operation is illustrated in a Mission Design Simulator (MDS) tool. [less ▲]

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See detailStudent-Situation Relations in Students’ Real-Time Perceptions of Instructional Quality
Talic, Irma UL; Rauthmann, John F.; Renner, K.-H. et al

Scientific Conference (2022, July)

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See detailLe travail frontalier "à distance" : les enjeux du télétravail et des espaces de coworking dans un espace transfrontalier
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

Scientific Conference (2022, June 30)

The objective of this paper is to identify the economic and social challenges of telework in the context of a cross-border labor market : Greater Region SaarLorLux, a cross-border area including ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to identify the economic and social challenges of telework in the context of a cross-border labor market : Greater Region SaarLorLux, a cross-border area including Luxembourg, Lorraine (in France), Saarland and Rhineland Palatinate (in Germany) and Wallonia (in Belgium). This area is strongly concerned by the flows of border workers (nearly 260,000 in 2021). Teleworking has been imposed by the pandemic and is not without raising a certain number of questions: legal, social, fiscal.... linked to the presence of the border between the place of residence and the place of work. In a context of mobility and congestion problems, another form of remote work has developed in recent years : coworking spaces. This paper aims to discuss these two organizational modalities of teleworking, but also their challenges for the development of the border territories of both residence and work. [less ▲]

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See detailFemmes (monoparentales) en difficultés de logement
Dujardin, Céline UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 30)

Le projet SOHOME (Social Housing and Homelessness) poursuit des questions de recherché liées aux personnes en difficultés de logement au Luxembourg. Il dresse un état de lieu actuel en explorant les ... [more ▼]

Le projet SOHOME (Social Housing and Homelessness) poursuit des questions de recherché liées aux personnes en difficultés de logement au Luxembourg. Il dresse un état de lieu actuel en explorant les offres d’aide et les pistes de solution dans le champ de l’intervention sociale. Les principales questions de recherche sont les suivantes : (1) Qu’est-ce qui caractérise la population concernée au Luxembourg ? (2) Comment les politiques sociales et le travail social répondent-ils aux enjeux identifiés ? (3) Quels sont les principaux défis du travail social dans le domaine du sans-abrisme et de l’exclusion liée au logement ? Par le biais d’une méthodologie de recherche qualitative, le projet permet de nombreux aperçus dans le champ de l’intervention sociale. La présente communication aborde la problématique des femmes en difficultés de logement qui sont accueillies seules ou avec leurs enfants dans un foyer d’urgence pour femmes. Deux questions précises guident cette partie du projet de recherche : (1) Qu’est-ce qui caractérise les femmes en difficultés de logement au Luxembourg ? (2) Quelles sont les offres d’aide du travail social et les défis rencontrés face aux femmes concernées ? Les femmes touchées par des grandes difficultés liées au logement forment un groupe statistiquement plutôt invisible parce qu’elles cherchent d’autres solutions de logement que l’hébergement en foyer d’urgence (Batista, 2010). Les résultats de notre étude montrent que les femmes encadrées sans enfants arrivent souvent plus rapidement à stabiliser leur situation (cf. Finfgeld-Connett, 2010). Par contre, les femmes de 45 ans et plus ainsi que les femmes avec enfants semblent être les groupes les plus vulnérables pris en charge par les différents foyers d’urgence pour femmes au Luxembourg. La communication abordera les résultats liés aux deux questions ciblées sur les femmes concernées en les mettant en lien avec la politique sociale au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen the “vulnerable” talk back: subjective responses and individual experiences of young refugees
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Richard, Catherine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 30)

In the context of international protection and reception, an increasing amount of interest has been given to the assessment of vulnerability among forced migrants in order to provide special provisions ... [more ▼]

In the context of international protection and reception, an increasing amount of interest has been given to the assessment of vulnerability among forced migrants in order to provide special provisions and guarantees to ‘vulnerable refugees’. However, a common definition of vulnerability does not exist. The systematisation of individuals’ experiences in pre-defined bureaucratic categories risks ignoring the contextual and contingent nature of migrants’ vulnerability, the subjective and biographical differences among those considered vulnerable and the agency of each individual facing conditions of vulnerability. Thus, in the context of the H2020 project MIMY, this paper proposes to explore the experiences and feelings of the people living in an apparent condition of vulnerability. Based on in-depth interviews with young adults who obtained refugee status in Luxembourg but still live in ‘temporary’ reception centres, the current study wants to move beyond the bureaucratic vulnerability label, questioning the relationship between structural, contingent and material conditions of vulnerability and the subjective experiences and responses of the active agents who occupy them. Additionally, bringing the stories and perspectives of young refugees living in Luxembourg to the forefront, the study points to the variability of vulnerability at the individual level in the context of integration. We propose to analyse such plurality of stories through the lens of agency and temporality, as the unique product of past personal experiences, current situations of difficulty and conditions of(in)security (based on the interrelationship between obstacles and resources) and individual future perspectives and feelings of self-efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailwenn Dinge Höflichkeit machen. Materialität der Höflichkeit in der Literatur des Mittelalters
Reicher, Ruth UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 30)

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See detailDemocracy and the digital revolution – steering an evolving paradigm
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 29)

Knowledge-based societies rely to a large extent on intangible assets and digital technologies, and these are having an increasing impact on information systems, power, governance and citizenship, driven ... [more ▼]

Knowledge-based societies rely to a large extent on intangible assets and digital technologies, and these are having an increasing impact on information systems, power, governance and citizenship, driven by a proliferation of stakeholders and networks at multiple levels (states, international organisations, private companies, civil society and citizens. There is a clear need for international regulation in this area. This paper takes a multidisciplinary approach, combining an examination of theoretical, conceptual and methodological frameworks with an analysis of relevant public and private archives, with a threefold objective: 1) to outline issues and challenges in terms of human rights, freedom and democracy; 2) to identify the regulatory provisions adopted at European and international level to promote accountability, civic engagement and digital literacy through new forms of (mediated) democracy; and 3) to identify future prospects, risks and uncertainties in the era of artificial intelligence. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb archives of the COVID-crisis : challenges related to short-term and long-term readability
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 29)

During the COVID-19 crisis many institutions have started live and special collections related to web archives of the pandemic. Many libraries have also been involved in an initiative led by the IIPC ... [more ▼]

During the COVID-19 crisis many institutions have started live and special collections related to web archives of the pandemic. Many libraries have also been involved in an initiative led by the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) to gather a huge international collection of web archives available through Archive-It. Taking as a starting point two research projects related to the analysis of the web archiving of the COVID crisis, that we conducted within WARCnet and through the AWAC2 cohort program, this presentation will focus on issues related to scalable reading, contextualization of datasets, FAIR data, sustainability, inclusiveness, etc., in order to unfold the challenges of these collections and of their analysis in a short and in a long term perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailDESIGN OF BIOMECHANICAL TESTING DEVICE FOR THE PELVIS INCLUDING GAIT MUSCLE FORCES
Soliman, Ahmed Abdelsalam Mohamed UL; Ricci, Pierre-Louis; Kedziora, Slawomir UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 27)

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See detailBackscatter-Aided NOMA V2X Communication under Channel Estimation Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 20)

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of ... [more ▼]

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of communications among wireless devices by using the existing ambient radio frequency signals. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently attracted significant attention due to its high spectral efficiency and massive connectivity. This paper proposes a new optimization framework to minimize total transmit power of BC-NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything networks (V2XneT) while ensuring the quality of services. More specifically, the base station (BS) transmits a superimposed signal to its associated roadside units (RSUs) in the first time slot. Then the RSUs transmit the superimposed signal to their serving vehicles in the second time slot exploiting decode and forward protocol. A backscatter device (BD) in the coverage area of RSU also receives the superimposed signal and reflect it towards vehicles by modulating own information. Thus, the objective is to simultaneously optimize the transmit power of BS and RSUs along with reflection coefficient of BDs under perfect and imperfect channel state information. The problem of energy efficiency is formulated as non-convex and coupled on multiple optimization variables which makes it very complex and hard to solve. Therefore, we first transform and decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and then employ iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BC-NOMA V2XneT provides high energy efficiency than the conventional NOMA V2XneT without BC. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 20)

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See detailArea-Power Analysis of FFT Based Digital Beamforming for GEO, MEO, and LEO Scenarios
Palisetty, Rakesh UL; Eappen, Geoffrey UL; Gonzalez Rios, Jorge Luis UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Satellite communication systems can provide seamless wireless coverage directly or through complementary ground terrestrial components and are projected to be incorporated into future wireless networks ... [more ▼]

Satellite communication systems can provide seamless wireless coverage directly or through complementary ground terrestrial components and are projected to be incorporated into future wireless networks, particularly 5G and beyond networks. Increased capacity and flexibility in telecom satellite payloads based on classic radio frequency technology have traditionally translated into increased power consumption and dissipation. Much of the analog hardware in a satellite communications payload can be replaced with highly integrated digital components that are often smaller, lighter, and less expensive, as well as software reprogrammable. Digital beamforming of thousands of beams simultaneously is not practical due to the limited power available onboard satellite processors. Reduced digital beamforming power consumption would enable the deployment of a full digital payload, resulting in comprehensive user applications. Beamforming can be implemented using matrix multiplication, hybrid methodology, or a discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Implementing DFT via fast Fourier transform (FFT) reduces the power consumption, process time, hardware requirements, and chip area. Therefore, in this paper, area-power efficient FFT architectures for digital beamforming are analyzed. The area in terms of look up tables (LUTs) is estimated and compared among conventional FFT, fully unrolled FFT, and a 4-bit quantized twiddle factor (TF) FFT. Further, for the typical satellite scenarios, area, and power estimation are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen RIS Meets GEO Satellite Communications: A New Sustainable Optimization Framework in 6G
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the signal propagation by using passive reflecting elements. On the other side, the demand of high throughput geostationary (GEO) satellite communications (SatCom) is rapidly growing to deliver broadband services in inaccessible/insufficient covered areas of terrestrial networks. This paper proposes a GEO SatCom network, where a satellite transmits the signal to a ground mobile terminal using multicarrier communications. To enhance the effective gain, the signal delivery from satellite to the ground mobile terminal is also assisted by RIS which smartly shift the phase of the signal towards ground terminal. We consider that RIS is mounted on a high building and equipped with multiple re-configurable passive elements along with smart controller. We jointly optimize the power allocation and phase shift design to maximize the channel capacity of the system. The joint optimization problem is formulated as nonconvex due to coupled variables which is hard to solve through traditional convex optimization methods. Thus, we propose a new optimal algorithm which is based on Mesh Adaptive Direct Search to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results unveil the benefits of RIS-assisted SatCom in terms of system channel capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailJewish History and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 17)

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See detailClimate Risk and Price Jumps
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 13)

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See detailStudying transnational events through web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 13)

This presentation was an update of the work of WG2 related to web archives and transnational events I'm leading within the WARCnet project.

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See detailInteractions in joint multiliteracies activities in three day care centres in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 12)

Several countries have implemented multilingual programmes in early childhood education, trilingual Luxembourg being one of them. Since 2017 professionals in formal and non-formal (e.g. crèches ... [more ▼]

Several countries have implemented multilingual programmes in early childhood education, trilingual Luxembourg being one of them. Since 2017 professionals in formal and non-formal (e.g. crèches) institutions have to develop language skills in Luxembourgish /French, familiarise children with French/ Luxembourgish and value their home languages, for instance through literacy activities and common activities with parents. Many practitioners, however, are unsure of how to develop literacy in one, let alone multiple languages, and many rarely collaborate with parents. The longitudinal mixed-method research project COMPARE therefore aims to develop and explore multiliteracy and collaborative practices in the non-formal ECEC sector. The paper presents the literacy events in which parents and educators collaboratively engaged three-year-olds in three crèches in 2020-2021. The analysis of the video-recorded observations shows that the range and number of activities as well as the parents’ language use depended on the crèches. Parents tended to read and tell stories, frequently in a (prestigious) home language, and sing songs. The parent-led activities in these crèches reflected, to some extent, the pedagogical practices that 452 professionals reported in an online questionnaire completed in 2020 (Kirsch & Aleksić, 2021). We argue that collaboration with parents can propel the use of home languages in crèches and develop multiliteracy practices, but educators need to be aware of language hierarchies and have a good understanding of literacy. [less ▲]

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See detailTagungs-Resümee
Reicher, Ruth UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 11)

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See detailWhen Cryptographic Ransomware Poses Cyber Threats: Ethical Challenges and Proposed Safeguards for Cybersecurity Researchers
Botes, Wilhelmina Maria UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 10)

Cryptographic ransomware, a malware capable of destroying data, is a serious threat if used against providers of critical infrastructures such as healthcare, energy supply chains, banking services, and ... [more ▼]

Cryptographic ransomware, a malware capable of destroying data, is a serious threat if used against providers of critical infrastructures such as healthcare, energy supply chains, banking services, and transport systems. Used as such, ransomware may qualify as cyber weapon, but the current discussion around cyber and information warfare is not sufficiently legally regulated. This delegates the safe governance thereof to the application of ethical principles but leaves researchers working on ransomware in doubt about the double-use nature of their work and what code of conduct to follow. Although some existing biomedical research ethical principles have been repurposed for ICT research, in the context of recent threats posed by ransomware attacks, these efforts need an urgent rethink, especially when it involves the research of cybersecurity researchers dealing specifically with ransomware. This paper does not offer solutions, but rather describes the complexity, nature and extent of ethical challenges raised by cybersecurity research and invites the cybersecurity research community to enter into active discussions around the need to consider the development of an appropriate research ethics framework in the domain of cybersecurity. [less ▲]

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