References of "Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings"
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See detailVirtual Agent Representation for Critical Transactions
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL

in Proceedings of the 12th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference (MMSys) (in press)

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See detailThe legacy of coal mining – a view on examples in Belgium and France
Helfer, Malte UL

in Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum (Ed.) Boom – Crisis – Heritage. King Coal and Energy Revolutions after 1945; proceedings of the international conference March 14th-16th 2018, Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola, Bochum (in press)

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s ... [more ▼]

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s French-speaking neighbours and presents the most important remaining coal mining heritage sites as well as some extraordinary converted sites in France and the Belgian province Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detail« … Eripuit servus mihi vitam » - Représentations médiatiques de la violence et de la criminalité dans les provinces occidentales de l'Empire romain
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Amodio, Mara (Ed.) The imagery of violence in Roman society (I-VI cent.). Persistence, innovations and interrelations from the Roman to the Christian Empire (in press)

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See detailWhich Properties has an Icon? A Critical Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Standardised Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust (STAST) (in press)

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this ... [more ▼]

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this paper, we firstly critically review some of those proposals. We then examine the properties that icons and icon sets should arguably fulfill according to Art.12's transparency provisions. Lastly, we discuss metrics and evaluation procedures to measure compliance with the Article. [less ▲]

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See detailExternalisation de la politique migratoire et identité de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL; Gatti, Mauro UL

in Benlolo, Myriam (Ed.) L'Union européenne et les migrations (in press)

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailL’exposition d’objets ou de collections de « marque » : cobranding, réécriture, réénonciation
Schall, Céline UL

in Laval, Sylvie (Ed.) Marques muséales : un espace public revisité ? (in press)

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités  ... [more ▼]

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités ? Quels effets peut avoir cette démarche sur la communication ou sur l’exposition ? Notamment, le musée d’accueil s’approprie-t-il simplement l’imaginaire et les valeurs de la marque invitée par un phénomène de « transfert » ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous étudions trois expositions qui reprennent des objets ou collections de musées dont la marque est internationalement reconnue. L’analyse sémiotique des images de marque du musée d’accueil et du musée invité ainsi que l’analyse sémiopragmatique des expositions montrent l’impact de la présence d’une grande marque internationale sur l’exposition et réciproquement, l’impact de l’exposition sur l’image de marque du musée d’accueil. Plus qu’un simple cobranding, c’est une réécriture impliquant une réénonciation du discours et des valeurs portés par les marques qui est proposée à travers ces expositions. Le processus aboutit à la création de nouveaux espaces symboliques et d’expositions réflexives, avec plusieurs niveaux de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband DSRI-Herbstakademie 2020 (in press)

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle ... [more ▼]

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle, der in einer Veröffentlichung im Januar 2020 vorgestellt wurde. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union gab es im Berichtszeitraum keine Weiterent-wicklung der Richtlinienvorschläge zu einer Digitalsteuer und dem Konzept der „signifi-kanten digitalen Präsenz“. Der EuGH urteilte am 3. März 2020 in Hinblick auf die unions-rechtliche Vereinbarkeit zweier ungarischer Umsatzsteuern. Dieses Urteil erlaubt erste Rückschlüsse bezüglich der Europarechtskonformität umsatzbasierter Steuern, wie bspw. auch im Berichtszeitraum eingeführte Digitalsteuern einzelner Mitgliedstaaten. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an die Vorträge von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademien 2018 in Bochum und 2019 in Oldenburg, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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See detailProcess analysis in thermal process engineering with high-performance computing using the example of grate firing
Peters, Bernhard UL; Rousset, Alban UL; Besseron, Xavier UL et al

in 12th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers (in press)

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 ... [more ▼]

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 MW geothermal steam super-heater, which is part of the Enel Green Power "Cornia 2" power plant, is being investigated with high-performance computing methods. For this purpose, the extended discrete element method (XDEM) developed at the University of Luxembourg is used in a high-performance computing environment, which includes both the moving wooden bed and the combustion chamber above it. The XDEM simulation platform is based on a hybrid four-way coupling between the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this approach, particles are treated as discrete elements that are coupled by heat, mass, and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as a continuous phase. For individual wood particles, besides the equations of motion, the differential conservation equations for mass, heat, and momentum are solved, which describe the thermodynamic state during thermal conversion. The consistency of the numerical results with the actual system performance is discussed in this paper to determine the potentials and limitations of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailNIKE from Affine Determinant Programs
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Rosie, Razvan UL

in Qiong, Huang; Yu, Yu (Eds.) Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

A multi-party non-interactive key-exchange (NIKE) scheme enables N users to securely exchange a secret key K in a non-interactive manner. It is well-known that NIKE schemes can be obtained assuming the ... [more ▼]

A multi-party non-interactive key-exchange (NIKE) scheme enables N users to securely exchange a secret key K in a non-interactive manner. It is well-known that NIKE schemes can be obtained assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). In this work, we revisit the original, iO-based, provably-secure NIKE construction by Boneh and Zhandry, aiming to simplify it. The core idea behind our protocol is to replace the functionality of the obfuscator with the one of an affine determinant program (ADP). Although ADPs have been designed with the purpose of attaining indistinguishability obfuscation, such implication is left open for general circuits. The ingredients enabling to prove the security of our scheme stem into a more careful analysis of the branching programs needed to build ADPs. In particular, we show: 1) An intuitive indistinguishability notion defined for ADPs of puncturable pseudorandom functions (PRFs) is sufficient to prove security for NIKE. 2) A set of simple conditions based on ADP's branching program topology that are sufficient for proving indistinguishability of ADPs. We leave open the question of finding ADPs satisfying them. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Passive Data Collection Methods to Learn Complex Mobility Patterns: An Exploratory Analysis
Toader, Bogdan UL; Cantelmo, Guido UL; Popescu, Mioara et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

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See detailLe quotidien d’un poilu de la première guerre mondiale sur Facebook : nouvelle forme de médiation, nouvelle expérience ?
Schall, Céline UL; Vilatte, Jean-Christophe

in Les mondes de la médiation culturelle (in press)

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une ... [more ▼]

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une forme de médiation a priori inédite pour un musée français. Elle présente l’histoire d’un personnage de fiction, Léon Vivien, qui raconte son quotidien lors de la première guerre mondiale, sur Facebook, comme si ce réseau social avait existé à cette époque. Cette contribution met en évidence certains des effets de sens de la page par une analyse sémiotique du dispositif et une analyse thématique de ses contenus. Nous questionnons ensuite cette « nouvelle » forme de médiation qui se dit « participante » et qui, en réalité, reste assez classique dans son contenu et sous-exploite le potentiel de Facebook. » [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete-Phase Sequence Design with Stopband and PSL Constraints for Cognitive Radar
Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in Proceedings of EuRAD 2020 (in press)

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or ... [more ▼]

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or communications. We use the coordinate descent framework and propose an algorithm to design discrete-phase sequences with spectral power suppressed in arbitrary bands and with low auto-correlation sidelobes in terms of PSL. Our proposed algorithm exploits fast Fourier transform and is, therefore, computationally efficient. The over-the-air experiments using implementation on software-defined radio show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations and feasibility for field-deployment [less ▲]

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See detailLa Charte dans l'action extérieure de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Iliopoulou Penot, Anastasia; Xenou, Lamprini (Eds.) La Charte des droits fondamentaux de l'UE (in press)

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See detailA Methodology for Handling Data Movements by Anticipation: Position Paper
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Lucarelli, Giorgio; Trystram, Denis

in Euro-Par 2018 Workshops (in press)

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on ... [more ▼]

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on different nodes of the system. The management of such a huge communication demand is crucial for reaching the best possible performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network whatever the interconnect (tree-based hierarchies or topology-based heterarchies). There are two different types of communications, namely, the flows induced by data exchanges during the computations, and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose in this paper a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, the interferences of both communication types are reduced by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of tasks into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each task. This methodology has been proved to be efficient in a recent study for a restricted interconnection network (a line/ring of processors which is an intermediate between a tree and higher dimensions grids/torus). The obtained results illustrated well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies, but also provided a pragmatic greedy solution, which was assessed to be efficient by simulations. We are currently extending this solution for more complex topologies. This work is a position paper which describes the methodology, it does not focus on the solving part. [less ▲]

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See detailPartitioned Searchable Encryption
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Beunardeau, Marc; Rosie, Razvan et al

in Qiong, Huang; Yu, Yu (Eds.) Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) allows to outsource encrypted data to an untrusted server and retain searching capabilities. This is done without impacting the privacy of both the data and the ... [more ▼]

Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) allows to outsource encrypted data to an untrusted server and retain searching capabilities. This is done without impacting the privacy of both the data and the search/update queries. In this work we put forth a new flavour of symmetric searchable encryption (SSE): Partitioned SSE is meant to capture the cases where the search rights must be partitioned among multiple individuals. We motivate through compelling examples the practical need for such a notion and discuss instantiations based on functional encryption and trapdoor permutations. First we leverage the power of functional encryption (FE). Our construction follows the general technique of encrypting the set of keywords and the presumably larger datafiles separately, a keyword acting as a ``pointer'' to datafiles it belongs to. To improve on the constraint factors (large ciphertext, slow encryption/decryption procedures) that are inherent in FE schemes, the keyword check is done with the help of a Bloom filter -- one per datafile: the crux idea is to split the filter into buckets, and encrypt each bucket separately under an FE scheme. Functional keys are given for binary \masks checking if relevant positions are set to 1 inside the underlying bit-vector of the Bloom filter. The second construction we present achieves forward security and stems from the scheme by Bost in CCS'16. We show that a simple tweak of the original construction gives rise to a scheme supporting updates in the partitioned setting. Moreover, the constructions take into account the possibility that some specific users are malicious while declaring their search results. [less ▲]

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See detailDatenbank für Zweisprachige Historische Luxemburgische Bekanntmachungen
Gilles, Peter UL; Ziegler, Evelyn

in Wallmeier, Nadine; Tophinke, Doris (Eds.) Historische Stadtsprachenforschung (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (4 UL)
See detailLe dialogue entre les juges en matière de protection des droits de l'homme
Pelin Raducu, Ioana UL

in Menetrey, Séverine; Hess, Burkhard (Eds.) Les dialogues des juges en Europe (in press)

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard propre de l’UE en matière des droits de l’homme. Cette tendance de la C.J.U.E. contredira le prescrit normatif découlant du « dialogue des juges » d’interprétation conforme à la jurisprudence de la C.E.D.H. avant que l’adhésion de l’UE à la Convention E.D.H. ne soit formellement acquise. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Perspective on the Luxembourgish Genitive
Döhmer, Caroline UL

in Germanic Genitives (in press)

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailRoboMAX: Robotic Mission Adaptation eXemplars
Askarpour, Mehrnoosh; Tsigkanos, Christos; Menghi, Claudio UL et al

in Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS) - Artifact Track (in press)

Emerging and future applications of robotic systems pose unique self-adaptation challenges. To support the research needed to address these challenges, we provide an extensible repository of robotic ... [more ▼]

Emerging and future applications of robotic systems pose unique self-adaptation challenges. To support the research needed to address these challenges, we provide an extensible repository of robotic mission adaptation exemplars. Co-designed with robotic application stakeholders including researchers, developers, operators, and end-users, our repository captures key sources of uncertainty, adaptation concerns, and other distinguishing characteristics of such applications. An online form enables external parties to supply new exemplars for curation and inclusion into the repository. We envisage that our RoboMAX repository will enable the development, evaluation, and comparison of much-needed self-adaptation approaches for the robotic systems domain. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimauté et droits fondamentaux: une question de compétences?
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Gaudin, Hélène (Ed.) Primauté et clause la plus protectrice: le renouveau des droits fondamentaux en Europe (in press)

Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans ... [more ▼]

Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans la sphère de compétence de l’Union, alors que la protection des droits fondamentaux, comme contestation de la primauté, relève de la sphère nationale. Le conflit entre primauté et droits fondamentaux relève ainsi du rapport des ordres juridiques et est résolu par leur interaction, exprimée dans la balance entre le principe de coopération loyale et la prise en compte des intérêts nationaux, sur la base du respect de l’identité nationale ou en invoquant l’article 53 de la Charte . En ce sens, la problématique des compétences n’entre pas en ligne de compte. Cependant, l’élaboration de standards européens de protection des droits fondamentaux, en tant qu’objet direct ou indirect de l’exercice des compétences de l’Union, peut servir le compromis issu du principe d’attribution. Ainsi, primauté et droits fondamentaux peuvent être abordés sous l’angle des compétences. Le rapport entre primauté et droits fondamentaux n’est toutefois pas forcément conflictuel. La Charte est source d’obligations pour les Etats membres au-delà du champ couvert par l’exercice des compétences de l’Union. Il est bien établi que la notion de mise en œuvre du droit de l’Union en tant que condition de l’application de la Charte à l’égard des Etats membres, est entendue dans le sens du domaine couvert par le droit de l’Union. Ainsi, les standards européens de protection sont eux-mêmes couverts par la primauté et interviennent dans l’encadrement de l’autonomie nationale et l’articulation des compétences [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying Properties over Inter-Procedural, Source Code Level Behaviour of Programs
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (in press)

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level ... [more ▼]

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level of abstraction and provide sophisticated modal operators, giving a high level of expressiveness. In particular, this makes it possible to express properties concerning the source code level behaviour of programs. However, for many languages, the correspondence between events generated at the source code level and parts of the specification in question would have to be carefully defined. To enable expressing — using a temporal logic — properties over source code level behaviour without the need for this correspondence, previous work introduced Control-Flow Temporal Logic (CFTL), a specification language with a low level of abstraction with respect to the source code of programs. However, this work focused solely on the intra-procedural setting. In this paper, we address this limitation by introducing Inter-procedural CFTL, a language for expressing source code level, inter-procedural properties of program runs. We evaluate the new language, iCFTL, via application to a real-world case study. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the (M)iNTRU assumption in the integer case
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Müller, Volker UL; Rosie, Razvan UL

in Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

In AsiaCrypt 2019, Genise, Gentry, Halevi, Li and Micciancio put forth two novel and intriguing computational hardness hypotheses: The inhomogeneous NTRU (iNTRU) assumption and its matrix version MiNTRU ... [more ▼]

In AsiaCrypt 2019, Genise, Gentry, Halevi, Li and Micciancio put forth two novel and intriguing computational hardness hypotheses: The inhomogeneous NTRU (iNTRU) assumption and its matrix version MiNTRU. In this work, we break the integer case of the iNTRU assumption through elementary lattice reduction, and we describe how the attack might be generalized to polynomial rings and to the low dimensional MiNTRU assumption with small noise. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Log Parsing and Anomaly Detection
Shin, Donghwan UL; Khan, Zanis Ali UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (in press)

Log-based anomaly detection identifies systems' anomalous behaviors by analyzing system runtime information recorded in logs. While many approaches have been proposed, all of them have in common an ... [more ▼]

Log-based anomaly detection identifies systems' anomalous behaviors by analyzing system runtime information recorded in logs. While many approaches have been proposed, all of them have in common an essential pre-processing step called log parsing. This step is needed because automated log analysis requires structured input logs, whereas original logs contain semi-structured text printed by logging statements. Log parsing bridges this gap by converting the original logs into structured input logs fit for anomaly detection. Despite the intrinsic dependency between log parsing and anomaly detection, no existing work has investigated the impact of the "quality" of log parsing results on anomaly detection. In particular, the concept of "ideal" log parsing results with respect to anomaly detection has not been formalized yet. This makes it difficult to determine, upon obtaining inaccurate results from anomaly detection, if (and why) the root cause for such results lies in the log parsing step. In this short paper, we lay the theoretical foundations for defining the concept of "ideal" log parsing results for anomaly detection. Based on these foundations, we discuss practical implications regarding the identification and localization of root causes, when dealing with inaccurate anomaly detection, and the identification of irrelevant log messages. [less ▲]

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See detailBuffer XDEM
Mainassara Chekaraou, Abdoul Wahid UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; Rousset, Alban UL et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

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See detailThe Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Luxembourgish Education System: Differences between students based on background characteristics in elementary and secondary school
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., school closure, home-schooling) have affected students at various stages of education all over the world and were found to increase inequalities in ... [more ▼]

Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., school closure, home-schooling) have affected students at various stages of education all over the world and were found to increase inequalities in academic achievement (OECD, 2021). The present study is based on fully representative large-scale data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (Épreuves Standardisées; ÉpStan; LUCET, 2021). The ÉpStan are assessing key competencies of primary and secondary school students in different subjects (e.g., German, French and Math). To allow a fair performance comparison, socio-economic and socio-cultural backgrounds of students (e.g., gender, migration and language background) are systematically taken into consideration. The ÉpStan 2020 entail data from approximatively 25.000 students from five different grades (elementary and secondary school), from 15.000 parents (elementary school) and comparative data from 160.000 students from previous cohorts, thus providing key empirical findings on the pandemic’s impact on the Luxembourgish education system. In the present contribution, we analyze a) how the results of standardized achievement tests compare to previous cohorts and under consideration of students’ socio-economical and socio-cultural background, as well as b) how parents and students perceived home-schooling with regard to aspects such as coping, technical equipment, motivation or contact to teachers. First results indicate that in Grades 1, 5, 7 and 9, standardized achievement scores were generally stable in comparison to previous years. However, in Grade 3, students’ competency scores in German (primary language of instruction in elementary school) listening comprehension worsened substantially. Furthermore, third graders from socio-economically disadvantaged households and/or students that do not speak Luxembourgish/German at home did worse in German reading comprehension than their peers from socio-economically advantaged households and/or speaking Luxembourgish/German at home. Concerning the perception of home-schooling, students coped rather well with the situation, with German being a bit more challenging in primary school and math in secondary school. Findings concerning motivation and enjoyment of home-schooling were mixed, with primary school students’ motivation being comparably to the regular school setting but approximately half of the secondary school students being less motivated than in the regular school setting. Furthermore, all households seem to have been well equipped, with the situation being slightly more favorable in socio-economically advantaged households. For the majority of students, the contact with teachers was frequent, with teachers having adapted their type of support to the needs of their students (e.g., more personal contact towards students from socio-economically disadvantaged households). To conclude, it can be said that no systematic negative trend has been identified in students’ achievement scores. Only German listening comprehension in Grade 3 has worsened substantially and these skills should therefore be fostered as early as possible. Overall, students coped rather well with home-schooling without, however, particularly enjoying it. While students entering the pandemic with favorable background characteristics (e.g., higher socio-economic status, speaking a language of instruction at home) managed better both regarding competencies and perception of home-schooling, students with less favorable background characteristics have received more differentiated support. These findings underline that already existing inequalities in the Luxembourgish school system have in parts been intensified by the pandemic. References LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu OECD. (2021). The State of School Education: One Year into the COVID Pandemic. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/201dde84-en [less ▲]

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See detail"Just for the sake of transparency": Exploring Voter Mental Models Of Verifiability
Zollinger, Marie-Laure UL; Estaji, Ehsan UL; Ryan, Peter Y A UL et al

in Electronic Voting, Sixth International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2021, Bregenz, Austria, October 5-8 (2021, October)

Verifiable voting schemes allow voters to verify their individual votes and the election outcome. The voting protocol Selene offers verification of plaintext votes while preserving privacy. Misconceptions ... [more ▼]

Verifiable voting schemes allow voters to verify their individual votes and the election outcome. The voting protocol Selene offers verification of plaintext votes while preserving privacy. Misconceptions of verification mechanisms might result in voters mistrust of the system or abstaining from using it. In this paper, we interviewed 24 participants and invited them to illustrate their mental models of Selene. The drawings demonstrated different levels of sophistication and four mental models: 1) technology understanding, 2) meaning of the verification phase, 3) security concerns, and 4) unnecessary steps. We highlight the misconceptions expressed regarding Internet voting technologies and the system design. Based on our findings, we conclude with recommendations for future implementations of Selene as well as for the design of Internet voting systems in general. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the History of Digital History
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 20)

As long as new preservation technologies and computing machines have been developed, the question of their utility and uptake in historical research practices has been debated. Yet, the very fact that ... [more ▼]

As long as new preservation technologies and computing machines have been developed, the question of their utility and uptake in historical research practices has been debated. Yet, the very fact that historical knowledge production has always been affected by new and emerging technologies is often forgotten. Similarly, the fact that key epistemological and methodological questions in what we now call ‘digital history’ were already debated decades ago by earlier generations of computing historians (analog and digital) is often overlooked. There is a lack of transmission of accumulated knowledge from the past and it sometimes seems as if every new generation of historians rediscovers the promise of ‘digital history’, with all of its attending hopes, visions and ambitions for reinventing and reshaping historical research. To fill this gap, this paper will explore what a history of digital history might look like. It will do so by focusing on hybridity as a key characteristic of historical research. Hybridity, seen as some form of integrating newly emerging tools, technologies, materials, and/or practices in historical research, has a long history that predates the advent of computers. In my paper I will map and qualify that history according to the main phases of historical research. The paper will conclude by outlining what groundwork is necessary to explore digital history’s forgotten roots: a basic overview of the field’s different spatio-temporal and ideological trajectories and recreation of the networks of computing historians in the pre-PC and early PC period. [less ▲]

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See detailFacets of conscientiousness and their relation to academic achievement: a person-centered approach
Franzen, Patrick UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Arens, A Katrin et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 16)

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See detailLuxembourg Perspectives on Pre-Service Teacher Motivation: What Factors Influence the Choice of Becoming a Teacher, Perseverance and Success?
Rivas, Salvador UL; Poncelet, Débora UL; Reeff, Alain et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread ... [more ▼]

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread teacher shortages have led researchers to investigate what motivates candidates to become teachers and to remain in the profession (see for example Watt et al., 2012). Luxembourg is no exception, in 2019 for example, the government wanted to hire 320 new teachers at the fundamental school level; however, only 63 graduates from the country’s main teacher training programme at the University of Luxembourg took the required state exam to join the teaching ranks. The country needs 300 to 400 new fundamental schoolteachers per year to keep up with population growth. To help address this need, we draw on 10 years of admissions data (exam performance and noncognitive indicators) collected from candidates seeking entry to the University of Luxembourg’s teacher training programme. Our study investigates the major correlates, similarities and differences, between candidates that never-registered, i.e., candidates that after being admitted never start the programme; drop-outs, i.e., students that start but never finish; and of course, those that persist until completion. While circumstances may differ between these types of candidates, the first two nevertheless took-up the place that someone else who could have finished and possibly become a teacher. In light of the pressing need for more teachers, this study identifies important factors associated with showing up and staying in the programme until the end. Policy implications are described and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailQ-Learning-Based SCMA for Efficient Random Access in mMTC Networks With Short Packets
Tran, Duc Dung UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (IEEE PIMRC 2021) (2021, September)

In massive machine-type communications (mMTC) networks, the ever-growing number of MTC devices and the limited radio resources have caused a severe problem of random access channel (RACH) congestion. To ... [more ▼]

In massive machine-type communications (mMTC) networks, the ever-growing number of MTC devices and the limited radio resources have caused a severe problem of random access channel (RACH) congestion. To mitigate this issue, several potential multiple access (MA) mechanisms including sparse code MA (SCMA) have been proposed. Besides, the short-packet transmission feature of MTC devices requires the design of new transmission and congestion avoidance techniques as the existing techniques based on the assumption of infinite data-packet length may not be suitable for mMTC networks. Therefore, it is important to find novel solutions to address RACH congestion in mMTC networks while considering SCMA and short-packet communications (SPC). In this paper, we propose an SCMA-based random access (RA) method, in which Q-learning is utilized to dynamically allocate the SCMA codebooks and time-slot groups to MTC devices with the aim of minimizing the RACH congestion in SPC-based mMTC networks. To clarify the benefits of our proposed method, we compare its performance with those of the conventional RA methods with/without Q-learning in terms of RA efficiency and evaluate its convergence. Our simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in overloaded systems, i.e., the number of devices is higher than the number of available RA slots. Moreover, we illustrate the sum rate comparison between SPC and long-packet communications (LPC) when applying the proposed method to achieve more insights on SPC. [less ▲]

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See detailMeta-Analytic Structural Equation Models of Executive Functions and Math Intelligence in Preschool Children
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for learning and everyday life. For example, they have shown to be differentially related to the mathematical component of intelligence (i.e., math intelligence) in school students and adults. While researchers suppose these three EFs to become more differentiated from early childhood to adulthood, neither the link of these constructs nor their structure has been conclusively established in preschool children yet. Primary studies on path models connecting EFs and math intelligence diverge in the exact relation of EFs and math intelligence. It remains unclear whether inhibition, shifting, and updating exhibit distinct but correlated constructs with respect to their relation to math intelligence. OBJECTIVES: With our meta-analysis, we aimed to (a) synthesize the relation between the three EFs and math intelligence in preschool children; and (b) compare plausible models of the effects of EFs on math intelligence. METHODS/RESULTS: Synthesizing data from 47 studies (363 effect sizes, 30,481 participants) from the last two decades via novel multilevel and multivariate meta-analytic models (Pustejovsky & Tipton, 2020), we found the three core EFs to be significantly related to math intelligence: Inhibition ("r" ̅ = .30, 95 % CI [.25, .35]), shifting ("r" ̅ = .32, 95 % CI [.25, .38]), and updating ("r" ̅ = .36, 95 % CI [.31, .40]). Looking at the three core EFs as one construct, the correlation was "r" ̅ = .34, 95 % CI [.31, .37]. Utilizing correlation-based, meta-analytic structural equation modeling (Jak & Cheung, 2020), our results exhibited significant relations of all EFs to math intelligence. These relations did not differ between the three core EFs. DISCUSSION: Our findings corroborate the positive link between EFs and math intelligence in preschool children and are similar to other age groups. From the model testing, we learned that representing EFs by a latent variable, thus capturing the covariance among the three core EFs, explained substantially more variation in math intelligence than representing them as distinct constructs. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Global Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet (2021, September)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the Impact of Network Delay on Bitcoin Mining
Cao, Tong UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Yu, Jiangshan et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailThreat Adaptive Byzantine Fault Tolerant State-Machine Replication
Simoes Silva, Douglas UL; Graczyk, Rafal UL; Decouchant, Jérémie et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense ... [more ▼]

Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense systems rely on threat level detectors that synchronously inform them of changing threat levels. How- ever, to have a BFT-SMR protocol operate unattended, the state- of-the-art is still to configure them to withstand the highest possible number of faulty replicas f they might encounter, which limits their performance, or to make the strong assumption that a trusted external reconfiguration service is available, which introduces a single point of failure. In this work, we present ThreatAdaptive the first BFT-SMR protocol that is automatically strengthened or optimized by its replicas in reaction to threat level changes. We first determine under which conditions replicas can safely reconfigure a BFT-SMR system, i.e., adapt the number of replicas n and the fault threshold f, so as to outpace an adversary. Since replicas typically communicate with each other using an asynchronous network they cannot rely on consensus to decide how the system should be reconfigured. ThreatAdaptive avoids this pitfall by proactively preparing the reconfiguration that may be triggered by an increasing threat when it optimizes its performance. Our evaluation shows that ThreatAdaptive can meet the latency and throughput of BFT baselines configured statically for a particular level of threat, and adapt 30% faster than previous methods, which make stronger assumptions to provide safety. [less ▲]

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See detailMoral Judgment in Video Games: Effects of Medium, Moral Intuitions and Media-Based Empathy
Grohmann, Lara; Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailConFuzzius: A Data Dependency-Aware Hybrid Fuzzer for Smart Contracts
Ferreira Torres, Christof UL; Iannillo, Antonio Ken UL; Gervais, Arthur et al

in European Symposium on Security and Privacy, Vienna 7-11 September 2021 (2021, September)

Smart contracts are Turing-complete programs that are executed across a blockchain. Unlike traditional programs, once deployed, they cannot be modified. As smart contracts carry more value, they become ... [more ▼]

Smart contracts are Turing-complete programs that are executed across a blockchain. Unlike traditional programs, once deployed, they cannot be modified. As smart contracts carry more value, they become more of an exciting target for attackers. Over the last years, they suffered from exploits costing millions of dollars due to simple programming mistakes. As a result, a variety of tools for detecting bugs have been proposed. Most of these tools rely on symbolic execution, which may yield false positives due to over-approximation. Recently, many fuzzers have been proposed to detect bugs in smart contracts. However, these tend to be more effective in finding shallow bugs and less effective in finding bugs that lie deep in the execution, therefore achieving low code coverage and many false negatives. An alternative that has proven to achieve good results in traditional programs is hybrid fuzzing, a combination of symbolic execution and fuzzing. In this work, we study hybrid fuzzing on smart contracts and present ConFuzzius, the first hybrid fuzzer for smart contracts. ConFuzzius uses evolutionary fuzzing to exercise shallow parts of a smart contract and constraint solving to generate inputs that satisfy complex conditions that prevent evolutionary fuzzing from exploring deeper parts. Moreover, ConFuzzius leverages dynamic data dependency analysis to efficiently generate sequences of transactions that are more likely to result in contract states in which bugs may be hidden. We evaluate the effectiveness of ConFuzzius by comparing it with state-of-the-art symbolic execution tools and fuzzers for smart contracts. Our evaluation on a curated dataset of 128 contracts and a dataset of 21K real-world contracts shows that our hybrid approach detects more bugs than state-of-the-art tools (up to 23%) and that it outperforms existing tools in terms of code coverage (up to 69%). We also demonstrate that data dependency analysis can boost bug detection up to 18%. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrative Model of Moral Processing for the Video Game Medium
Melzer, André UL; Holl, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailTo Buffer or Not To Buffer: IEEE 802.11p/bd Performance Under Different Buffering Strategies
Baiocchi, Andrea; Turcanu, Ion UL; Vinel, Alexey

in 33 Edition of International Teletraffic Congress (ITC), Avignon, France, August 31st - September 3rd 2021 (2021, September)

A fundamental paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) consists of agents that communicate updates to each other to perform joint actions, e.g., cooperative awareness in transportation systems, swarms of ... [more ▼]

A fundamental paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) consists of agents that communicate updates to each other to perform joint actions, e.g., cooperative awareness in transportation systems, swarms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), fleet of robots, automated assembly lines and logistics. A common feature of update messaging is emphasis on reliable throughput and freshness of collected data. We develop an analytical model that yields accurate predictions of all relevant metrics, both in terms of moments and probability distributions, for the case of one-hop broadcast update messages exchanged by using a CSMA-based wireless network. The model is validated against simulations and then applied to compare two update message scheduling approaches: providing a minimal buffer resource or providing no buffer. Surprisingly, we prove that having no buffer improves Age of Information (AoI) performance as well as message delivery rate, in spite of dropped packets. This is essentially due to much smaller congestion and hence collision probability in the wireless channel. From a system point of view this suggests a simple design of message handling, with no need of buffering and overwriting older messages. From a modeling point of view, the result supports the definition of simpler models that need not keep into account buffer state. [less ▲]

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See detailValue Stream Mapping (VSM) to Evaluate and Visualize Interrelated Process-Chains Regarding Circular Economy
Mangers, Jeff UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Advances in Production Management Systems. Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable and Resilient Production Systems (2021, August 31), 633

The concept of circular economy (CE) aims to close and slow resource loops without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. Recently, the concept received encouraging attention among researchers ... [more ▼]

The concept of circular economy (CE) aims to close and slow resource loops without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. Recently, the concept received encouraging attention among researchers and business experts to be a convenient solution to move away from the finite linear economy concept to a more sustainable solution. However, this change of paradigm is only possible if we consider systems in a holistic manner and can localize the preventing hurdles. Value stream mapping (VSM) is a commonly known lean method, used to develop current state visualization of product and information flows within organization, helping to seek weaknesses and improve process flows. The motivation of this paper is a new C-VSM model, which enables its users to evaluate and visualize connected process-chains regarding CE on different levels in a holistic manner. For this purpose, the traditional VSM model was adapted towards the needs and requirements of CE through the application of a new representation method, additional indicators, and an appropriated evaluation system. C-VSM is in line with the current political and industrial objectives to apply CE principles by enabling a holistic reflection and consideration of supply-chains (SCs) on different levels. The model itself is validated through an extensive cross-company case study. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher expectations and emotions concerning students with special needs or immigrant background
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 23)

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a ... [more ▼]

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a multifaceted construct with cognitive, affective and conative components. In the current study we investigated to what extent teachers´ expectations concerning students´ academic performance - reflecting the cognitive component of attitudes - varied as a function of specific student characteristics (special educational needs and immigrant background). In addition, we assessed teachers´ emotions - reflecting the affective component of attitudes - concerning the inclusion of these students in mainstream education. Result confirmed previous findings that teachers´ expectations and emotions vary as a function of student characteristics. Teachers had lower expectations of the academic performance of students with learning difficulties than students with challenging behaviour, whereby the estimates of German proficiency were also affected by the immigrant background of the student. Teachers felt however less positive about the inclusion of students with challenging behaviour than of students with learning difficulties, regardless of the immigrant background of the student. Results will be discussed in relation to theory and their practical implications. [less ▲]

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See detailA conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration
Gilodi, Amalia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 05)

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to ... [more ▼]

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to treat the concept as self-explanatory, without problematizing neither its conceptualization nor its use and possible negative societal and psychological consequences. Set within the framework of the EU-funded project MIMY (n°870700), investigating the processes of integration of young migrants in 9 European countries, this paper critically evaluates different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and proposes a new multilevel conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration. Focusing on different levels of analysis, the model situates individuals and groups in the broader socio-political hierarchies and power dynamics that inevitably affect them (structural vulnerability), acknowledges how these systems are (re)produced in situated interpersonal relationships (situational vulnerability) and accounts for migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability. Focusing on the interrelationships between levels of analysis, the model highlights how macro conditions and definitions of vulnerability may affect individual experiences, through processes such as stigmatization, internalization of stereotypes, disempowerment, but also how individuals can actively negotiate their ascribed ‘vulnerability’ through processes such as resistance, mobilization and collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailDeparture and Trajectory Design Applications using Stretching Directions
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Howell, Kathleen C.

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not always possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in departing from or arriving onto the orbit. Generally, for potential missions, the orbits of ... [more ▼]

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not always possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in departing from or arriving onto the orbit. Generally, for potential missions, the orbits of interest are nearly stable to reduce the possibility of rapid departure. The stable nature of these orbits also serves as a drawback for insertion or departure from the orbit. The Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) and the Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) offer some potential long-horizon trajectories for exploration missions. The current investigation focuses on leveraging the stretching direction as a tool for departure and trajectory design applications. The magnitude of the state variations along the maximum stretching direction is expected to grow rapidly and, therefore, offers information for efficient departure from the orbit. Similarly, the maximum stretching in reverse time, enables arrival with a minimal maneuver magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailModel bias and its impact on computer-aided diagnosis: A data-centric approach
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Bossa, Matias Nicolas UL; Sölter, Jan UL et al

Poster (2021, August)

Machine learning and data-driven solutions open exciting opportunities in many disciplines including healthcare. The recent transition to this technology into real clinical settings brings new challenges ... [more ▼]

Machine learning and data-driven solutions open exciting opportunities in many disciplines including healthcare. The recent transition to this technology into real clinical settings brings new challenges. Such problems derive from several factors, including their dataset origin, composition and description, hampering their fairness and secure application. Considering the potential impact of incorrect predictions in applied-ML healthcare research is urgent. Undetected bias induced by inappropriate use of datasets and improper consideration of confounders prevents the translation of prediction models into clinical practice. Therefore, in this work, the use of available systematic tools to assess the risk of bias in models is employed as the first step to explore robust solutions for better dataset choice, dataset merge and design of the training and validation step during the ML development pipeline. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual primes as culture-sensitive method to understanding acculturation processes
Murdock, Elke UL; Campill, Marc-Antoine; Valsiner, Jaan

Scientific Conference (2021, July 31)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich context to explore acculturation processes. The majority of immigrants have European roots, but the number of non-European immigrants is rising. Within this qualitative study we examined the identity construction processes of eight Japanese women living in Luxembourg using several visual primes guiding the interview. Building on Ying-yi Hong’s work on cultural mixing we developed hybrid images to evoke affective responses and to capture the negotiation processes between cultures. The choice of images was carefully prepared and first involved an ethnographic study of cultural dimensions of Japan and Luxembourg. Based on this analysis we decided to explore the domains of beauty, food, living, leisure and family. For each domain, we chose a prototypical European and Japanese image and created a hybrid image. All images were culturally meaningful and anchored in real life experiences. The Japanese images were tested in a pilot study in Japan. The interviews were carefully planned, each phase involving different visual stimuli. In the opening phase, the interviewer presented a business card in three different designs – European, Japanese and a mixed version. Interviewees could choose their preferred version and explain their choice. Next, a series of 15 matched typical images of Japan and Luxembourg were shown and the interviewees again chose their preferred images and explained their choice. Finally, the five sets of domain-specific images were presented. These provided a context for narration and especially the reaction to the hybrid stimuli showed how participants negotiate their cultural identities. The visual primes made the negotiation strategies visible. Findings from this study and the potential of this culture-sensitive method for accessing the process of acculturation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between Critical Consciousness and Multiculturalism? A comparison across four countries
Eickmann, Wibke; Murdock, Elke UL

Poster (2021, July 29)

Multiculturalism Ideology (MCI) describes the “appreciation of the value of cultural diversity for a society, and a need for mutual acceptance and accommodation that promotes equitable participation” ... [more ▼]

Multiculturalism Ideology (MCI) describes the “appreciation of the value of cultural diversity for a society, and a need for mutual acceptance and accommodation that promotes equitable participation” (Berry, 2016, p. 416f). The aim of the present study was to explore if and how diversity-related attitudes and the perception of less privileged members of society are linked and thus contribute to the growing body of research on social inequity awareness. Whilst some studies have focused on MCI and minority rights, awareness of structural discrimination and lowering prejudice, few have focused specifically on Critical Consciousness (CC), the reflection about inequalities in society and action taken to address them. Components of CC include Critical Reflection (Perceived Inequality and Egalitarianism), Political Efficacy (Internal and External), and Critical Action (Sociopolitical Participation). The present study draws on a quantitative design. An online questionnaire was launched in four countries, France, Luxembourg, Hong Kong, and Malaysia, which differ in their approaches in dealing with diversity. Measures included the Critical Consciousness Scale, the Political Efficacy Short Scale with the subscales regarding internal and external political efficacy and the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI). The questionnaire was made available in English, French and German. The total sample comprised 120 participants (68.2% female, Mage = 26.40, SDage = 9.71). Results indicate that MCI was highly positively correlated with Perceived Inequality and Egalitarianism and negatively with External Political Efficacy. Mean scores for CC components and MCI did not statistically differ across the four countries, while the correlation patterns between CC components and MCI were different. This finding suggests that CC may develop quite independently of cultural influences, as perception of unequal treatment and status differences between groups is an issue prevalent in all societies. More detailed results and implications as well as limitations of the present study will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping a talent: An exploratory study of Talent Management in Russia
Usanova, Ksenia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 29)

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See detailSymposium: Immigrants‘ Acculturation across the Lifespan
Schwarz, Beate; Maehler, Debora; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes ... [more ▼]

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes with respect to practices and behaviors, values and norms, and identity and identification (Schwartz, Unger, Zamboanga, & Szapocznik, 2010). From a developmental perspective, acculturation of first and second-generation immigrants differ remarkably because usually second generation immigrants have more opportunities to interact with representatives of the host culture in a phase of life with high plasticity (Sam & Oppedal, 2003). The symposium wants to gain insight into the complex acculturation processes with four studies that referred to different dimensions of acculturation and including age groups from adolescence to old age. The studies used quantitative and qualitative analyses and variable- as well as person-centered approaches. Starting with adolescence, Maehler provides a meta-analysis on factors that are related to identification with the ethnic and mainstream culture. Murdock and Gales also refer to the identity dimension of acculturation, here among young adults in Germany. With a qualitative approach they identified the role of the parents and the intergenerational relationships for the way how these young adults integrate both identities. In the third study with middle-aged second- generation immigrants in Switzerland, again intergenerational relationships are in the focus. Schwarz and Pfammatter analyzed the association of intergenerational relationships with orientations toward ethnic and mainstream culture. In the last study, Albert and colleagues used a person-centered approach. They investigated the patterns of sense of belonging on a local and national level of older immigrants in Luxembourg and the associations with expectations to stay and well-being. All four studies provide specific insight into the acculturation mechanism that are relevant in different periods of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural Identity Integration – the importance of the context of the family
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the understanding identifications of persons growing up with multiple cultural experiences and how these influences are negotiated within themselves. The current study draws on a qualitative design and involved a semi-structured interview and two exercises designed to stimulate reflection on cultural influences. We recruited eight female participants, aged between 21 and 25 years, who all grew up in Germany. Their parents originate from a wide range of countries of various cultural distance to Germany. Fairly homogenous in terms of socioeconomic status and educational background, the sample was very diverse in terms of cultural influences. Half of our participants grew up in mixed national families. Building on the multicultural identity integration research we were particularly interested whether participants identify with one cultural group over others (categorization), keep their influences separate (compartmentalization) or link their cultural influences (integration) and drivers for each outcome. The results point towards the important role of parents regarding cultural resources and practices. Our results point to categorization, if there is little or no contact to one parent, compartmentalization, if the relationship between parents is conflicted and integration if both parents engage equally in cultural maintenance. Families are the primary socialization unit and our findings suggest that parental commitment to transfer of cultural values and practices impacts the cultural identity configurations. Findings will be discussed in a systemic perspective of identity construal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailRoma (2018) d’Alfonso Cuaron : “C’est seulement l’eau qui révèle la verité dans ce film”
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 13)

Des vagues qui nous font jouir et qui nous apprennent à désirer Depuis ses débuts le cinéma semble l’art le plus apte à chercher, du côté de l’étrangeté, de l’indicible, de l’inconscient. C’est le « divan ... [more ▼]

Des vagues qui nous font jouir et qui nous apprennent à désirer Depuis ses débuts le cinéma semble l’art le plus apte à chercher, du côté de l’étrangeté, de l’indicible, de l’inconscient. C’est le « divan du pauvre », nous dit Guattari. En tout cas il est subversif comme la psychanalyse. Selon Slavoj Zizek il constitue un dispositif qui nous fait jouir et un lieu pédagogique qui nous apprend à désirer. Notre propos est de montrer à travers des extraits des films comme « Persona » de Bergman, « Breaking the Waves » de Lars von Trier, Silence de Scorsese , et « Les Quatre Cents Coups » de Truffaut, comment l’artiste nous confronte avec le réel et avec le fait qu’il n’y a plus de grand Autre. Ces scènes se jouent au bord de la mer, de l’étrangeté, finalement du traumatique. Touchés par la violence des vagues et la force du pulsionnel nous sommes confrontés avec notre regard, notre jouissance et notre désir. C’est en tant que « parlêtre » (Lacan), et plus spécifiquement en tant qu’être pulsionnel que nous nous rencontrons à travers de telles scènes. C’est finalement notre implication dans le film qui est questionnée dans notre intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles solutions face à l’impossibilité de former des paires de tandems ?
Lejot, Eve UL; Molostoff, Leslie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 12)

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See detailPanel Organiser: Meeting the Editors: De Gruyter Book Series 'Migrations in History'
Venken, Machteld UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailSymposium: Crossing borders – feeling connected? An exploration of drivers influencing the development of a sense of belonging in the receiving society
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors ... [more ▼]

Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors influencing the development of a sense of belonging. It brings together researchers from four different countries, applying different methodological approaches examining the development of belonging among different migrant groups. Jean Décieux explores the role of cultural distance in the host country adjustment process. Suggesting a multidimensional conceptualization of cultural distance, he presents findings based on recently migrated German nationals (N = 2856) drawn from the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS). The role of cultural distance in negotiating belonging among young migrant women growing up in Germany is the subject of Elke Murdock’s qualitative study. Results point to the important role of parents in the process. How parents’ commitment or lack of commitment affects their children’s construction of their sense of belonging is the focus of Anna Gruszczynska’s qualitative study among immigrant youth in the UK. She shows the fluctuating nature of the pursuit of belonging in time and space. Gry Paulgaard focuses on immigrants arriving in the rural space of Northern Norway. The project explores everyday life practices of refugees taking the materiality of a place as a starting point, acknowledging the interdependency between the social and material contexts for practice. Finally, Isabelle Albert investigates practices by older migrants living in multicultural Luxembourg, their engagement or otherwise in social practices and how this impacts on their sense of belonging. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the move within themselves – cultural distance and negotiation processes of cultural belonging
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one ... [more ▼]

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one cultural point of reference from birth. In the growing body of literature on bi- and multiculturalism different models of cultural acquisition are described, but still little is known about how the negotiation process takes place and what factors facilitate resolution and well-being. The present study builds on a recent theoretical framework on multicultural identity integration developed by Yampolsky et al. and investigates the role of cultural distance in the negotiation process for cultural belonging. For the present study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight young women (Mage = 22.6). All grew up in Germany, yet each had a very different other cultural background ranging from Chile, Columbia, France, Ghana, Hungary, Luxembourg, Russia to Sri Lanka. We asked participants about their sense of belonging, perceived similarities and differences between their cultural influences and their way of positioning themselves within these. Each interview was complemented by two visual exercises illustrating the sense of belonging. The results show that all participants engaged in active negotiation processes and arrived at very different solutions in terms of belonging. The cultural integration process depends on a multitude of factors – cultural distance being one, but parents playing an important role. The findings will be discussed in light of current acculturation models. Explanations will be provided with special focus on implications for migration and acculturation research. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoricizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age: Global Governance
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the ... [more ▼]

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism and communication rights. [less ▲]

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See detailAn efficient deep learning approach for ground point filtering in aerial laser scanning point clouds
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL

in Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md; Teferle, Felix Norman; Li, Jonathan (Eds.) et al An efficient deep learning approach for ground point filtering in aerial laser scanning point clouds (2021, July 02)

Ground surface extraction is one of the classic tasks in airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing that is used for three-dimensional (3D) city modelling, infrastructure health monitoring, and ... [more ▼]

Ground surface extraction is one of the classic tasks in airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing that is used for three-dimensional (3D) city modelling, infrastructure health monitoring, and disaster management. Many methods have been developed over the last three decades. Recently, Deep Learning (DL) has become the most dominant technique for 3D point cloud classification. DL methods used for classification can be categorized into end-to-end and non end-to-end approaches. One of the main challenges of using supervised DL approaches is getting a sufficient amount of training data. The main advantage of using a supervised non end-to-end approach is that it requires less training data. This paper introduces a novel local feature-based non end-to-end DL algorithm that generates a binary classifier for ground point filtering. It studies feature relevance, and investigates three models that are different combinations of features. This method is free from the limitations of point clouds’ irregular data structure and varying data density, which is the biggest challenge for using the elegant convolutional neural network. The new algorithm does not require transforming data into regular 3D voxel grids or any rasterization. The performance of the new method has been demonstrated through two ALS datasets covering urban environments. The method successfully labels ground and non-ground points in the presence of steep slopes and height discontinuity in the terrain. Experiments in this paper show that the algorithm achieves around 97% in both F1-score and model accuracy for ground point labelling. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb archiving of the COVID crisis in Europe : Close reading's challenges
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The ... [more ▼]

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Karin de Wild (Leiden University, The Netherlands) and Nicola Bingham will provide feedback on a very concrete experiment that the working group is conducting through a Datathon based on metadata and derived data. This distant reading approach is complemented by a more qualitative approach, which also raises challenges, as Valérie Schafer will explain. The presentation of several concrete research topics will further demonstrate the methodological challenges at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailRESIF 3.0: Toward a Flexible & Automated Management of User Software Environment on HPC facility
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Pinel, Frederic UL et al

in ACM Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing (PEARC'21) (2021, July)

High Performance Computing (HPC) is increasingly identified as a strategic asset and enabler to accelerate the research and the business performed in all areas requiring intensive computing and large ... [more ▼]

High Performance Computing (HPC) is increasingly identified as a strategic asset and enabler to accelerate the research and the business performed in all areas requiring intensive computing and large-scale Big Data analytic capabilities. The efficient exploitation of heterogeneous computing resources featuring different processor architectures and generations, coupled with the eventual presence of GPU accelerators, remains a challenge. The University of Luxembourg operates since 2007 a large academic HPC facility which remains one of the reference implementation within the country and offers a cutting-edge research infrastructure to Luxembourg public research. The HPC support team invests a significant amount of time (i.e., several months of effort per year) in providing a software environment optimised for hundreds of users, but the complexity of HPC software was quickly outpacing the capabilities of classical software management tools. Since 2014, our scientific software stack is generated and deployed in an automated and consistent way through the RESIF framework, a wrapper on top of Easybuild and Lmod [5] meant to efficiently handle user software generation. A large code refactoring was performed in 2017 to better handle different software sets and roles across multiple clusters, all piloted through a dedicated control repository. With the advent in 2020 of a new supercomputer featuring a different CPU architecture, and to mitigate the identified limitations of the existing framework, we report in this state-of-practice article RESIF 3.0, the latest iteration of our scientific software management suit now relying on streamline Easybuild. It permitted to reduce by around 90% the number of custom configurations previously enforced by specific Slurm and MPI settings, while sustaining optimised builds coexisting for different dimensions of CPU and GPU architectures. The workflow for contributing back to the Easybuild community was also automated and a current work in progress aims at drastically decrease the building time of a complete software set generation. Overall, most design choices for our wrapper have been motivated by several years of experience in addressing in a flexible and convenient way the heterogeneous needs inherent to an academic environment aiming for research excellence. As the code base is available publicly, and as we wish to transparently report also the pitfalls and difficulties met, this tool may thus help other HPC centres to consolidate their own software management stack. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge assessment with concept maps: Opportunities and challenges
Rohles, Björn UL; Koenig, Vincent UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives ... [more ▼]

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives. Concept mapping is a promising approach to address these issues. It is a method that uses concepts connected by labeled links to visualize a semantic network of knowledge. Concept mapping is predestined for a digital approach because it allows for easy interactive editing, innovative test items, and incorporation of multimodal information. Concept mapping is available for summative and formative assessment and, thus, provides the opportunity to become a vital part of modern education. The biggest advantage of concept mapping (i.e., a comprehensive and yet comprehensible visualization of complex relations) also represents the biggest challenge when it comes to assessment with - and scoring of - concept maps. The first challenge is the enormous amount of indicators used for scoring concept maps in assessment. A second challenge comes from the fact that educators using concept mapping in their assessment have to understand and interpret the indicators that are used in scoring concept maps. This presentation reports on a Ph.D. project that investigates digital concept mapping in the context of knowledge assessment from a user experience perspective. The results are based on, first, a comprehensive international systematic literature review on concept map scoring, and second, three empirical studies covering the needs and experiences of learners and educators in concept mapping. It presents key findings from the iterative user experience design of a concept mapping tool as part of the online assessment platform OASYS, an overview of indicators used in concept map scoring, and research opportunities in knowledge assessment with concept maps. Finally, it stresses the value that user experience design brings to knowledge assessment with concept maps. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Test Suite Generation for Key-Points Detection DNNs using Many-Objective Search (Experience Paper)
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (2021, July)

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness ... [more ▼]

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness detection in automated driving systems. With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Key-Points detection DNNs (KP-DNNs) have been increasingly employed for that purpose. Nevertheless, KP-DNN testing and validation have remained a challenging problem because KP-DNNs predict many independent key-points at the same time---where each individual key-point may be critical in the targeted application---and images can vary a great deal according to many factors. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically generate test data for KP-DNNs using many-objective search. In our experiments, focused on facial key-points detection DNNs developed for an industrial automotive application, we show that our approach can generate test suites to severely mispredict, on average, more than 93% of all key-points. In comparison, random search-based test data generation can only severely mispredict 41% of them. Many of these mispredictions, however, are not avoidable and should not therefore be considered failures. We also empirically compare state-of-the-art, many-objective search algorithms and their variants, tailored for test suite generation. Furthermore, we investigate and demonstrate how to learn specific conditions, based on image characteristics (e.g., head posture and skin color), that lead to severe mispredictions. Such conditions serve as a basis for risk analysis or DNN retraining. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall in size, great in significance: conspicilla and perspicilla in the visual arts of the Low Countries around 1600
Koeleman, Floor UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée ... [more ▼]

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée Magnin (Dijon) seems to allude to the implicit link between the two. As tools to observe with and through, these instruments visualize the limits of human perception and the ability to alter the scale of the visible world. The Five Senses was created in Antwerp around the same time the telescope first appeared in textual sources, namely 1608. However, the optical instrument is likely to have existed for years by then. This paper investigates if any references to the telescope in the visual arts predate the first written evidence of its invention. For artists the early telescope was probably not that challenging an object to represent. The exterior, a simple tube characterized by a diaphragm, housed two lenses made by the same glass industry that manufactured eyeglasses. This paper takes a closer look at the imagery of eyeglasses and telescopes, depicted in the visual arts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The meaning assigned to these instruments can be inferred from the context in which they are presented and their relative scale. Together eyeglasses and telescopes feature prominently in constcamer paintings dedicated to visual perception, understood both physically and metaphysically. While the exact date of creation remains subject to debate, The Five Senses probably contains the earliest known depiction of a telescope – true to scale. [less ▲]

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See detailStudent Response Systems in Remote Teaching
Botev, Jean UL; Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International) (2021, July)

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See detailAvoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Murray, Dakota S.; Bell, Alexis et al

in 18th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENTOMETRICS & INFORMETRICS, 12–15 July 2021KU Leuven, Belgium (2021, July)

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However ... [more ▼]

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However, few large-scale analyses have been performed on this topic, mostly because of the lack of robust race-disambiguation algorithms. Identifying author information does not generally include the author’s race. Therefore, an algorithm needs to be employed, using known information about authors, i.e., their names, to infer their perceived race. Nevertheless, as any other algorithm, the process of racial inference can generate biases if it is not carefully considered. When the research is focused on the understanding of racial-based inequalities, such biases undermine the objectives of the investigation and may perpetuate inequities. The goal of this article is to assess the biases introduced by the different approaches used name-based racial inference. We use information from US census and mortgage applications to infer the race of US author names in the Web of Science. We estimate the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. Our results demonstrate that the validity of name-based inference varies by race and ethnicity and that threshold approaches underestimate Black authors and overestimate White authors. We conclude with recommendations to avoid potential biases. This article fills an important research gap that will allow more systematic and unbiased studies on racial disparity in science. [less ▲]

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See detailDigging into Digital Roots: introduction
Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Presentation of the project at stake (a collective book whose idea was born within the ECREA Communication History Section), its approach and theoretical framework.

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See detailLog-based Slicing for System-level Test Cases
Messaoudi, Salma UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Panichella, Annibale et al

in Proceedings of ISSTA '21: 30th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (2021, July)

Regression testing is arguably one of the most important activities in software testing. However, its cost-effectiveness and usefulness can be largely impaired by complex system test cases that are poorly ... [more ▼]

Regression testing is arguably one of the most important activities in software testing. However, its cost-effectiveness and usefulness can be largely impaired by complex system test cases that are poorly designed (e.g., test cases containing multiple test scenarios combined into a single test case) and that require a large amount of time and resources to run. One way to mitigate this issue is decomposing such system test cases into smaller, separate test cases---each of them with only one test scenario and with its corresponding assertions---so that the execution time of the decomposed test cases is lower than the original test cases, while the test effectiveness of the original test cases is preserved. This decomposition can be achieved with program slicing techniques, since test cases are software programs too. However, existing static and dynamic slicing techniques exhibit limitations when (1) the test cases use external resources, (2) code instrumentation is not a viable option, and (3) test execution is expensive. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, called DS3 (Decomposing System teSt caSe), which automatically decomposes a complex system test case into separate test case slices. The idea is to use test case execution logs, obtained from past regression testing sessions, to identify "hidden" dependencies in the slices generated by static slicing. Since logs include run-time information about the system under test, we can use them to extract access and usage of global resources and refine the slices generated by static slicing. We evaluated DS3 in terms of slicing effectiveness and compared it with a vanilla static slicing tool. We also compared the slices obtained by DS3 with the corresponding original system test cases, in terms of test efficiency and effectiveness. The evaluation results on one proprietary system and one open-source system show that DS3 is able to accurately identify the dependencies related to the usage of global resources, which vanilla static slicing misses. Moreover, the generated test case slices are, on average, 3.56 times faster than original system test cases and they exhibit no significant loss in terms of fault detection effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Executive Functions and their Relation to Math Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Meta-Analysis
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Introduction: Executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, updating) are linked to math intelligence in school students and adults. This link is particularly important because performance in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, updating) are linked to math intelligence in school students and adults. This link is particularly important because performance in school mathematics is predictive of various competencies later in life. While some researchers argue that tests of executive functions and math intelligence measure the same underlying construct, others argue that they measure distinct but correlated constructs. Also, evidence on the differentiation of cognitive skills over time exists. Clarifying the relation between executive functions and math intelligence is, however, challenging, especially because preschoolers cannot fill in commonly used questionnaires that require them to read. As a consequence, researchers have to resort to behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments of executive functions. Objectives/Methodology: With this meta-analysis of 29 studies containing 268 effect sizes, we examined the link between executive functions and math intelligence for a total sample of 25,510 preschool children. Specifically, we synthesized the corresponding correlations and sought to clarify which executive function assessments were used for preschool children and how the assessment characteristics may moderate the correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills. Results: Utilizing three-level random-effects meta-analysis, we found a moderate correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills in preschool children, r = 0.35. The type of assessment (behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments) did not moderate this relation. Differentiating between the three executive functions revealed average correlations of r = 0.30 between math and inhibition, r = 0.38 between math and attention shifting, and r = 0.36 between math and updating. These analyses will be supplemented by further moderator analyses. Conclusions: Our findings support the significant link between executive functions and mathematical skills in preschoolers—yet, the average correlations do not suggest that both measures are identical. Results will be discussed against the background of deployed assessments and testing environments. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring multicultural ideology: Scale development and validation in different languages and contexts
Stogianni, Maria UL; Schmidt, Lea Marie; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive ... [more ▼]

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive intercultural relations: a) Diversity: the presence of ethnocultural diversity in the population and b) Equity: the right for equal participation of all cultural groups in the society. Both diversity and equity are necessary conditions for the success of multicultural policies. Culturally heterogeneous communities that do not support inclusion and equitable participation of all groups face the negative consequences of segregation and marginalization. In line with this notion, an international research consortium is developing a revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale to assess the endorsement of multicultural ideology in different national contexts. The scale aims to distinguish various attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the acceptance of diversity and social inclusion of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Social Interaction, Equity/Inclusion, Extent of Differences, Conflictual Relations, Essentialistic Boundaries. We present the first assessment of the new scale in the German language. The survey was administered online to a sample of native German citizens (N = 382) with different demographic characteristics. Our aim was to understand the attitude of native citizens towards cultural diversity and their willingness to have members of ethnic minority groups be included in the larger society. We investigated the factor structure of the scale, its psychometric properties, and the relationship between multicultural ideology and some individual difference variables, such as ethnic group attachment and social dominance orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop : Data as a new resource? Similarities and differences of data vs. material resources
Schafer, Valerie UL; Veraart, Frank; Niet, Irene

Scientific Conference (2021, June 29)

This exploratory workshop is dedicated to scholars interested in technological developments related to digital technologies and resource developments. The workshop focusses on three notions: (1 ... [more ▼]

This exploratory workshop is dedicated to scholars interested in technological developments related to digital technologies and resource developments. The workshop focusses on three notions: (1) historical parallels of digital data with the development of other key material resources, (2) data as a commodity and its infrastructure, and (3) sustainability issues and (big)data. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island and NO2 with urban population: A meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, June 29)

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See detailComparing MultiLingual and Multiple MonoLingual Models for Intent Classification and Slot Filling
Lothritz, Cedric UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL et al

in 26th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (2021, June 25)

With the momentum of conversational AI for enhancing client-to-business interactions, chatbots are sought in various domains, including FinTech where they can automatically handle requests for opening ... [more ▼]

With the momentum of conversational AI for enhancing client-to-business interactions, chatbots are sought in various domains, including FinTech where they can automatically handle requests for opening/closing bank accounts or issuing/terminating credit cards. Since they are expected to replace emails and phone calls, chatbots must be capable to deal with diversities of client populations. In this work, we focus on the variety of languages, in particular in multilingual countries. Specifically, we investigate the strategies for training deep learning models of chatbots with multilingual data. We perform experiments for the specific tasks of Intent Classification and Slot Filling in financial domain chatbots and assess the performance of mBERT multilingual model vs multiple monolingual models. [less ▲]

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See detailIterative STEAM design in primary grades and in pre-service teacher training
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben

Scientific Conference (2021, June 24)

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See detailThe effect of temperature and joining speed on the joining quality for conduction laser joining of metals to polymers
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Hennico, Max; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 24)

Laser joining of metals to polymers offers several advantages to produce lightweight hybrid assemblies. An important one is the exceptional control over the heat input which defines the temperature at the ... [more ▼]

Laser joining of metals to polymers offers several advantages to produce lightweight hybrid assemblies. An important one is the exceptional control over the heat input which defines the temperature at the interface of the materials. Initially, the in-situ heating observation of PA inside ESEM is considered. Then, aluminum and polyamide are joined in an overlap configuration while the temperature was recorded simultaneously at different areas between the materials. The results show that due to excessive heat input, polyamide degrades and leaves bubbles in the melted area. Finally, the materials are laser joined with several joining speeds to investigate different cooling rates of the polyamide during the joining process. It is concluded that joining with high cooling rates generates an amorphous melted layer of the polyamide which is different from the semi-crystalline structure of the bulk. This difference acts as a stress concentration zone and reduces the shear strength of the assembly. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing effectiveness of paper based and Augmented Reality instructions for manual assembly and training tasks
Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav UL; Sanchez, Andre UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Learning Factories (2021, June 24)

Augmented Reality (AR) systems have seen a rapid adaptation in both training and in virtual assembly instructions. AR systems assist the operator by enhancing user perception of reality, reducing the ... [more ▼]

Augmented Reality (AR) systems have seen a rapid adaptation in both training and in virtual assembly instructions. AR systems assist the operator by enhancing user perception of reality, reducing the defects, and lead-time. However, there is a significant lack in the existing literature to compare AR systems and conventional work instructions. The aim of this research is to provide an empirical evidence of comparing task completion time, number of errors, workload index and system usability of AR and conventional paper-based work instructions. For this purpose, we designed an experiment where participants use paper based instructions and AR instructions to assemble a planetary gearbox. The task was assessed using NASA-TLX and System Usability Scale (SUS) tests, which allowed further analysis using descriptive statistics. Moreover, the qualitative interview at the end of the experiment gave more insights about participant’s overall experience. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of Cu-Al weld status using convolutional neural network
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 21)

Welding copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) result in brittle intermetallic (IMC) phases, which reduces the joint performance. The key for a strong joint is to maintain an optimum amount of Al and Cu ... [more ▼]

Welding copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) result in brittle intermetallic (IMC) phases, which reduces the joint performance. The key for a strong joint is to maintain an optimum amount of Al and Cu composition in the joint. To implement this without the destruction of the sample is a challenge. For this purpose, high-resolution images of the weld zone are utilized after welding. With the image processing technique, the presence of (Al/Cu) material melted is distinguished. Therefore, the different weld type/status like insufficient melt, optimum melt, and excessive melt is detected from the images. This paper analyses the weld images and applies the convolutional neural network technique to predict the weld type. The microstructure and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the fusion zone for each weld type are correlated to the weld images. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric Re-entry Energy Storage (ARES)- A Novel concept for utilizing atmospheric re-entry energy
Pandi Perumal, Raja UL; Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Voos, Holger UL

in Proceedings of the Conference GLEX 2021 (2021, June 18)

As the aspirational goal of Mars settlement starts to slowly materialize, it is apparent that its viability hinges on the utilization of its energy and material resources. Although Mars has a thinner ... [more ▼]

As the aspirational goal of Mars settlement starts to slowly materialize, it is apparent that its viability hinges on the utilization of its energy and material resources. Although Mars has a thinner atmosphere than Earth, it still exerts large amounts of heat on entry vehicles, generating temperatures around ~1500 deg C. Therefore, the entry vehicle is covered with a thick layer of ablative heat shield to protect the inside from reaching undesired temperatures. However, the temperature on the Martian surface is significantly cold. It varies between -140 deg C and 30 deg C. One of the critical challenges in developing a settlement and operating equipment on Mars is to find adequate heat sources on its surface. The envisioned heat sources are solar energy, geothermal energy, greenhouse gases and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Although solar and possibly geothermal energy are the preferred sources for their unlimited supply, they are localized and require an elaborate infrastructure. Trapping greenhouse gases also requires extensive infrastructure. RTGs require a large amount of radioactive fuel and both the equipment and fuel have to be transported from Earth. Due to its hazardous nature, disposal/reprocessing of the fuel will be challenging. Interestingly, little to no effort has been spent to study the possibility of utilizing the large heat generated during vehicle entry. This paper proposes a novel concept to collect, store and utilize the atmospheric entry heat energy using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) obtained from the Martian moons. Mars settlement architectures suggest that Phobos and Deimos can be used to set up preliminary base camps. These moons are potentially trapped C-type asteroids and have the possibility to contain rich Lithium reserves. Lithium and its alloys have a relatively high latent heat of fusion and low density, making them an ideal PCM for this application. This concept takes advantage of the undesired heat generated during atmospheric entry to melt the PCMs. A storage system would store and insulate the melted PCM as it solidifies and heat energy is released. The utilized PCM could then be reused and consumed for a variety of purposes. With current technology limitations, the heat storage system could only store the heat energy obtained using PCMs for a few hours. While the results from ongoing research could considerably increase its efficiency, PCMs could be used as a temporary energy source in landing sites where no other energy generation infrastructure is available. Alternatively, the heat generated from PCMs could be converted to electricity using thermoelectric generators. [less ▲]

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See detailEr ist Prinz. – Mehr noch: Er ist Mensch! Er ist Stimmbürger. Stimmrecht des Monarchen als Dispersionsprisma einer rechtswissenschaftlichen Monarchieanalyse
Heuschling, Luc UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 18)

In the literature on comparative constitutional law and constitutional theory, monarchies are, if they attract any attention at all, most frequently analyzed from the perspective of the monarch’s ... [more ▼]

In the literature on comparative constitutional law and constitutional theory, monarchies are, if they attract any attention at all, most frequently analyzed from the perspective of the monarch’s political power, after its more or less extensive “neutralization” in the name of the constitutional ideals of Enlightenment. Yet this classic approach, whose focus lies on the State organ’s competencies and the discretion of its royal incumbent, is incomplete as it ignores a second, increasingly important facet of the modernization process of monarchies: To what extent do Royals, including the monarch, have fundamental rights as individuals, as “human beings”? This paper considers in particular the even-more-overlooked issue of their political rights (right to vote, right to stand for election, and the right to use the instruments of direct democracy). The issue, which is a very old one, having being addressed first by Sieyès in his famous 1789 speech on royal veto and by the French Constitution of 1791, is far from being odd or futile. In some jurisdictions, like in Japan (1945), Luxembourg (2004-5), Liechtenstein (2002-3) or in Thailand (2019), it was at the core of quite controversial public debates which, eventually, lead to totally divergent outcomes. Beyond its (relative) importance in practice, it is a key parameter for theoretical purposes: combined with the criteria of the dualistic state organization, it provides a deeper insight into the complex structure of those regimes mixing, in various ways, both monarchical and democratic elements. This article sheds light on this new research field, starting with a broad historical and comparative survey, before presenting a typology in order to tackle the startling diversity of legal solutions. In der heutigen Literatur zur Verfassungsrechtsvergleichung und allgemeinen Verfassungstheorie wird das Thema der Monarchien eher stiefmütterlich behandelt. Soweit sich diese Literatur damit abfasst, behandelt sie vor allem die Frage der politischen Macht der Monarchen und ihrer „Neutralisierung“ im Rahmen des auf den Idealen der Aufklärung fußenden Modernisierungsprogramms. Diese klassische Lesart, deren Fokus auf den Kompetenzen des Staatsorgans „Monarch“ und auf dem (verbleibenden) Ermessen des monarchischen Organwalters liegt, verkennt jedoch eine zweite, an Bedeutung stets zunehmende Facette der Modernisierungsdynamik: In welchem Maße sind die Royals, darunter auch der Monarch selbst, als Individuen, als „Menschen“, Träger von Grundrechten? Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit dem noch weniger belichteten Unterthema ihres Stimmrechts (aktives Wahlrecht, Wählbarkeit, Benutzung von direktdemokratischen Instrumenten). Für viele mag diese Perspektive verstörend neu wirken. In den Augen einiger wäre es nur eine Randnotiz wert. Eine solche Einschätzung geht jedoch fehl. Das Thema ist sehr alt, wurde es doch zum ersten Mal 1789 von Sieyès, in seiner berühmten Rede zum königlichen Veto, und in der französischen Verfassung von 1791 angeschnitten. Im Laufe des 20. und 21. Jahrhundert hat es in verschiedenen Ländern – in Japan (1945), in Luxemburg (2004-5), in Liechtenstein (2002-3) und in Thailand (2019) – zu teils hitzigen Debatten geführt, mit jeweils sehr unterschiedlichen Resultaten. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, an erster Stelle, die Gesamtentwicklung dieser Thematik in Europa und in der Welt, ab 1789, rechtshistorisch und rechtsvergleichend nachzuzeichnen. Darüber hinaus, gilt es, den bisher unausgeschöpften heuristischen Mehrwert dieser Problematik für eine schärfere, rechtswissenschaftliche Analyse der früheren und heutigen demokratisierten Monarchien (oder monarchischen Demokratien) darzulegen. Diese Frage wirft, in der Tat, ein ganz anderes, neues Licht auf das komplexe juristische Normenwerk dieser Regierungssysteme die als historisch gewachsene, Gegensätze überbrückende Gebilde relativ schwer durchleuchtbar sind. Eine Typologie soll dafür Orientierungshilfe leisten. [less ▲]

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See detailThinking Borders and Border Thinking
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 17)

Obwohl die Grenz- und Migrationsforschung große Überschneidungen aufweisen, unterscheiden sie sich z.B. hinsichtlich ihrer Erkenntnisinteressen und Theoretisierungen. Der Vortrag baut auf solchen ... [more ▼]

Obwohl die Grenz- und Migrationsforschung große Überschneidungen aufweisen, unterscheiden sie sich z.B. hinsichtlich ihrer Erkenntnisinteressen und Theoretisierungen. Der Vortrag baut auf solchen Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschieden auf und zeigt zunächst die Verbindungen zwischen Grenz- und Migrationsforschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden aus Sicht der Grenzforschung verschiedene analytische Trends – insbesondere die komplexitätsorientierte Perspektive – und die damit verbundenen Grenzkonzepte vorgestellt. Abschließend werden die analytischen Trends mit der Methode „border thinking“ (Mignolo) in Zusammenhang gebracht und gefragt, inwiefern sie für die Migrationsforschung nützlich sein können. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical study on the revised rules for minimum degree of shear connection in propped and unpropped steel-concrete composite beams
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Vigneri, Valentino UL

in Proceedings of ICMS (2021, June 16)

The work presents a numerical study that focuses on steel-concrete composite beams using ductile headed stud shear connectors. The objective is to check the suitability of the proposed revised EN 1994-1-1 ... [more ▼]

The work presents a numerical study that focuses on steel-concrete composite beams using ductile headed stud shear connectors. The objective is to check the suitability of the proposed revised EN 1994-1-1 rules for the minimum degree of shear connection. Therefore, a non-linear 3D finite element model of simply supported composite beams was developed and validated against the analytical values of the plastic bending design resistance. The parametric study consists of 10 configurations where the relative slip at slab-beam interface was carefully investigated at different degrees of shear connection and propping conditions. Specifically, the slip at the minimum degree of shear connection shall not exceed the limit of 6 mm defined as the characteristic slip of ductile connector according to EN 1994-1-1. The results showed that the revised rules for unpropped beams delivers conservative results whereas one case with propped conditions exhibit a maximum slip significantly higher than 6 mm. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective resistance of demountable shear connectors
Kozma, Andras UL; Yang, Jie UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL

in Proceedings of ICMS (2021, June 16)

Steel-concrete composite construction is structurally efficient but is impossible to dismount where the floor slab is permanently connected to the steel beams through traditional welded studs. This ... [more ▼]

Steel-concrete composite construction is structurally efficient but is impossible to dismount where the floor slab is permanently connected to the steel beams through traditional welded studs. This contradicts the reuse and reduce aspects of the circular economy concept which has recently been introduced to the construction industry. Within the RFCS REDUCE project, several solutions have been proposed. Demountability of the composite beams using the proposed new shear connectors has been successfully demonstrated by push-out tests and full-scale beam tests. Both experiments and numerical simulations showed that the composite beams can develop plasticity even the demountable shear connectors in solid concrete slabs failed in a brittle way. To extend the scope of Eurocode 4 and avoid uneconomic elastic design, effective shear resistance of the demountable shear connectors was defined by using a newly developed algorithm, for the calculation of the plastic moment capacity of composite sections with partial shear connection. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of a new type of flat shear connectors dedicated to composite columns
Chrzanowski, Maciej Piotr UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Obiala, Renata UL et al

in Proceedings of ICMS (2021, June 16)

The current practice to assure composite action foresees the usage of headed studs. This type of mechanical shear connectors was developed for composite beams and only adopted for the column’s usage ... [more ▼]

The current practice to assure composite action foresees the usage of headed studs. This type of mechanical shear connectors was developed for composite beams and only adopted for the column’s usage. Application in composite columns could lead to a reduced economy, especially for heavy composite columns used in high-rise buildings. A new type of flat shear connectors was developed and characterized that allows for fully automatic application process. This secures an increased safety of the whole structure, improved performance, optimized cross-section, reduced manufacturing time and costs. The presented paper gives a short description about the development process and focuses on the proposed analytical model describing the resistance of flat shear connectors. The developed analytical model comprises the complex stress state, which is present in the highly confined concrete directly under the connectors. The assumptions and theoretical models were confirmed in complex non-linear FE simulations performed in the Abaqus software. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island and nitrogen dioxide with urban population: a meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, June 10)

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See detailMeandering Identities: Affective Dialogues across Continents
Murdock, Elke UL; Campill, Marc-Antoine

Scientific Conference (2021, June 10)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. In terms of its demographic composition, Luxembourg can in fact be described as super-diverse. The foreign population ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. In terms of its demographic composition, Luxembourg can in fact be described as super-diverse. The foreign population percentage stands at 47.5% and encloses migrants of different generation statuses and intentions to stay – ranging from a working day, to the length of a contract to permanence. Luxembourg is a trilingual country, with English and Portuguese being widely spoken as well. Luxembourg thus provides a rich context for identity construction. The majority of immigrants have European roots, but there is an increasing number of foreigners with a non-European background. We explored the identity-construction processes of eight Japanese women who had moved to Luxembourg. In particular, we were interested in the negotiation process or cultural dialogues these Japanese women engage in following their move to Luxembourg. Multicultural Luxembourg and homogenous Japan provide two very different cultural contexts and our aim was to understand if and how our subjects would engage in dialogues across continents. As noted by Hermans (2001) I positions create dialogical relations with each other by reorganizing themselves in flexible ways from one position to another due to its context-dependency. In our qualitative study we prompted context by providing three sets of visual stimuli. The first set comprised typical images of Luxembourg, the second matched images of Japan and in the third set we presented hybrid images – juxtaposing Japanese and European images. Especially the reactions to the last set of primes prompted a dialogical narration – dialogical interactions between different I positions. For the majority of our subjects we observed a harmonious or flexible flow of I positions within the self – a meandering between reference points and experiences in Japan and Luxembourg. Some ambivalence and disharmonious dialogues could also be observed. Examples for these affective dialogues across continents will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights from a qualitative study of second-generation young Tamils growing up in Germany
Murdock, Elke UL; Mohanambal, Pavithraa

Scientific Conference (2021, June 03)

The aim of the study is to examine identity construal processes of young Tamils growing up in Germany. Their parents moved to Germany in the 80s fleeing conflict in Sri Lanka. Building on the theoretical ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study is to examine identity construal processes of young Tamils growing up in Germany. Their parents moved to Germany in the 80s fleeing conflict in Sri Lanka. Building on the theoretical framework on biculturalism developed by Yampolsky et al. (2013) we explored, using a qualitative approach, to what extent second-generation Tamils see themselves as a product of two cultures. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten participants (5 men and 5 women). All participants were born in Germany and completed schooling in Germany. All participants also attended Tamil schools and speak the Tamil language. Traditional Tamil values include making parents proud (collectivistic orientation), a conservative understanding of gender roles and emphasizing duty over joy. This is quite different to predominant values in Germany which is why we wanted to explore, how second-generation Tamils organize their cultural identities and what compromises they make in order to live up to cultural influences and expectations, focusing on the negotiation processes our participants engage in in navigating their cultural influences. The majority of our participants feel committed to both cultural influences and identify with both. We will show the different ways of compromise our participants have adopted. [less ▲]

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See detailSymposium: Looking back or forward? The cultural identity construction of immigrant youth.
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Maehler, Debora et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June 03)

This symposium pursues cultural identity formation (in terms of identifications with country of origin and country of residence) of immigrant youth using different methods. We will start with a literature ... [more ▼]

This symposium pursues cultural identity formation (in terms of identifications with country of origin and country of residence) of immigrant youth using different methods. We will start with a literature review on previous findings on cultural identification of first-generation immigrant youth worldwide, zoom in closer by looking on identity transmission processes between generations and finishing off with individual-level findings on identity construction by second-generation immigrants. First, results from a meta-analysis will be presented which investigated core factors affecting identity development among first-generation youth. The meta-analysis summarized which individual and context related factors predict cultural identity formation. The second study, employing a quantitative design, focuses on the cultural identity processes and dynamics of change between first-generation immigrant parents and their children (second generation) in a heterogeneous European country context - Luxemburg. The third study employs a qualitative design focusing on identity negotiation processes of young second generation immigrants growing up in Germany. Young Tamils were interviewed, exploring the cultural navigation processes in-depth. Findings across the studies and approaches indicate moderate to strong identifications with both, the country of origin and country of residence. The drivers for each outcome will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Trajectory Analysis in Finite Mixture Modeling
Noel, Cédric UL; Schiltz, Jang UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 02)

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