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See detailA curriculum for the 21st century
Biesta, Gert UL; Priestley, M

in Priestley, M; Biesta, Gert (Eds.) Reinventing the curriculum. New trends in curriculum policy and practice (2013)

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See detailCurriculum History in Europe: A Historiographic Added Value
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Nordic Journal of Educational History (2016), 3(1), 3-24

This article advocates for a particular understanding of curriculum history that enables educational research to emancipate itself from national idiosyncrasies. It suggests focusing, in the frame of a ... [more ▼]

This article advocates for a particular understanding of curriculum history that enables educational research to emancipate itself from national idiosyncrasies. It suggests focusing, in the frame of a cultural history, on the interrelation between the constitutions, which define the ideal social order and the envisaged ideal citizens, and the curriculum, which provides “educational opportunities” – that is, pre-organised or preconfigured pathways of educational careers. The article thereby stresses that the fundamental notions of this research program – nation, society, and citizen – need to be handled as floating signifiers that are materialised differently in the various individual nation-states. The article argues that against this background, a European education history that respects national or cultural distinctions without getting trapped by national idiosyncrasies is possible. [less ▲]

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See detailCurriculum history or the educational construction of Europe in the long nineteenth century
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in European Educational Research Journal (2016), 15(3), 279-297

Although it is generally acknowledged that the building of mass schooling systems must be considered in close relation to the emerging nation-states of the long 19th century, few published studies discuss ... [more ▼]

Although it is generally acknowledged that the building of mass schooling systems must be considered in close relation to the emerging nation-states of the long 19th century, few published studies discuss the interrelation between the actual foundation of the (nation-) states and the introduction of the modern school. This article examines the role that constitutions play in the construction of national citizens as an expression of a particular cultural understanding of a political entity, and then discusses European examples, indicating how the particular constitutional construction of the citizens of European countries almost immediately triggered the need to create new school laws designed to organize the actual implementation of the constitutionally created citizens. The focus is on the specific need to ‘make’ loyal citizens by creating the symbiosis between the nation and the constitutional state and by emphasizing the cultural differences between the individual nation-states and their overall curricula. The article concludes with a formulation of research desiderata which envision a transnational curriculum history that is emancipated from both national and global research agendas, enabling a European education history that respects cultural distinctions rather than levelling them into one grand narrative [less ▲]

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See detailCurriculum studies: The reason of “reason” and schooling
Popkewitz, Thomas S. UL

in Popkewitz, Thomas S. (Ed.) The "reason" of schooling: Historicizing curriculum studies, pedagogy, and teacher education (2014)

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See detailCurriculum unter Beschuss? Luxemburger Schulreform im Kontest des Ersten Welkrieges
Schreiber, Catherina UL; Gardin, Matias UL; Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Majerus, Benoît; Roemer, Charles; Thommes, Gianna (Eds.) 1914-1918: Guerre(s) au Luxembourg - Kriege in Luxemburg (2014)

Sowohl die öffentlichen als auch die innerprofessionellen Diskussionen und die sich daraus ergebenden curricularen Verhandlungen belegen, dass die Schulpolitik in Luxemburg während des Ersten Weltkriegs ... [more ▼]

Sowohl die öffentlichen als auch die innerprofessionellen Diskussionen und die sich daraus ergebenden curricularen Verhandlungen belegen, dass die Schulpolitik in Luxemburg während des Ersten Weltkriegs als ein Mittel zur Konstruktion einer neutralen, pazifistischen, alternativen Realität verstanden wurde, mit Hilfe derer soziale Gegebenheiten und aus dem Krieg resultierende Probleme reguliert werden konnten. Dennoch zeigte die Curriculumspolitik der Nachkriegszeit, dass solche optimistischen Konzeptionen auf Dauer nicht beizubehalten waren. [less ▲]

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See detailCurriculum, Languages, and Mentalities
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Baker, Bernadette (Ed.) New Curriculum History (2009)

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See detailCurriculumentwicklung in einer mehrsprachigen Gesellschaft: Das Beispiel Luxemburg
Sattler, Anna-Sabrina UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The study starts by shedding light on the specific language situation in Luxembourg’s schools and society and explores the ways in which national curriculum is constructed utilizing the three official ... [more ▼]

The study starts by shedding light on the specific language situation in Luxembourg’s schools and society and explores the ways in which national curriculum is constructed utilizing the three official languages of Luxembourg, namely French, German and Luxembourgish. Against this backdrop it provides a detailed discussion of how specific ideas of a national linguistic identity have evolved in the course of history, and the extent to which they act as the basis for debates on language policy in today’s Luxembourgian school system. Identity formation and curriculum making shall therefore be considered as co-constructing processes, in the sense that the curriculum anticipates future societal ideals. In this respect, the curriculum ‘fabricates’ certain kinds of people and also different kinds of people (Popkewitz, 2008, 2020). Keeping this definition in mind, curriculum design becomes challenging when the school population is highly heterogenous and multilingual in itself: In addition to its historically and contextually determined multilingualism, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is home to numerous immigrant languages, and today almost 48% of the population are foreigners (STATEC, 2020a). Educational policy thus has to integrate pupils of non-Luxembourg origin and languages into the trilingual school system. While considering the different usage of languages in Luxembourgian society and the school system, I examine how certain ideas of multilingualism evolved and with it the representation of an ideal member of Luxembourg’s society. The dissertation will first give a historical and sociopolitical overview, concentrating on the interrelation of nation building during the 19th century and the creation of a national school system. Following the historical background, this dissertation focuses on the school and curriculum reform process of 2009 in Luxembourg, in the course of which the former education act of 1912 was replaced by a new law on elementary education. The reform was a response to the below-average performance results in large-scale assessments, first and foremost the PISA-study in the year 2000. Furthermore, it was as well the attempt to create a far more permeable school curriculum in the entire school system, and with it equal opportunities for pupils of different origins. The reform process of 2009 is accordingly seen as a turning point that broke up previously dominant ideas about the intertwinement of language and identity. With regard to these considerations, this study claims the process of curriculum making not only to be an explicit and implicit attempt to control school, and thus social realities. It is explicit to the extent that educational planning is used as a politically conscious mean of social intervention; and implicit because this control simultaneously correlates with cultural-historical practices which create common sense and therefore became subconsciously part of policy making. Following the theoretical approaches of Ludwik Fleck’s epistemology about thought styles (Fleck, 2017 [1935]), my research analyzes the extent to which specific ways of reasoning and acting in the context of curriculum making implicitly result from specific cultural historical conditions underlying the trilingual Luxembourgian school curriculum. Regarding the correlations between the institutional ideal of trilingualism in Luxembourg, the orientation towards international education standards and the extremely heterogeneous and multilingual structure of Luxembourgian society, the dissertation mainly focuses on the interrelation of the curricular paradigm and the challenges faced in the classroom reality. In light of these reflections, the dissertation tackles the following central questions: Which logics of argumentation do different actors within the curriculum making process pursue and how do they legitimize their positions on language policy? Which conflicts arise regarding the students’ linguistic repertoire and (supra-)national standards? To what extent do (supra)national educational agendas interfere with the shaping of a Luxembourg language(s) identity? How is the Luxembourg language(s) identity in light of curriculum making produced and thought? Methodologically, the reform process of 2009 will be historicized and the research questions will be addressed by a two folded research design. First, I conduct a historiographical evaluation of newspaper articles, parliamentary debates, minutes of curriculum meetings, publications of the ministry of education and legal texts. Second, the study contains an empirical analysis of 17 expert interviews which I conducted with key figures of the reform process and those who have been working with the reformed curriculum requirements. Based on the findings of my analyses, the dissertation will show that and why Luxembourg, as a kind of laboratory, is relevant to other multilingual contexts in general and in light of immigration processes in particular. The dissertation offers an innovative impetus by looking at the school reform of 2009 through a cultural-historical perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailCurvas de género 3 y realizaciones de GSp(6, l) como grupo de Galois sobre Q
Arias De Reyna Dominguez, Sara UL

Scientific Conference (2015, February 03)

Dada una curva C de género n, definida sobre el cuerpo Q de los números racionales y un número primo l, la acción del grupo de Galois absoluto G_Q sobre los puntos de l-torsion de la variedad Jacobiana J ... [more ▼]

Dada una curva C de género n, definida sobre el cuerpo Q de los números racionales y un número primo l, la acción del grupo de Galois absoluto G_Q sobre los puntos de l-torsion de la variedad Jacobiana J(C) asociada a C proporciona una representación de Galois ρ : G_Q → GSp(2n, l), que a su vez nos proporciona una realización de la imágen de ρ como grupo de Galois sobre Q. En esta charla consideramos el siguiente problema para dimensión n = 3: dado un primo l, construir explícitamente una curva C de género 3 sobre Q tal que la imagen de ρ coincida con GSp(6, l). [less ▲]

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See detailCurvature based DAD-method for damage localisation under consideration of measurement noise minimisation
Erdenebat, Dolgion UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

in Engineering Structures (2019), 181

Several research projects on condition assessment of bridges have proven that structural responses from dynamic excitation or static loading are influenced by local damages and thus, could be used for the ... [more ▼]

Several research projects on condition assessment of bridges have proven that structural responses from dynamic excitation or static loading are influenced by local damages and thus, could be used for the detection and localisation of damages. Particularly, the curvature of structures is directly depending on their stiffness. In order to localise the discontinuities in curvature lines resulting from damage, this paper uses the so-called Deformation Area Difference Method (DAD), which is based on static load deflection tests on bridge structures. The DAD-method for damage localisation is presented within the paper using a theoretical example, which is then verified by two laboratory experiments. The first experiment consists of a reinforced concrete beam, which is loaded stepwise until failure of the concrete in the compression zone. Due to the load increase, the tensile zone of the beam starts cracking, leading to a stiffness reduction. The application of the DAD-method allows identifying the cracked area from the measurement of the deflection line. However, a challenge and a prerequisite for the applicability of the DAD-method is the highly accurate measurement of the deflection line. Therefore, one of the most modern measurement techniques such as digital photogrammetry is applied. Nonetheless, the accuracy of each measurement technique is limited. The second laboratory experiment consists of a steel beam, which is locally damaged at three positions. The degree of the damage is stepwise increased in order to identify at which degree of damage the applied DAD-method is still able to identify and localise damage. In this work, the focus lies on the minimisation of the effect of noise resulting from the limited measurement precision. Possible solutions were examined and proposed based on methods such as data smoothing using polynomial regression, consideration of standard deviation and measurement point variation. The reduction of the noise effect leads to an increase in the sensitivity of the damage localisation. The DAD-method has proven its potential for practical application through the successful localisation of cracking in the concrete beam. [less ▲]

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See detailCurvature-dimension inequalities on sub-Riemannian manifolds obtained from Riemannian foliations: Part I
Grong, Erlend UL; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Mathematische Zeitschrift (2016), 282(1), 99-130

We give a generalized curvature-dimension inequality connecting the geometry of sub-Riemannian manifolds with the properties of its sub-Laplacian. This inequality is valid on a large class of sub ... [more ▼]

We give a generalized curvature-dimension inequality connecting the geometry of sub-Riemannian manifolds with the properties of its sub-Laplacian. This inequality is valid on a large class of sub-Riemannian manifolds obtained from Riemannian foliations. We give a geometric interpretation of the invariants involved in the inequality. Using this inequality, we obtain a lower bound for the eigenvalues of the sub-Laplacian. This inequality also lays the foundation for proving several powerful results in Part II. [less ▲]

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See detailCurvature-dimension inequalities on sub-Riemannian manifolds obtained from Riemannian foliations: Part II
Grong, Erlend UL; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Mathematische Zeitschrift (2016), 282(1), 131-164

Using the curvature-dimension inequality proved in Part I, we look at consequences of this inequality in terms of the interaction between the sub-Riemannian geometry and the heat semi-group P_t ... [more ▼]

Using the curvature-dimension inequality proved in Part I, we look at consequences of this inequality in terms of the interaction between the sub-Riemannian geometry and the heat semi-group P_t corresponding to the sub-Laplacian. We give bounds for the gradient, entropy, a Poincaré inequality and a Li-Yau type inequality. These results require that the gradient of P_t f remains uniformly bounded whenever the gradient of f is bounded and we give several sufficient conditions for this to hold. [less ▲]

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See detailCurve-crossing analysis for potential sputtering of insulators
Wirtz, Ludger UL; Hayderer, G.; Lemell, C. et al

in Surface Science (2000), 451(1-3), 197-202

We develop a theoretical model for the recently observed threshold for potential sputtering of LiF by slow singly and doubly charged ions. The threshold coincides with the potential energy to create a ... [more ▼]

We develop a theoretical model for the recently observed threshold for potential sputtering of LiF by slow singly and doubly charged ions. The threshold coincides with the potential energy to create a cold hole in the valence band of LiF by resonant neutralization. We calculate the level shift of the incident ion and the deformation of the valence band under the influence of the projectile. Resonant neutralization becomes possible for ions with recombination energies larger than 10 eV in agreement with the experimental findings. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCUSP FORMS FOR LOCALLY SYMMETRIC SPACES OF INFINITE VOLUME
Becker, Gilles UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Let G be a real simple linear connected Lie group of real rank one. Then, X := G/K is a Riemannian symmetric space with strictly negative sectional curvature. By the classification of these spaces, X is a ... [more ▼]

Let G be a real simple linear connected Lie group of real rank one. Then, X := G/K is a Riemannian symmetric space with strictly negative sectional curvature. By the classification of these spaces, X is a real/complex/quaternionic hyperbolic space or the Cayley hyperbolic plane. We define C(Г\G) on Г\G for torsion-free geometrically finite subgroups Г of G. We show that it has a Fréchet space structure, that the space of compactly supported smooth functions is dense in this space, that it is contained in L^2(Г\G) and that the right translation by elements of G defines a representation on C(Г\G). Moreover, we define the space of cusp forms °C(Г\G) on Г\G, which is a geometrically defined subspace of C(Г\G). It consists of the Schwartz functions which have vanishing ''constant term'' along the ordinary set Ω ⊂ ∂X and along every cusp. We show that these two constant terms are in fact related by a limit formula if the cusp is of smaller rank (not of full rank). The main result of this thesis consists in proving a direct sum decomposition of the closure of the space of cusp forms in L^2(Г\G) which respects the Plancherel decomposition in the case where Г is convex-cococompact and noncocompact. For technical reasons, we exclude here that X is the Cayley hyperbolic plane. [less ▲]

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See detailCustomary international law in the legal order of the European Union
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Lopez Escudero, Manuel (Ed.) THE EUROPEAN UNION'S EXTERNAL ACTION IN TIME OF CRISIS (2016)

Article 3(5) TEU does not unify the status of conventional and customary rules in the legal order of the European Union, but underlines their difference, by its nature as a provision regulating the ... [more ▼]

Article 3(5) TEU does not unify the status of conventional and customary rules in the legal order of the European Union, but underlines their difference, by its nature as a provision regulating the exercise of competences with the view to attain an ultimate, constitutional objective of being a credible actor in the international scene. [less ▲]

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See detailCustomary Land Conversion and the Formation of the African City
Picard, Pierre M UL; Selod, Harris

E-print/Working paper (2020)

As cities grow and spatially expand, agricultural land is converted into residential land. In many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, this process is accompanied by a change in land ... [more ▼]

As cities grow and spatially expand, agricultural land is converted into residential land. In many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, this process is accompanied by a change in land tenure, whereby plots held under traditional customary arrangements are sold to new urban residents, possibly with formal property rights. This paper studies joint land-use and land-tenure conversion in an urban economics model in which intermediaries purchase agricultural land from customary owners and attempt to transform it into residential plots with statutory property rights. The spatial equilibrium includes a mix of land uses and rights where statutory and non-statutory residential plots coexist with customary land that is mainly used for agriculture. Because customary ownership is subject to uncertainty (because of tenure insecurity), the conversion process includes a potential information asymmetry between customary owners and intermediaries. The analysis shows that a market failure may emerge whereby some customary owners prefer to continue farming their land rather than participate in the urban residential land market, which results in a city that is too small. Empirical analysis using Malian data validates the key features of the model captured by land price gradients, as well as the ranking and the variance of land prices, and is suggestive of the presence of information asymmetry. [less ▲]

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See detailCustomization of System Software for Large-scale Embedded Applications
Nehmer, Jürgen; Sturm, Peter; Baentsch, Michael et al

in Computer Communications (1997), 20

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See detailA cut finite element method for spatially resolved energy metabolism models in complex neuro-cell morphologies with minimal remeshing
Farina, Sofia UL; Claus, Susanne; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences (2021), 8

A thorough understanding of brain metabolism is essential to tackle neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are glial cells which play an important metabolic role by supplying neurons with energy. In ... [more ▼]

A thorough understanding of brain metabolism is essential to tackle neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are glial cells which play an important metabolic role by supplying neurons with energy. In addition, astrocytes provide scaffolding and homeostatic functions to neighboring neurons and contribute to the blood–brain barrier. Recent investigations indicate that the complex morphology of astrocytes impacts upon their function and in particular the efficiency with which these cells metabolize nutrients and provide neurons with energy, but a systematic understanding is still elusive. Modelling and simulation represent an effective framework to address this challenge and to deepen our understanding of brain energy metabolism. This requires solving a set of metabolic partial differential equations on complex domains and remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose, test and verify a simple numerical method to solve a simplified model of metabolic pathways in astrocytes. The method can deal with arbitrarily complex cell morphologies and enables the rapid and simple modification of the model equations by users also without a deep knowledge in the numerical methods involved. The results obtained with the new method (CutFEM) are as accurate as the finite element method (FEM) whilst CutFEM disentangles the cell morphology from its discretisation, enabling us to deal with arbitrarily complex morphologies in two and three dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailCut-and-Mouse and Ghost Control: Exploiting Antivirus Software with Synthesized Inputs
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Sgandurra, Daniele

in Digital Threats: Research and Practice (2021), 2(1),

To protect their digital assets from malware attacks, most users and companies rely on antivirus (AV) software. AVs' protection is a full-time task against malware: This is similar to a game where malware ... [more ▼]

To protect their digital assets from malware attacks, most users and companies rely on antivirus (AV) software. AVs' protection is a full-time task against malware: This is similar to a game where malware, e.g., through obfuscation and polymorphism, denial of service attacks, and malformed packets and parameters, tries to circumvent AV defences or make them crash. However, AVs react by complementing signature-based detection with anomaly or behavioral analysis, and by using OS protection, standard code, and binary protection techniques. Further, malware counter-acts, for instance, by using adversarial inputs to avoid detection, and so on. In this cat-and-mouse game, a winning strategy is trying to anticipate the move of the adversary by looking into one's own weaknesses, seeing how the adversary can penetrate them, and building up appropriate defences or attacks. In this article, we play the role of malware developers and anticipate two novel moves for the malware side to demonstrate the weakness in the AVs and to improve the defences in AVs' side. The first one consists in simulating mouse events to control AVs, namely, to send them mouse "clicks" to deactivate their protection. We prove that many AVs can be disabled in this way, and we call this class of attacks Ghost Control. The second one consists in controlling whitelisted applications, such as Notepad, by sending them keyboard events (such as "copy-and-paste") to perform malicious operations on behalf of the malware. We prove that the anti-ransomware protection feature of AVs can be bypassed if we use Notepad as a "puppet" to rewrite the content of protected files as a ransomware would do. Playing with the words, and recalling the cat-and-mouse game, we call this class of attacks Cut-and-Mouse. We tested these two attacks on 29 AVs, and the results show that 14 AVs are vulnerable to Ghost Control attack while all 29 AV programs tested are found vulnerable to Cut-and-Mouse. Furthermore, we also show some weaknesses in additional protection mechanisms of AVs, such as sandboxing and CAPTCHA verification. We have engaged with the affected AV companies, and we reported the disclosure communication with them and their responses. [less ▲]

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See detailCut-Based Abduction
D'Agostino, G.-C.; Gabbay, Dov M. UL

in Journal of Logic and Computation (2008), 16(6), 537560

In this paper we explore a generalization of traditional abduction which can simultaneously perform two different tasks: (i) given an unprovable sequent G, find a sentence H such that, H G is provable ... [more ▼]

In this paper we explore a generalization of traditional abduction which can simultaneously perform two different tasks: (i) given an unprovable sequent G, find a sentence H such that, H G is provable (hypothesis generation); (ii) given a provable sequent G, find a sentence H such that H and the proof of , H G is simpler than the proof of G (lemma generation). We argue that the two tasks should not be distinguished,and present a general procedure for indingsuitable hypotheses or lemmas. When the original sequent is provable, the abduced formula can be seen asa cut formula with respect to Gentzen's sequent calculus, so the abduction method is cut-based. Our method is based on the tableau-like system KE and we argue for its advantages over existing abduction methods based on traditional Smullyan-styleTableaux. [less ▲]

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See detailCut-Elimination for Quantified Conditional Logic
Benzmüller, Christoph UL

in Journal of Philosophical Logic (2017), 46(3), 333353

A semantic embedding of quantified conditional logic in classical higher-order logic is utilized for reducing cut-elimination in the former logic to existing results for the latter logic. The presented ... [more ▼]

A semantic embedding of quantified conditional logic in classical higher-order logic is utilized for reducing cut-elimination in the former logic to existing results for the latter logic. The presented embedding approach is adaptable to a wide range of other logics, for many of which cut-elimination is still open. However, special attention has to be payed to cut-simulation, which may render cut-elimination as a pointless criterion. [less ▲]

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