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See detailCrowdsourced estimation of cognitive decline and resilience in Alzheimer's disease
Allen, Genevera; Amoroso, Nicola; Anghel, Catalina et al

in Alzheimer's & Dementia : The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (2016), 12(6), 645-653

Detailed reference viewed: 265 (25 UL)
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See detailThe Crowdsourced Replication Initiative: Investigating Immigration and Social Policy Preferences. Executive Report.
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social ... [more ▼]

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social solidarity? Comparative cross-national research, relying mostly on secondary data, has findings in different directions. There is a threat of selective model reporting and lack of replicability. The heterogeneity of countries obscures attempts to clearly define data-generating models. P-hacking and HARKing lurk among standard research practices in this area.This project employs crowdsourcing to address these issues. It draws on replication, deliberation, meta-analysis and harnessing the power of many minds at once. The Crowdsourced Replication Initiative carries two main goals, (a) to better investigate the linkage between immigration and social policy preferences across countries, and (b) to develop crowdsourcing as a social science method. The Executive Report provides short reviews of the area of social policy preferences and immigration, and the methods and impetus behind crowdsourcing plus a description of the entire project. Three main areas of findings will appear in three papers, that are registered as PAPs or in process. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 319 (33 UL)
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See detailCrowdsourcing the linguistic landscape of a multilingual country. Introducing Lingscape in Luxembourg
Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistik Online (2017), 85(6/2017), 185-206

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (6 UL)
See detailCru et Classé. Impressions de qualités sur le vin français au XIXème siècle.
Mersch, Sam UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2017)

The thesis looks into perveived impressions on French wine in the 19th century from a French perspective. It looks into how specific qualitites, and the idea of terroir, are attested to wine in order to ... [more ▼]

The thesis looks into perveived impressions on French wine in the 19th century from a French perspective. It looks into how specific qualitites, and the idea of terroir, are attested to wine in order to express nationhood through wine in 19th century France. [less ▲]

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See detailCrucial components in successfully mastering the transition into work – Patterns of coping
Schumacher, Anette UL; Weis, Daniel UL

Scientific Conference (2016, September 17)

Research issue: Sociological and psychological theories (Hurrelmann & Quenzel, 2012; Havighurst, 1972) consider a successfully accomplishing of certain developmental task as master challenge of youth ... [more ▼]

Research issue: Sociological and psychological theories (Hurrelmann & Quenzel, 2012; Havighurst, 1972) consider a successfully accomplishing of certain developmental task as master challenge of youth. Regarding the economic situation, the transition into work is nowadays a big issue for young people. As a result of social liberalisation and individualisation, developmental tasks and social roles can be more individually chosen and shaped, offering both advantages (more personal freedom) and disadvantages (greater personal responsibility, less strong orientation). How do the Luxembourgish youth of today handle the transition into work in the light of the above and what are the crucial components in successfully mastering the transition into work? Research questions: Our interests are related to the speed, the time and the degree of success of the transition and the coping strategies behind. In what way transition into work is influenced by gender, nationality/migration status and level of education? What are the varying processes, rationales and patterns for accomplishing the transition into work? And what is the role of support services for young people facing problems during the transition? Context and data: The research is based on various data sources. A secondary data analyses was used to a systematic description of young people differentiated by age, level of education and nationality/migration status with regard to transition markers. We devote particular attention to the participation of the young people themselves as experts in our research methods. 77 guideline-based interviews with young people were used to collect subjective information about their coping strategies to accomplish the transition into work. A standardized survey of participants in support services focused on their experiences and their learning outcomes was filled out by 1162 young persons. Experts from academia, professional practice, administration and politics together with representatives of young people participated in 11 focus group discussions. The triangulation of different methodical approaches and different data sources resulted in a broad and multi-perspective representation of young people’s transition into adulthood. Main results: 1) There is a big influence of the educational qualifications, the migration status and family support. For adolescents with average or high educational qualifications the transition into adulthood is easier (less frequently unemployed, find jobs matching their qualifications, more permanent employment contracts). Young people with poor school leaving qualifications face considerable difficulty with the transition into work. An analysis differentiating levels of education by migration background and nationality shows large differences. The data also demonstrates in particular the important supporting role played by the family (financial or emotional, acting as a role model, providing information or informal knowledge, or access to networks). 2) Furthermore our study identified widely varying processes, rationales and patterns for accomplishing the transition. Four types of transition could be identified (direct transition, alternative transition, transition requiring support and failed transition), distinguished by the different strategies for action, values, perspectives and attitudes. 3) The results of the survey indicate some subjective benefit of support service participation, but also potential for improvement. [less ▲]

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See detail‘Cruise to the Edge’. How 1970s prog-rock dinos found a safe haven on the cruise ship
Hesse, Markus UL

in Monios, Jason; Wilmsmeier, Gordon (Eds.) Maritime Mobilities (2018)

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See detailCrustal displacements due to continental water loading
van Dam, Tonie UL; Wahr, J.; Milly, P. C. D. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28(4), 651-654

The effects of long-wavelength (>100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (ΔrM) have root-mean-square (RMS ... [more ▼]

The effects of long-wavelength (>100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (ΔrM) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994–1998 as large as 8 mm, with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare ΔrM with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (ΔrO) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the ΔrO time series are adjusted by ΔrM, their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the ΔrM. Of the ΔrO time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the ΔrM. The ΔrM time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or postglacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years. [less ▲]

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See detailCrustal Motions in Great-Britain: Evidence from continuous GPS, Absolute Gravity and Holocene Sea-Level Data
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Bingley, R. M.; Orliac, E. J. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2009), 178(1), 23-46

Two independent continuous global positioning system (CGPS) processing strategies, based on a double-difference regional network and a globally transformed precise point positioning solution, provide ... [more ▼]

Two independent continuous global positioning system (CGPS) processing strategies, based on a double-difference regional network and a globally transformed precise point positioning solution, provide horizontal and vertical crustal motion estimates for Great Britain. Absolute gravity and geological information from late Holocene sea level data further constrain the vertical motion estimates. For 40 CGPS stations we estimate station velocities and associated uncertainties using maximum likelihood estimation, assuming the presence of white and coloured noise. Horizontal station velocity estimates agree to <1 mm yr−1 between the two CGPS processing strategies and closely follow predicted plate motions. Residual velocities, generally <1 mm yr−1, follow no regular pattern, that is, there is no discernible internal deformation, nor any dependence on station monumentation or time-series length. Vertical station velocity estimates for the two CGPS processing strategies agree to ∼1 mm yr−1, but show an offset of ∼1 mm yr−1 with respect to the absolute gravity (AG) estimates. We attribute this offset to a bias related to known issues in current CGPS results and correct for it by AG-alignment of our CGPS estimates of vertical station velocity. Both CGPS estimates and AG-aligned CGPS estimates of present-day vertical crustal motions confirm the pattern of subsidence and uplift in Great Britain derived from Holocene sea level data for the last few thousand years: ongoing subsidence on Shetland, uplift in most areas of Scotland, and subsidence in large areas of England and Wales. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 160 (11 UL)
See detailCrypren Decryptor
Genç, Ziya Alper UL

Software (2018)

Crypren Decryptor is software which recovers the files encrypted by Crypren ransomware. The decryptor targets the sample with SHA256 digest ... [more ▼]

Crypren Decryptor is software which recovers the files encrypted by Crypren ransomware. The decryptor targets the sample with SHA256 digest: ce53233a435923a68a9ca6987f0d6333bb97d5a435b942d20944356ac29df598. Further details about the design of this software can be found at the paper: http://orbilu.uni.lu/handle/10993/36627. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis and design of symmetric primitives
Nicolic, Ivica UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Cryptographic primitives are the basic building blocks of various cryptographic systems and protocols. Their application is based on their well established properties. The security of a crypto system is ... [more ▼]

Cryptographic primitives are the basic building blocks of various cryptographic systems and protocols. Their application is based on their well established properties. The security of a crypto system is proven under the assumption that the underlying cryptographic primitives provide some specific security levels. Therefore it is critical to use primitives that can meet these requirements. However, there is no general approach of constructing fast and provably secure primitives. Rather, the primitives undergo years of thorough cryptanalysis and only after no attacks have been found, they can be considered for real world applications. This PhD thesis deals with the two main cryptographic primitives: block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. The main contribution lies in presenting attacks on these algorithms. The analysis ranges from finding ad-hoc differential trails that are used for collision search and distinguishers on specific hash functions to automatic search tools that give the optimal differential trails for block ciphers. Weaknesses are shown for a number of SHA-3 candidates in the framework of rotational distinguishers and meet in-the-middle based preimage attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of a Theorem: Decomposing the Only Known Solution to the Big APN Problem
Perrin, Léo Paul UL; Udovenko, Aleksei UL; Biryukov, Alex UL

in Robshaw, Matthew; Katz, Jonathan (Eds.) Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016 (2016, July 21)

The existence of Almost Perfect Non-linear (APN) permutations operating on an even number of bits has been a long standing open question until Dillon et al., who work for the NSA, provided an example on 6 ... [more ▼]

The existence of Almost Perfect Non-linear (APN) permutations operating on an even number of bits has been a long standing open question until Dillon et al., who work for the NSA, provided an example on 6 bits in 2009. In this paper, we apply methods intended to reverse-engineer S-Boxes with unknown structure to this permutation and find a simple decomposition relying on the cube function over GF(2^3) . More precisely, we show that it is a particular case of a permutation structure we introduce, the butterfly. Such butterflies are 2n-bit mappings with two CCZ-equivalent representations: one is a quadratic non-bijective function and one is a degree n+1 permutation. We show that these structures always have differential uniformity at most 4 when n is odd. A particular case of this structure is actually a 3-round Feistel Network with similar differential and linear properties. These functions also share an excellent non-linearity for n=3,5,7. Furthermore, we deduce a bitsliced implementation and significantly reduce the hardware cost of a 6-bit APN permutation using this decomposition, thus simplifying the use of such a permutation as building block for a cryptographic primitive. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of CLT13 Multilinear Maps with Independent Slots
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Notarnicola, Luca UL

in Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2019, 25th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Kobe, Japan, December 8–12, 2019, Proceedings, Part II (2019, December)

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See detailCryptanalysis of Feistel Networks with Secret Round Functions
Biryukov, Alex UL; Leurent, Gaëtan; Perrin, Léo Paul UL

in Dunkelman, Orr; Keliher, Liam (Eds.) Selected Areas in Cryptography -- SAC 2015, 21st International Conference, Sackville, NB, Canada, August 12-14, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (2016, March)

Generic distinguishers against Feistel Network with up to 5 rounds exist in the regular setting and up to 6 rounds in a multi-key setting. We present new cryptanalyses against Feistel Networks with 5, 6 ... [more ▼]

Generic distinguishers against Feistel Network with up to 5 rounds exist in the regular setting and up to 6 rounds in a multi-key setting. We present new cryptanalyses against Feistel Networks with 5, 6 and 7 rounds which are not simply distinguishers but actually recover completely the unknown Feistel functions. When an exclusive-or is used to combine the output of the round function with the other branch, we use the so-called \textit{yoyo game} which we improved using a heuristic based on particular cycle structures. The complexity of a complete recovery is equivalent to $\bigO(2^{2n})$ encryptions where $n$ is the branch size. This attack can be used against 6- and 7-round Feistel Networks in time respectively $\bigO(2^{n2^{n-1}+2n})$ and $\bigO(2^{n2^{n}+2n})$. However when modular addition is used, this attack does not work. In this case, we use an optimized guess-and-determine strategy to attack 5 rounds with complexity $\bigO(2^{n2^{3n/4}})$. Our results are, to the best of our knowledge, the first recovery attacks against generic 5-, 6- and 7-round Feistel Networks. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of GGH15 Multilinear Maps
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Lee, Moon Sung; Lepoint, Tancrede et al

in Proceedings of Crypto 2016 (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (2 UL)
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See detailCryptanalysis of ISO/IEC 9796-1
Coppersmith, Don; Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Grieu, François et al

in Journal of Cryptology (2008), 21(1), 2751

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See detailCryptanalysis of SKINNY in the Framework of the SKINNY 2018--2019 Cryptanalysis Competition
Derbez, Patrick UL; Lallemand, Virginie; Udovenko, Aleksei UL

in Patterson, Kenneth G.; Stebila, Douglas (Eds.) Selected Areas in Cryptography -- SAC 2019 (2019)

In April 2018, Beierle et al. launched the 3rd SKINNY cryptanalysis competition, a contest that aimed at motivating the analysis of their recent tweakable block cipher SKINNY . In contrary to the previous ... [more ▼]

In April 2018, Beierle et al. launched the 3rd SKINNY cryptanalysis competition, a contest that aimed at motivating the analysis of their recent tweakable block cipher SKINNY . In contrary to the previous editions, the focus was made on practical attacks: contestants were asked to recover a 128-bit secret key from a given set of 2^20 plaintext blocks. The suggested SKINNY instances are 4- to 20-round reduced variants of SKINNY-64-128 and SKINNY-128-128. In this paper, we explain how to solve the challenges for 10-round SKINNY-128-128 and for 12-round SKINNY-64-128 in time equivalent to roughly 2^52 simple operations. Both techniques benefit from the highly biased sets of messages that are provided and that actually correspond to the encryption of various books in ECB mode. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of the "Kindle" Cipher
Biryukov, Alex UL; Leurent, Gaëtan UL; Roy, Arnab UL

in Selected Areas in Cryptography (2012)

In this paper we study a 128-bit-key cipher called PC1 which is used as part of the DRM system of the Amazon Kindle e-book reader. This is the first academic cryptanalysis of this cipher and it shows that ... [more ▼]

In this paper we study a 128-bit-key cipher called PC1 which is used as part of the DRM system of the Amazon Kindle e-book reader. This is the first academic cryptanalysis of this cipher and it shows that PC1 is a very weak stream cipher, and can be practically broken in a known-plaintext and even in a ciphertext-only scenario. A hash function based on this cipher has also been proposed and is implemented in the binary editor WinHex. We show that this hash function is also vulnerable to a practical attack, which can produce meaningful collisions or second pre-images. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of the Atmel Cipher in SecureMemory, CryptoMemory and CryptoRF
Biryukov, Alex UL; Kizhvatov, Ilya UL; Zhang, Bin UL

in Applied Cryptography and Network Security - 9th International Conference (2011)

SecureMemory (SM), CryptoMemory (CM) and CryptoRF (CR) are the Atmel chip families with wide applications in practice. They implement a proprietary stream cipher, which we call the Atmel cipher, to ... [more ▼]

SecureMemory (SM), CryptoMemory (CM) and CryptoRF (CR) are the Atmel chip families with wide applications in practice. They implement a proprietary stream cipher, which we call the Atmel cipher, to provide authenticity, confidentiality and integrity. At CCS’2010, it was shown that given 1 keystream frame, the secret key in SM protected by the simple version of the cipher can be recovered in 2^39.4 cipher ticks and if 2640 keystream frames are available, the secret key in CM guarded by the more complex version of the cipher can be restored in 2^58 cipher ticks. In this paper, we show much more efficient and practical attacks on both versions of the Atmel cipher. The idea is to dynamically reconstruct the internal state of the underlying register by exploiting the different diffusion speeds of the different cells. For SM, we can recover the secret key in 2^29.8 cipher ticks given 1 keystream frame; for CM, we can recover the secret key in 2^50 cipher ticks with around 24 frames. Practical implementation of the full attack confirms our results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (2 UL)