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See detailTrainierbarkeit der visuellen Wahrnehmung
Schapschröer, Marlen; Holzey, Claudia; Bund, Andreas UL et al

in Deutsche Optikerzeitung (2011), (1), 32-37

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See detailDie Trainierbarkeit von komplexem Problemlösen im Rahmen eines Trainings für Experimentieren.
Stebner, Ferdinand; Kunze, Thiemo UL; Kemper, Christoph UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (5 UL)
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See detailTraining an asymmetric signal perceptron through reinforcement in an artificial chemistry
Banda, Peter UL; Teuscher, Christof; Stefanovic, Darko

in Journal of the Royal Society, Interface (2014), 11(93),

State-of-the-art biochemical systems for medical applications and chemical computing are application-specific and cannot be reprogrammed or trained once fabricated. The implementation of adaptive ... [more ▼]

State-of-the-art biochemical systems for medical applications and chemical computing are application-specific and cannot be reprogrammed or trained once fabricated. The implementation of adaptive biochemical systems that would offer flexibility through programmability and autonomous adaptation faces major challenges because of the large number of required chemical species as well as the timing-sensitive feedback loops required for learning. In this paper, we begin addressing these challenges with a novel chemical perceptron that can solve all 14 linearly separable logic functions. The system performs asymmetric chemical arithmetic, learns through reinforcement and supports both Michaelis–Menten as well as mass-action kinetics. To enable cascading of the chemical perceptrons, we introduce thresholds that amplify the outputs. The simplicity of our model makes an actual wet implementation, in particular by DNA-strand displacement, possible. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining binary classifiers as data structure invariants
Molina, Facundo; Degiovanni, Renzo Gaston UL; Ponzio, Pablo et al

in Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE 2019, Montreal, QC, Canada, May 25-31, 2019 (2019)

We present a technique that enables us to distinguish valid from invalid data structure objects. The technique is based on building an artificial neural network, more precisely a binary classifier, and ... [more ▼]

We present a technique that enables us to distinguish valid from invalid data structure objects. The technique is based on building an artificial neural network, more precisely a binary classifier, and training it to identify valid and invalid instances of a data structure. The obtained classifier can then be used in place of the data structure’s invariant, in order to attempt to identify (in)correct behaviors in programs manipulating the structure. In order to produce the valid objects to train the network, an assumed-correct set of object building routines is randomly executed. Invalid instances are produced by generating values for object fields that “break” the collected valid values, i.e., that assign values to object fields that have not been observed as feasible in the assumed-correct program executions that led to the collected valid instances. We experimentally assess this approach, over a benchmark of data structures. We show that this learning technique produces classifiers that achieve significantly better accuracy in classifying valid/invalid objects compared to a technique for dynamic invariant detection, and leads to improved bug finding. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining Cognition with Video Games
Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Ansarinia, Morteza UL; Schmück, Emmanuel UL et al

in Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (2021)

This chapter reviews the behavioral and neuroimaging scientific literature on the cognitive consequences of playing various genres of video games. The available research highlights that not all video ... [more ▼]

This chapter reviews the behavioral and neuroimaging scientific literature on the cognitive consequences of playing various genres of video games. The available research highlights that not all video games have similar cognitive impact; action video games as defined by first- and third-person shooter games have been associated with greater cognitive enhancement, especially when it comes to top-down attention, than puzzle or life-simulation games. This state of affairs suggests specific game mechanics need to be embodied in a video game for it to enhance cognition. These hypothesized game mechanics are reviewed; yet, the authors note that the advent of more complex, hybrid, video games poses new research challenges and call for a more systematic assessment of how specific video game mechanics relate to cognitive enhancement. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining Curriculum for European Thoracic Surgeons: A Joint Initiative of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Respiratory Society
Massard, Gilbert UL; Tabin, Nathalie; Konge, Lars et al

in European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (2020)

Because of the differing definitions of the margins of thoracic surgery as a specialty and the variability in the training curricula among European countries, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons ... [more ▼]

Because of the differing definitions of the margins of thoracic surgery as a specialty and the variability in the training curricula among European countries, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons formed a task force to elaborate a consensual proposal. The first step comprised creating a harmonized syllabus that was completed and published in 2018. This publication presents a proposal for a curriculum upon which the task force and the external expert reviewers have agreed. The curriculum was developed by the task force: each module and item describe the expected level of knowledge, skills and attitudes to be attained by the participants; learning opportunities, assessment tools and minimal clinical exposures have been defined as well. Competence in terms of non-technical skills has been defined for each module according to the CanMEDS (http://www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/canmeds/canmeds-framework-e) glossary. The different modules were subsequently submitted to an internal and an external review process and re-edited accordingly before final validation. The authors hope that this document will serve as a roadmap for both thoracic surgical trainees and mentors. It should further guide continuous professional development. However, evolving scientific and technological advances are expected to modify the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders in the future and hence will mandate periodical revisions of the document. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining early visuo-spatial abilities: A controlled classroom-based intervention study.
Cornu, Véronique UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Pazouki, Tahereh UL et al

in Applied Developmental Science (2017)

Visuo-spatial training can be considered as a promising approach to provide young children with a sound foundation for later mathematical learning. We developed and implemented a tablet-based visuo ... [more ▼]

Visuo-spatial training can be considered as a promising approach to provide young children with a sound foundation for later mathematical learning. We developed and implemented a tablet-based visuo-spatial intervention in kindergarten classrooms aiming to foster the development of children’s visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. A sample of N = 125 children participated in the present study, 68 children were part of the intervention group and participated in 20 training sessions of 20 minutes over a 10-week period, 57 children formed a business as usual control group. Results show that, at this young age, visuo-spatial and early math skills are already strongly interlinked. However, the training effects were domain-specific as they only improved visuo-spatial skills, but did not transfer to early math performance in the present setting. [less ▲]

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See detailA Training for a clinical approach in tutoring and mentoring teacher trainees
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

Scientific Conference (2018, August 16)

2018 Summer Global Conference on Education Paper: A training for a clinical approach in tutoring and mentoring teacher trainees A psychoanalytical conception A time of seeing, a time of understanding and ... [more ▼]

2018 Summer Global Conference on Education Paper: A training for a clinical approach in tutoring and mentoring teacher trainees A psychoanalytical conception A time of seeing, a time of understanding and a moment of concluding Dr. Jean-Marie Weber Senior lecturer and researcher University of Luxembourg Today the professionalization of tutors is absolutely necessary. This means that tutors become competent to accompany teacher trainees in her singularity and to experience what effect has the tutoring in own body. (Freud). In Luxembourg teacher trainees are accompanied by tutors and mentors during their initiation. Some qualitative research-studies indicated that tutors are playing a key role in the training of student teachers. These investigations revealed success and hindering factors in tutoring, conflicts and challenges existing in the relationship between the tutor and the tutee. (Weber, 2008; 2011) On the basis of these studies, the university of Luxembourg proposes since 2013 a Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS) of 20 ECTS, called: “tutoring and mentoring”. The aspects treated are: - Reflect the needs, demands and desires of the young teachers; - Develop the professional skills required of a tutor: o competences on the level of observing and analysing situations of teaching and learning in the classroom; o competences of supporting trainees to analyse and reflect their practice, o competences of consulting, o competences of supporting the teacher trainees to transform her desires in a professional project and of evaluating a training process. - Being aware that the tutor /mentor /supervisor is not the person who has to propose his knowledge how to teach in every situation but has the role to support the teacher trainee to discover and to develop his own knowledge In this paper, I want to develop the psychoanalytical approach behind the clinical settings of this training. I shall also analyse some examples from the effect of this approach. Inspired by the Lacanian concept of “Logic time” and its dialectical structure of - The instant of seeing - The time of understanding - The moment of concluding we constructed three clinical settings: Setting 1: Analyzing situations of a teacher-movies trough a role-play We watch and analyze sequences of teacher movies to make then role plays concerning the analyzing of the filmed situation. Our students have to play the role of the tutor or of the trainee in a follow up conversation. Setting 2: Analyzing the own practice as tutor Each participant of the course presents a situation of tutoring. It’s analyzed from the point of view of unconscious transferences and counter-transferences, the demands, resistances and desires. Setting 3: Observation and discussion about a follow up conversation A member of the course-staff observes and analyzes with the prospective tutors one follow up conversation with his trainee. Through all these settings the future tutors learn to analyze with their trainees the learn- und teaching-situations also with the Lacanian categories of the Symbolic, the Imaginary, the Real and transferences. They develop their expertise to work with the resistances of the trainees. I shall present how the tutors took advantage of the succession of these three settings. I will show how the concept of logical time allowed me to perform the settings thereby the students got able to transform their singular challenges concerning occupying the position of a tutor. This setting constitutes a creative approach in the sense that the tutor does not learn to apply simply strategies, concepts and preconceived observation grids, but learns through the clinical analysis of his own practice. He is trained to get involved in a clinical way. He learns to guide the trainee to be able to reflect on his transfers, the place from which he speaks and acts with his pupils and his relationship to knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining tutors for student teachers in primary and secondary school.
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

in Higher Education Research (2012), 5

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See detailTraining und Transfer des komplexen Problemlösens
Kretzschmar, André UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (2 UL)
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See detailTraining Very Deep Networks via Residual Learning with Stochastic Input Shortcut Connections
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Shabayek, Abd El Rahman UL; Aouada, Djamila UL et al

in 24th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, Guangzhou, China, November 14–18, 2017 (2017, July 31)

Many works have posited the benefit of depth in deep networks. However, one of the problems encountered in the training of very deep networks is feature reuse; that is, features are ’diluted’ as they are ... [more ▼]

Many works have posited the benefit of depth in deep networks. However, one of the problems encountered in the training of very deep networks is feature reuse; that is, features are ’diluted’ as they are forward propagated through the model. Hence, later network layers receive less informative signals about the input data, consequently making training less effective. In this work, we address the problem of feature reuse by taking inspiration from an earlier work which employed residual learning for alleviating the problem of feature reuse. We propose a modification of residual learning for training very deep networks to realize improved generalization performance; for this, we allow stochastic shortcut connections of identity mappings from the input to hidden layers.We perform extensive experiments using the USPS and MNIST datasets. On the USPS dataset, we achieve an error rate of 2.69% without employing any form of data augmentation (or manipulation). On the MNIST dataset, we reach a comparable state-of-the-art error rate of 0.52%. Particularly, these results are achieved without employing any explicit regularization technique. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining-Based Bayesian MIMO Channel and Channel Norm Estimation
Björnson, Emil; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2009. ICASSP 2009. IEEE International Conference on (2009)

Training-based estimation of channel state information in multi-antenna systems is analyzed herein. Closed-form expressions for the general Bayesian minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimators of the ... [more ▼]

Training-based estimation of channel state information in multi-antenna systems is analyzed herein. Closed-form expressions for the general Bayesian minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimators of the channel matrix and the squared channel norm are derived in a Rayleigh fading environment with known statistics at the receiver side. When the second-order channel statistics are available also at the transmitter, this information can be exploited in the training sequence design to improve the performance. Herein, mean square error (MSE) minimizing training sequences are considered. The structure of the general solution is developed, with explicit expressions at high and low SNRs and in the special case of uncorrelated receive antennas. The optimal length of the training sequence is equal or smaller than the number of transmit antennas. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait and state components of perceived parental differential treatment in middle adulthood. A longitudinal study.
Boll, Thomas UL; Michels, Tom UL; Ferring, Dieter UL et al

in Journal of Individual Differences (2010), 31(3), 158-165

Despite its importance for basic and applied psychology, only a few longitudinal studies have examined whether parental differential treatment (PDT) is a persistent or a transient phenomenon, these ... [more ▼]

Despite its importance for basic and applied psychology, only a few longitudinal studies have examined whether parental differential treatment (PDT) is a persistent or a transient phenomenon, these studies being confined to childhood or adolescence. Based on latent state-trait theory, the present study identified the amount of variance in three dimensions of perceived PDT in middle adulthood attributable to stable interindividual differences (trait variance) and to intraindividual changes (state variance). At two occasions of measurement (2 years apart), 709 middle-aged adults rated how often they and a sibling currently received parental recognition, nurture, and demand to assume filial responsibility. Tests of latent state-trait models for these three dimensions of PDT by structural equation modeling revealed that trait variance represented the largest proportion of the systematic variance in all observed indicators of perceived maternal and paternal differential treatment. Yet there was a considerable increase in state variance for the dimension of differential parental demand for assuming responsibility. Results are discussed with respect to the conditions accounting for the high overall stability of actual and/or perceived PDT in adulthood, and different approaches for determining their role are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait emotional intelligence and problematic online behaviors among adolescents: The mediating role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression
Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Personality and Individual Differences (2019), 139

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of ... [more ▼]

Preliminary studies have shown that trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) can be a risk factor for higher problematic use of specific online activities. However, the possible mediating role of mindfulness and rumination on the relationship of trait EI with problematic social media use (PSMU) and problematic online gaming (POG) is unclear. Among a sample of 470 adolescents, the present study examined the direct and indirect associations of trait EI with PSMU and POG and the potential mediational role of mindfulness, rumination, and depression while controlling for gender and age. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that trait EI was indirectly associated with PSMU via mindfulness, rumination, and depression, and with POG via mindfulness and rumination. Furthermore, rumination affected PSMU positively. The study provides empirical evidence of the theoretical assumption that different types of specific problematic online behaviors are related to both shared and specific risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait gambling cognitions predict near-miss experiences and persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling.
Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial; Khazaal, Yasser et al

in British Journal of Psychology (2012), 103(3), 412-27

'Near-miss' outcomes (i.e., unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot) have been shown to promote gambling persistence. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the neurobiological ... [more ▼]

'Near-miss' outcomes (i.e., unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot) have been shown to promote gambling persistence. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the neurobiological responses to gambling near-misses, the psychological mechanisms involved in these events remain unclear. The goal of this study was to explore whether trait-related gambling cognitions (e.g., beliefs that certain skills or rituals may help to win in games of chance) influence behavioural and subjective responses during laboratory gambling. Eighty-four individuals, who gambled at least monthly, performed a simplified slot machine task that delivered win, near-miss, and full-miss outcomes across 30 mandatory trials followed by a persistence phase in extinction. Participants completed the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004), as well as measures of disordered gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS]; Lesieur & Blume, 1987) and social desirability bias (DS-36; Tournois, Mesnil, & Kop, 2000). Skill-oriented gambling cognitions (illusion of control, fostered by internal factors such as reappraisal of losses, or perceived outcome sequences), but not ritual-oriented gambling cognitions (illusion of control fostered by external factors such as luck or superstitions), predicted higher subjective ratings of desire to play after near-miss outcomes. In contrast, perceived lack of self-control predicted persistence on the slot machine task. These data indicate that the motivational impact of near-miss outcomes is related to specific gambling cognitions pertaining to skill acquisition, supporting the idea that gambling near-misses foster the illusion of control. [less ▲]

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See detailTraité d'Etudes Parlementaires
Poirier, Philippe UL

in Rozenberg, Olivier; Thiers, Eric; Poirier, Philippe (Eds.) Traité d'Etudes Parlementaires (2018)

Instances de législation, forums publics, lieux de jeux de pouvoir, réunions d’élites politiques… Les parlements apparaissent différemment selon la perspective de l’analyste. Définir ce dont le Parlement ... [more ▼]

Instances de législation, forums publics, lieux de jeux de pouvoir, réunions d’élites politiques… Les parlements apparaissent différemment selon la perspective de l’analyste. Définir ce dont le Parlement est le nom suppose ainsi de multiplier les focales – ce que la spécialisation de la recherche et l’éparpillement des connaissances rendent aujourd’hui malaisé. Face à un tel défi, ce volume collectif a l’ambition de proposer une revue des savoirs contemporains relatifs au Parlement qu’ils relèvent des sciences sociales ou juridiques. Il regroupe les contributions des meilleurs spécialistes francophones ou internationaux qui présentent la façon dont leur discipline académique envisage l’objet Parlement. Aux côtés des approches relevant classiquement de l’histoire, du droit et de la science politique, on trouve également des perspectives disciplinaires moins attendues éclairant d’une lumière originale l’objet Parlement que ce soit l’anthropologie, l’économie ou les études de genre. Au total, les vingtdeux contributions ici rassemblées offrent une synthèse unique de l’état des savoirs sur le Parlement et aident ainsi à en saisir aussi bien la substance que ses transformations contemporaines. [less ▲]

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See detailLa traite des êtres humains - comment identifier et assister les victimes?
Li, Lisa UL

Scientific Conference (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL)