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See detailUnderstanding the functional neuroanatomy of acquired prosopagnosia
Sorger, Bettina; Goebel, Rainer; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in NeuroImage (2007), 35(2), 836-852

One of the most remarkable disorders following brain damage is prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize faces. While a number of cases of prosopagnosia have been described at the behavioral level, the ... [more ▼]

One of the most remarkable disorders following brain damage is prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize faces. While a number of cases of prosopagnosia have been described at the behavioral level, the functional neuroanatomy of this face recognition impairment, and thus the brain regions critically involved in normal face recognition, has never been specified in great detail. Here, we used anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to present the detailed functional neuroanatomy of a single case of acquired prosopagnosia (PS; Rossion, B., Caldara, R., Seghier, M., Schuller, A.-M., Lazeyras, F., Mayer, E., 2003a. A network of occipito-temporal face-sensitive areas besides the right middle fusiform gyrus is necessary for normal face processing. Brain 126, 2381-95; Rossion, B., Joyce, C.A., Cottrell, G.W., Tarr, M.J., 2003b. Early lateralization and orientation tuning for face, word, and object processing in the visual cortex. Neuroimage 20, 1609-24) with normal object recognition. First, we clarify the exact anatomical location and extent of PS' lesions in relation to (a) retinotopic cortex, (b) face-preferring regions, and (c) other classical visual regions. PS' main lesion - most likely causing her prosopagnosia - is localized in the posterior part of the right ventral occipitotemporal cortex. This lesion causes a left superior paracentral scotoma, as frequently observed in cases of prosopagnosia. While the borders of the early visual areas in the left hemisphere could be delineated well, the extensive posterior right-sided lesion hampered a full specification of the cortical representation of the left visual field. Using multiple scanning runs, face-preferring activation was detected within the right middle fusiform gyrus (MFG) in the so-called 'fusiform face area' ('FFA'), but also in the left inferior occipital gyrus (left 'OFA'), and in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). The dorsal part of the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and the human middle temporal cortex (hMT+/V5) were localized bilaterally. The color-preferring region V4/V8 was localized only in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, the posterior lesion spared the ventral part of LOC, a region that may be critical for the preserved object recognition abilities of the patient, and the restriction of her deficit to the category of faces. The presumptive functions of both structurally damaged and preserved regions are discussed and new hypotheses regarding the impaired and preserved abilities of the patient during face and non-face object processing are derived. Fine-grained neurofunctional analyses of brain-damaged single cases with isolated recognition deficits may considerably improve our knowledge of the brain regions critically involved in specific visual functions, such as face recognition. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the internationalization of higher education as a policy process. The case of Romania
Deca, Ligia UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This doctoral thesis analyzes internationalization of higher education in Romania as a both an international norm diffusion process and as a discrete policy process, in a wider context of post-communist ... [more ▼]

This doctoral thesis analyzes internationalization of higher education in Romania as a both an international norm diffusion process and as a discrete policy process, in a wider context of post-communist transition. It is conceived as a study of policy for policy, with the explicit aim of contributing to better decision-making at the national and institutional levels. As such, it is intended to facilitate a strategic pursuit of internationalization strategies in Romania, which may further inform our understanding of other similar (post-communist transition) national cases. The research objective is to understand the internationalization of higher education as a distinct policy process at the national and university level, by using a five-point star model of the policy field, which highlights the multiplicity of actors involved and acts as a ‘cat’s cradle’. A multi-theory approach for higher education governance is used for unpacking the complexity of this policy field. Stakeholder and resource dependency theories are employed for understanding the articulation of the interests, capacities and interactions between the actors, while discursive institutionalism is used to look at the role of ideas (norms) mobilized by actors to influence policy change and to construct policy frames. In terms of scope, the thesis addresses the rationales, drivers and impacts of internationalization of higher education, as well as its strategic use by relevant actors. The conclusion yields that internationalization in Romania, especially at the national level, is more a fruit of the existing context – the overall globalization trends, the Bologna Process and the EU pre- and post-accession policy processes – than a deliberate strategic pursuit based on either foresight or long term planning. Political and economic rationales are predominant, to the detriment of those linked to social and cultural considerations, given the competing pressures linked to the demographic downturn, reduced public funding to universities, the perceived need to ‘catch-up with Europe’ and the global competitiveness imperative. Another finding is that internationalization of higher education has never reached the stage of policy formulation at the national level and in most Romanian universities; it was used as a legitimating discourse within higher education reform, but a genuine commitment to comprehensive internationalization policies was lacking, leading to an over-reliance on European programs and a narrow focus on mobility and research partnerships. When looking at the agents of change, it can be inferred that success in pursuing internationalization activities was mostly influenced by policy entrepreneurs and leadership commitment and continuity, regardless of the institutional profile. At the same time, Romania has proven to be an exceptional laboratory for understanding internationalization as a distinctive public policy process within the higher education sector. This is due to the double centralization legacy of the higher education system (caused by its Napoleonic model of higher education system and the communist influence) and the over-sized influence of international actors in policy reform (e.g. UNESCO CEPES and the World Bank). A number of the overall conclusions, mainly aimed at improving decision-making at the national level, are also potentially relevant for a wider regional audience: the need to minimize the over-reliance on international funds and technical assistance of international organizations; limiting over-regulation based on international norms; and improving the national role in the global discussions on internationalization and fighting double discourse. This latter aspect points to the difficulties of replicating policy concepts across borders in a non-contextualized form, especially when domestic contexts differ significantly from the pioneering setting of a given policy. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the link between need for cognition and complex problem solving
Rudolph, Julia UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Strobel, Anja et al

in Contemporary Educational Psychology (2018), 55

With the aim of broadening the understanding of the nomological network of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), we investigated the link between CPS and Need for Cognition (NFC) while controlling for reasoning ... [more ▼]

With the aim of broadening the understanding of the nomological network of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), we investigated the link between CPS and Need for Cognition (NFC) while controlling for reasoning ability. Further, we explored whether the relation between NFC and CPS was mediated by test-taking behavior (i.e., exploration time). Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 474 German seventh graders. We found (a) that NFC and CPS were positively related, (b) that this link was partially mediated by CPS exploration time, and (c) that the link between NFC and CPS that was partially mediated by exploration time remained substantial even after we controlled for reasoning. Altogether, these results provide new insights into how CPS and NFC are linked. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the role of colorectal cancer-associated bacteria in colorectal cancer
Ternes, Dominik UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Mounting evidence from 16S rRNA-based or metagenomic analyses suggests that dysbiosis, a state of pathological microbial imbalance, is prevalent in the gut of patients with CRC. Numerous microbial taxa ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence from 16S rRNA-based or metagenomic analyses suggests that dysbiosis, a state of pathological microbial imbalance, is prevalent in the gut of patients with CRC. Numerous microbial taxa have been identified of which representative isolate cultures can interact with cancer cells, further triggering distinct disease pathways in animal models. Nevertheless, how these complex interrelationships of a dysbiotic microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of CRC remains a fundamental question and requires multifaceted mechanistic studies. This thesis moves beyond observational studies, it integrates novel experimental approaches for the study of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer. It incorporates current knowledge in the field as well as interdisciplinary approaches. My work aims at contributing to an ecosystem-level mechanistic understanding of the CRC-associated microbiome in the initiation and progression of the disease. In detail, the objective of my work comprised an integrative approach of microbiome-CRC interaction studies. We revised current knowledge on, and studied the CRC-associated bacteria, in particular Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Gemella morbillorum (Gm). We assessed their direct and indirect effects on CRC cells, their interactions with immune cells, as well as their tumor-modulating potential in vitro, in silico, and in vivo. The results presented in this thesis comprise new findings on human microbial cross-talk of Fn with CRC. We identified formate as a potential fusobacterial oncometabolite, which enhanced cancer incidence and progression via increased cancer stemness signaling. Furthermore, we discovered immune-suppressive functions of Gm in the context of CRC. With my work in collaboration projects, I contributed to the development of two novel approaches in anti-cancer therapy: First, to the establishment of a personalized in vitro model (iHuMiX) for the study of microbe-host-immune interactions in anti-cancer therapy, and second, to the validation of an in silico workflow that uses metabolic rewiring strategies for network-based drug target predictions for CRC therapy. Taken together, this thesis work broadened the mechanistic understanding of CRC-associated microbes and it contributed to potential strategies for the development of an improved CRC therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the role of Fusobacterium nucleatum metabolism in colon cancer initiation and progression
Ternes, Dominik UL; Karta, Jessica UL; Tsenkova, Mina UL et al

Poster (2020, February 22)

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbiosis, a state of pathological imbalance in the human gut microbiome, is present in patients suffering from colorectal cancer (CRC). 16S rRNA gene sequencing, as ... [more ▼]

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbiosis, a state of pathological imbalance in the human gut microbiome, is present in patients suffering from colorectal cancer (CRC). 16S rRNA gene sequencing, as well as metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses, identified specific bacteria being associated with CRC. Among others, Fusobacterium ssp. have been found to directly interact with cancer or immune cells of their host. However, only a limited number of CRC-associated microbes have been examined for host-microbial interactions and, as such, the role of bacteria in the etiology of the disease remains largely elusive. Our aim is the development of predictive and experimental models that allow to not only study the host-microbiota interactions but are also amenable to high-throughput experimentation and large-scale omics-data integration. Ultimately, such models should help to get from meta-omics to cellular mechanism and, moreover, serve as tools for reproducible analyses of host-microbial interaction mechanisms of on a transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic level. Our research proposes an integrative study approach allowing us to bridge meta-omics with functional mechanisms by focusing on the interaction taking place between F. nucleatum and patient-derived CRC cells. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the role of genetic variability in LRRK2 in Indian population
Krüger, Rejko UL; Kishore, Asha; Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson's Disease (COURAGE-PD) et al

in Movement Disorders (2018)

Background: Genetic variability in LRRK2 has been unequivocally established as a major risk factor for familial and sporadic forms of PD in ethnically diverse populations. Objectives: To resolve the role ... [more ▼]

Background: Genetic variability in LRRK2 has been unequivocally established as a major risk factor for familial and sporadic forms of PD in ethnically diverse populations. Objectives: To resolve the role of LRRK2 in the Indian population. Methods: We performed targeted resequencing of the LRRK2 locus in 288 cases and 298 controls and resolved the haplotypic structure of LRRK2 in a combined cohort of 800 cases and 402 controls in the Indian population. We assessed the frequency of novel missense variants in the white and East Asian population by leveraging exome sequencing and densely genotype data, respectively. We did computational modeling and biochemical approach to infer the potential role of novel variants impacting the LRRK2 protein function. Finally, we assessed the phosphorylation activity of identified novel coding variants in the LRRK2 gene. Results: We identified four novel missense variants with frequency ranging from 0.0008% to 0.002% specific for the Indian population, encompassing armadillo and kinase domains of the LRRK2 protein. A common genetic variability within LRRK2 may contribute to increased risk, but it was nonsignificant after correcting for multiple testing, because of small cohort size. The computational modeling showed destabilizing effect on the LRRK2 function. In comparison to the wild-type, the kinase domain variant showed 4-fold increase in the kinase activity. Conclusions: Our study, for the first time, identified novel missense variants for LRRK2, specific for the Indian population, and showed that a novel missense variant in the kinase domain modifies kinase activity in vitro. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the role of subcultures in the enterprise architecture process
Niemetz, Hella; De Kinderen, Sybren; Constantinidis, Christina UL

in Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems (2013)

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is positioned as an instrument for coordinating enterprise transformation. However, existing EA approaches pay less attention to soft factors that may have an impact on ... [more ▼]

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is positioned as an instrument for coordinating enterprise transformation. However, existing EA approaches pay less attention to soft factors that may have an impact on enterprise transformations. The existence of different organisational subcultures is not taken into account although it is considered as significant in the context of change. The social alignment of business and IT groups plays, for instance, a major role in transformations and in EA. This paper presents the first step of a larger study addressing the question how differences between organisational subcultures contribute to struggles/failure of EA-guided transformations. We use a series of qualitative, unstructured expert interviews to explore to what extent and how cultural differences can trigger struggles in EA-guided transformations from an architect’s perspective. Based on these interviews, an initial conceptual model is developed. This model suggests that communication breakdowns act as an intermediary factor between differences in organisational subculture and transformation struggles. A second round of expert interviews is used for the assessment and elaboration of the initial model focusing on communication breakdowns. The analysis of these interviews supports the intermediary role of communication breakdowns and refines the concepts of the model. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the role of the microbiome in Parkinson’s disease
Wilmes, Paul UL

Scientific Conference (2018, October)

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See detailUnderstanding the role of vibrations, exact exchange, and many-body van der Waals interactions in the cohesive properties of molecular crystals
Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2013), 139(2),

The development and application of computational methods for studying molecular crystals, particularly density-functional theory (DFT), is a large and ever-growing field, driven by their numerous ... [more ▼]

The development and application of computational methods for studying molecular crystals, particularly density-functional theory (DFT), is a large and ever-growing field, driven by their numerous applications. Here we expand on our recent study of the importance of many-body van der Waals interactions in molecular crystals [A. M. Reilly and A. Tkatchenko, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 1028 (2013)], with a larger database of 23 molecular crystals. Particular attention has been paid to the role of the vibrational contributions that are required to compare experiment sublimation enthalpies with calculated lattice energies, employing both phonon calculations and experimental heat-capacity data to provide harmonic and anharmonic estimates of the vibrational contributions. Exact exchange, which is rarely considered in DFT studies of molecular crystals, is shown to have a significant contribution to lattice energies, systematically improving agreement between theory and experiment. When the vibrational and exact-exchange contributions are coupled with a many-body approach to dispersion, DFT yields a mean absolute error (3.92 kJ/mol) within the coveted "chemical accuracy" target (4.2 kJ/mol). The role of many-body dispersion for structures has also been investigated for a subset of the database, showing good performance compared to X-ray and neutron diffraction crystal structures. The results show that the approach employed here can reach the demanding accuracy of crystal-structure prediction and organic material design with minimal empiricism. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the Small Family Business
Fletcher, Denise Elaine UL

Book published by Routledge (2002)

This book is an edited collection of works by key family business scholars examining different aspects of the small family business

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See detailUnderstanding the Social impact of ICN: between myth and reality
Piro, Giuseppe; Signorello, Salvatore UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL et al

in Springer AI & Society: Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication (2016)

The Information Centric Networking (ICN) paradigm is attracting more and more interest from the research community due to its peculiarities that make it one of the best candidates for constructing the ... [more ▼]

The Information Centric Networking (ICN) paradigm is attracting more and more interest from the research community due to its peculiarities that make it one of the best candidates for constructing the Future Internet. For this reason, there are many papers in literature that study how to transform ICN principles in reality in order to magnify its relevance for the society. In order to provide a solid summary of the state of the art, the present contribution tries to summarize the main findings related to this research field. In particular, an overview on the most important ICN architectures, their main aspects, common networking approaches, and differences, is provided. Moreover, the work carried out in standardization bodies, with particular attention to the list of baseline scenarios defined in this context, is illustrated. Also the main international projects that are trying to integrate ICN networking primitives in pioneering use cases are presented, describing proposed architectures and related challenges for enabling information-centric primitives in current network infrastructures. Finally, the work highlights design principles and core components to build ICN-enabled network devices. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the Structure and Electronic Properties of Molecular Crystals Under Pressure: Application of Dispersion Corrected DFT to Oligoacenes
Schatschneider, Bohdan; Monaco, Stephen; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry. A (2013), 117(34), 8323-8331

Oligoacenes form a fundamental class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAR) which have been extensively explored for use as organic (semi) conductors in the bulk phase and thin films. For this reason ... [more ▼]

Oligoacenes form a fundamental class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAR) which have been extensively explored for use as organic (semi) conductors in the bulk phase and thin films. For this reason it is important to understand their electronic properties in the condensed phase. In this investigation, we use density functional theory with Tkatchenko-Scheffler dispersion correction to explore several crystalline oligoacenes (naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene) under pressures up to 25 GPa in an effort to uncover unique electronic/optical properties. Excellent agreement with experiment is achieved for the pressure dependence of the crystal structure unit cell parameters, densities, and intermolecular close contacts. The pressure dependence of the band gaps is investigated as well as the pressure induced phase transition of tetracene using both generalized gradient approximated and hybrid functionals. It is concluded that none of the oligoacenes investigated become conducting under elevated pressures assuming that the molecular identity of the system is maintained. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the underpinnings of complex problem solving in a higher-education setting
Musso, M.; Gonzalez, P.; Mustafic, Maida UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (2 UL)
See detailUnderstanding through Experimentation: An Experimental Media Archaeological Approach to Early Twentieth-Century Home Movie Making
van der Heijden, Tim UL

Scientific Conference (2020, December 11)

This presentation addresses the question in what ways visual media have contributed to the construction of a specific view on twentieth-century century (family) life by means of an experimental media ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the question in what ways visual media have contributed to the construction of a specific view on twentieth-century century (family) life by means of an experimental media archaeological approach to early home movie making. Based on hands-on experiments with an original Ciné-Kodak 16mm film camera from 1930, it will be shown how filming one’s family was never truly a neutral practice of capturing everyday life. Rather, making a home movie should be regarded a highly “co-constructive” practice that includes various social, sensorial, technological and user-related dimensions. The presentation reflects work in progress from the research project “Doing Experimental Media Archaeology” (DEMA) of the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) of the University of Luxembourg: https://dema.uni.lu/. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Unemployment Normalization: Individual Differences in an Alternative Experience With Unemployment
Houssemand, Claude UL; thill, Steve; Pignault, Anne

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020)

Unemployment is a major concern of societies and people around the world. In addressing this phenomenon, the literature has suggested a change in unemployed people’s perceptions of this transition period ... [more ▼]

Unemployment is a major concern of societies and people around the world. In addressing this phenomenon, the literature has suggested a change in unemployed people’s perceptions of this transition period. In this paper, we apply a differential approach to explore the concept of unemployment normalization, an individual emotional regulation process. The results show how the global socioeconomic context and some individual and psychological variables influence the normalization of unemployment. Thus, the age of the person but also work involvement, coping strategies, locus of control, and level of self-esteem have indirect differential effects, mediated by unemployment normalization dimensions, on unemployed people’s perceived health. Only neuroticism has a direct link to subjective well-being. These results offer a new understanding of the perception of unemployment and are also discussed in the area of career and vocational counseling. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland
Hyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

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See detailUnderstanding User Daily Mobility Using Mobile and Wearable Sensing Systems
Faye, Sébastien UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology Convergence - ICTC 2016 (2016, October)

Recent technological advances and the ever-greater developments in sensing and computing continue to provide new ways of understanding our daily mobility. Smart devices such as smartphones or smartwatches ... [more ▼]

Recent technological advances and the ever-greater developments in sensing and computing continue to provide new ways of understanding our daily mobility. Smart devices such as smartphones or smartwatches can, for instance, provide an enhanced user experience based on different sets of built-in sensors that follow every user action and identify its environment. Monitoring solutions such as these, which are becoming more and more common, allow us to assess human behavior and movement at different levels. In this article, we focus on the concept of human mobility. With the participation of 13 individuals, we carried out an experiment to discover how groups of sensors currently available in smartphones and smartwatches can help to distinguish different profiles and patterns of human mobility. We show that it is possible to use not only motion sensors but also physiological sensors and environmental data provided, for instance, by Wi-Fi. Finally, detailed study of these categories enables us to offer a way of representing the mobility of individual users, based on anonymized traces and graph theory. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding user understanding: determining correctness of generated program invariants
Staats, Matthew UL; Hong, Shin; Kim, Moonzoo et al

in ISSTA (2012)

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See detailUnderstanding Walking Meetings: Drivers and Barriers
Damen, Ida; Lallemand, Carine UL; Brankaert, Rens et al

Scientific Conference (2020)

There is increased interest in reducing sedentary behavior of office workers to combat the negative health effects of prolonged sitting. Walking meetings offer a promising solution to this problem as they ... [more ▼]

There is increased interest in reducing sedentary behavior of office workers to combat the negative health effects of prolonged sitting. Walking meetings offer a promising solution to this problem as they facilitate a physically active way of working. To inform future development of technologies supporting these type of meetings, in-depth qualitative insights into people’s experiences of walking meetings are needed. We conducted semi-structured walking interviews (N=16) to identify key drivers and barriers for walking meetings in a living lab setting by using the ‘WorkWalk’. The ‘WorkWalk’ is a 1.8 km walking route indicated by a dotted blue line with outdoor meeting points, integrated into the room booking system. Our findings provide insights into how walking meetings are experienced and affect the set-up and social dynamics of meetings. We propose design recommendations for the development of future technologies and service design elements to support walking meetings and active ways of working. [less ▲]

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