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See detailTrade Protection and Market Power: Evidence from US antidumping and countervailing duties
Rovegno Malharin, Laura UL

in Review of World Economics (2013), 149(3), 443-476

Contingent protection measures were originally intended to protect domestic producers from what were considered to be “unfairly” cheap imports. However, due to the way in which these policies are designed ... [more ▼]

Contingent protection measures were originally intended to protect domestic producers from what were considered to be “unfairly” cheap imports. However, due to the way in which these policies are designed and implemented, they have been heavily criticised for their greatly disruptive effects on markets, and particularly on competition. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to the debate by studying the impact of US Antidumping (AD) and Countervailing (CV) duties on domestic producers’ price-cost margins (PCM). To this end, the study takes advantage of a long panel of 4-digit industries in the US covering 26 years of AD/CV activity, including the periods before and after the changes to AD/CV laws introduced following the Uruguay Round (UR). It finds evidence of a positive effect of AD/CV duties on PCM for the period prior to the UR, but the effect seems to disappear in the years following the UR. The analysis accounts for potential endogeneity in AD/CV duties, as well as the intensity of the protection granted. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 230 (123 UL)
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See detailTrade Secret Protection and R&D Investment of Family Firms
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Issah, Wunnam

in Family Business Review (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 203 (1 UL)
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See detailTRADE SECRET PROTECTION AND R&D INVESTMENT OF FAMILY FIRMS
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Issah, Abdul-Basit UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 145 (5 UL)
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See detailTRADE SECRET PROTECTION AND R&D INVESTMENT OF FAMILY FIRMS
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Issah, Wunnam

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 122 (6 UL)
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See detailTrade Union Objectives and Economic Growth
Irmen, Andreas UL; Wigger, Berthold

Report (2001)

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers ... [more ▼]

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly union which cares for wages and employment, we determine a range of trade union objectives and characterize the aggregate technology so that the union's policy spurs per capita income growth and increases welfare of all generations that adhere to the union. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade Union Objectives and Economic Growth
Irmen, Andreas UL; Wigger, Berthold U.

in FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis (2002), 59(1), 49-

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers ... [more ▼]

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly union which cares for wages and employment, we determine a range of trade union objectives and characterize the aggregate technology so that the union's policy spurs per capita income growth. However, the union's policy cannot lead to a Pareto-improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade, Economic Geography and the Choice of Product Quality
Picard, Pierre M. UL

E-print/Working paper (2012)

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We build a quality-augmented model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of ... [more ▼]

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We build a quality-augmented model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of differentiated varieties. Firms do not only develop and sell manufacturing varieties in a monopolistic competitive market but also determine the quality level of their varieties by investing in research and de- velopment. We explore the price and quality equilibrium properties when firms are immobile. We then consider a footloose capital model where capital is allocated to the manufacturing firms in the region offering the highest return. We show that the larger region produces varieties of higher quality and that the quality gap increases with larger asymmetries in region sizes and with larger trade costs. Finally, the home market effect is mitigated when firms choose their product quality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (4 UL)
See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (6 UL)
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See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality
Picard, Pierre M UL

in Regional Science and Urban Economics (2015), 54

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We discuss a model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of differentiated ... [more ▼]

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We discuss a model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of differentiated varieties. Firms do not only develop and sell manufacturing varieties in a monopolistic competitive market but also determine the quality level of their varieties by investing in research and development. We explore the price and quality equilibrium properties when firms are immobile. We then consider a footloose capital model where capital is allocated to the manufacturing firms in the region offering the highest return. We show that the larger region produces varieties of higher quality and that the quality gap increases with larger asymmetries in region sizes and with larger trade costs. Finally, the home market effect is mitigated when firms choose their product quality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 178 (8 UL)
See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality”
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (8 UL)
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See detailTrade, money and employment in intertemporal optimizing models of growth
Klump, Rainer UL

in Journal of International Trade and Economic Development (2001), 10(4), 411-428

This paper unites elements of Sidrauski's (1967) monetary model of growth, Ventura's (1997) analysis of the effects of international trade on growth, and some work on the labour market implications of ... [more ▼]

This paper unites elements of Sidrauski's (1967) monetary model of growth, Ventura's (1997) analysis of the effects of international trade on growth, and some work on the labour market implications of growth by Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995). It was shown by Ventura that, for a small economy, free international trade leads to an increase of the de facto elasticity of substitution between the domestic factors of production. The first part of the paper analyses how such an increase in the elasticity of substitution influences the steady state and the speed of convergence. From the Sidrauski model we know that money is super-neutral in the long-run but that monetary policy can have real effects along the transition path as long as the intertemporal elasticity of substitution is not equal to one. In the second part of this paper, it is shown how these results also depend on the elasticity of substitution between factors of production. The results give some important insights into possible interactions between monetary and trade policy in the long and short run. The last part of the paper deals with a modified version of the monetary growth model, which includes endogenous labour supply as in Klump (1993) or Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995). In this context, international trade, by increasing the elasticity of substitution, leads to lower domestic employment in the long run whereas monetary policy may be able to increase employment at least in the short run. Thus, under certain circumstances, trade and monetary policy can be regarded as complementary with respect to their labour market effects. © 2001 Taylor & Francis Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (0 UL)
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See detailTrade-offs between energy cost and health impact in a regional coupled energy–air quality model: the LEAQ model
Peters, Bernhard UL; Zachary, Dan; Drouet, L. et al

in Environmental Research Letters (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 115 (5 UL)
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See detailTrade-offs in phenotypic noise synchronize emergent topology to actively enhance transport in microbial environments
Dhar, Jayabrata UL; Thai, Le Phuong Anh UL; Ghoshal, Arkajyoti UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Phenotypic noise underpins homeostasis and fitness of individual cells. Yet, the extent to which noise shapes cell-to-population properties in microbial active matter remains poorly understood. By ... [more ▼]

Phenotypic noise underpins homeostasis and fitness of individual cells. Yet, the extent to which noise shapes cell-to-population properties in microbial active matter remains poorly understood. By quantifying variability in confluent \textit{E.coli} strains, we catalogue noise across different phenotypic traits. The noise, measured over different temperatures serving as proxy for cellular activity, spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The maximum noise was associated with the cell geometry and the critical colony area at the onset of mono-to-multilayer transition (MTMT), while the lower bound was set by the critical time of the MTMT. Our results, supported by a hydrodynamic model, suggest that a trade-off between the noise in the cell geometry and the growth rate can lead to the self-regulation of the MTMT timing. The MTMT cascades synchronous emergence of hydrodynamic fields, actively enhancing the micro-environmental transport. Our results highlight how interplay of phenotypic noise triggers emergent deterministic properties, and reveal the role of multifield topology--of the colony structure and hydrodynamics--to insulate confluent systems from the inherent noise associated with natural cell-environment settings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 UL)
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See detailTrademark families: characteristics and market values
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Sandner, Philipp

in Journal of Brand Management (2014), 21(1), 150-170

Research shows that financial markets value trademarks. Often, a firm’s trademarks can be decomposed into groups of related trademarks (trademark families). This study identifies different types of ... [more ▼]

Research shows that financial markets value trademarks. Often, a firm’s trademarks can be decomposed into groups of related trademarks (trademark families). This study identifies different types of trademark families and analyzes their respective effects on the market values of large, publicly listed firms. The results show that financial markets value only those trademarks that develop existing brands, while they do not value the creation of new trademarks. The implications of the results for corporate intellectual property and brand management are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademark or patent? The effects of market concentration, customer type, and venture capital financing on start-ups’ initial IP applications
De Vries, Geertjan; Pennings, Enrico; Block, Jörn et al

in Industry and Innovation (2017), 24(4), 325-345

We analyse the initial IP applications of 4,703 start-ups in the U.S., distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. Our empirical results show that start-ups are more likely to file for ... [more ▼]

We analyse the initial IP applications of 4,703 start-ups in the U.S., distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. Our empirical results show that start-ups are more likely to file for trademarks instead of patents when entering markets with a higher market concentration. Furthermore, we find that start-ups that are primarily active in business-to-consumer markets instead of business-to-business markets are more likely to file trademarks. Finally, the involvement of a venture capitalist (VC) affects the initial IP application. VC-backed start-ups are more likely than other startups to file initial IP in the form of trademarks rather than patents. This paper contributes to research on the use of IP rights in start-ups and to the literature on new venture strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademarks and how they relate to the sustainability and economic outcomes of social startups
Hirschmann, Mirko UL; Block, Jörn

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2022)

Prior research shows that trademarks positively relate to startups' growth and survival. However, empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs), especially trademarks, on the ... [more ▼]

Prior research shows that trademarks positively relate to startups' growth and survival. However, empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs), especially trademarks, on the development of social startups' hybrid outcomes is limited. Our study aims to fill this gap by investigating how early trademarking relates to the sustainability and economic outcomes of social startups. Based on a sample of 485 social startups from Germany, we find that social startups that register a trademark within the first three years of their existence have both significantly higher sustainability and economic outcomes. Additionally, we identify that the geographical scope of a trademark relates differently to social startups' outcomes. Our results contribute to the emerging literature on startups’ role to achieve sustainability outcomes and to IPR research that lacks an understanding of the importance of trademarks for sustainable entrepreneurship. We provide several practical implications for social startups, impact investors, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademarks as an indicator of regional innovation: evidence from Japanese prefectures
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Ikeuchi, Kenta et al

in Regional Studies (2022), 22(2), 190-209

Regional science has long been concerned with measuring the spatial distribution of innovation activity. We introduce trademarks as a new indicator for regional innovation and argue that they are ... [more ▼]

Regional science has long been concerned with measuring the spatial distribution of innovation activity. We introduce trademarks as a new indicator for regional innovation and argue that they are particularly useful to measure the ‘soft’ side of innovation that is difficult to capture with conventional indicators. We explore the spatial distribution of trademarks using a detailed and comprehensive dataset of 47 Japanese prefectures from 1999 to 2012. In addition to mapping differences in trademarking across regions, we identify correlates at the regional level that provide insights into determinants of regional innovation measured via trademarks. For example, regional trademark activity positively correlates with population density, income per capita, entrepreneurship rate, the number of universities, and strong private service and finance sectors. Overall, the results reveal associations unique to trademarks that other measures of innovation cannot uncover. Our findings contribute to research in regional science and the evolving literature on trademarks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 UL)
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See detailTradeoff Cryptanalysis of Memory-Hard Functions
Biryukov, Alex UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

in 21st International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security (2015, December)

We explore time-memory and other tradeoffs for memory-hard functions, which are supposed to impose significant computational and time penalties if less memory is used than intended. We analyze two schemes ... [more ▼]

We explore time-memory and other tradeoffs for memory-hard functions, which are supposed to impose significant computational and time penalties if less memory is used than intended. We analyze two schemes: Catena, which has been presented at Asiacrypt 2014, and Lyra2, the fastest finalist of the Password Hashing Competition (PHC). We demonstrate that Catena's proof of tradeoff resilience is flawed, and attack it with a novel \emph{precomputation tradeoff}. We show that using $M^{2/3}$ memory instead of $M$ we may have no time penalties. We further generalize our method for a wide class of schemes with predictable memory access. For Lyra2, which addresses memory unpredictability (depending on the input), we develop a novel \emph{ranking tradeoff} and show how to decrease the time-memory and the time-area product by significant factors. We also generalize the ranking method for a wide class of schemes with unpredictable memory access [less ▲]

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See detailTradeoffs in networks with positive and negative feedback
Goncalves, Jorge UL; Yi, T.; Doyle, J.

Scientific Conference (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (0 UL)