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See detailTowards Refined Classifications Driven by SHAP Explanations
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in Holzinger, Andreas; Kieseberg, Peter; Tjoa, A. Min (Eds.) et al Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction (2022, August 11)

Machine Learning (ML) models are inherently approximate; as a result, the predictions of an ML model can be wrong. In applications where errors can jeopardize a company's reputation, human experts often ... [more ▼]

Machine Learning (ML) models are inherently approximate; as a result, the predictions of an ML model can be wrong. In applications where errors can jeopardize a company's reputation, human experts often have to manually check the alarms raised by the ML models by hand, as wrong or delayed decisions can have a significant business impact. These experts often use interpretable ML tools for the verification of predictions. However, post-prediction verification is also costly. In this paper, we hypothesize that the outputs of interpretable ML tools, such as SHAP explanations, can be exploited by machine learning techniques to improve classifier performance. By doing so, the cost of the post-prediction analysis can be reduced. To confirm our intuition, we conduct several experiments where we use SHAP explanations directly as new features. In particular, by considering nine datasets, we first compare the performance of these "SHAP features" against traditional "base features" on binary classification tasks. Then, we add a second-step classifier relying on SHAP features, with the goal of reducing false-positive and false-negative results of typical classifiers. We show that SHAP explanations used as SHAP features can help to improve classification performance, especially for false-negative reduction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 UL)
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See detailTowards Reinventing Online Privacy
Gheorghe, Gabriela UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Berendt, Bettina; Engel, Thomas; Ikonomou, Demosthenes (Eds.) et al LNCS - Annual Privacy Forum 2015 - Bridging the gap between research and policy (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 213 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards Safe and Secure Autonomous and Cooperative Vehicle Ecosystems
Caldeira Lima, Antonio UL; Rocha, Francisco UL; Volp, Marcus UL et al

in Proceedings of the Second ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security and PrivaCy (2016, October)

Semi-autonomous driver assists are already widely deployed and fully autonomous cars are progressively leaving the realm of laboratories. This evolution coexists with a progressive connectivity and ... [more ▼]

Semi-autonomous driver assists are already widely deployed and fully autonomous cars are progressively leaving the realm of laboratories. This evolution coexists with a progressive connectivity and cooperation, creating important safety and security challenges, the latter ranging from casual hackers to highly-skilled attackers, requiring a holistic analysis, under the perspective of fully-fledged ecosystems of autonomous and cooperative vehicles. This position paper attempts at contributing to a better understanding of the global threat plane and the specific threat vectors designers should be at- tentive to. We survey paradigms and mechanisms that may be used to overcome or at least mitigate the potential risks that may arise through the several threat vectors analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards safer foods and more democratic decisions: Is this a contradictory goal?
König, Ariane UL

in Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides (2007), 14(2), 92-99

Since the mid-1990s and the BSE crisis food safety policy is a priority of the EU. In practise there are however many hurdles towards implementing principles of improved governance, such as transparency ... [more ▼]

Since the mid-1990s and the BSE crisis food safety policy is a priority of the EU. In practise there are however many hurdles towards implementing principles of improved governance, such as transparency and greater participation, especially at EU-level. This paper presents the work of the SAFE FOODS prospect towards the development an improved framework for risk analysis. The final aim is to develop concrete recommendations on how to facilitate coordination between risk assessors, risk managers and stakeholders across the EU, and to keep methods for risk assessment apace with developments in the life sciences. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 218 (4 UL)
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See detailTowards sampling and simulation-based analysis of featured weighted automata
Cordy, Maxime UL; Legay, Axel; Lazreg, Sami et al

in Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (2019, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (0 UL)
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See detailTowards Seamless Integration of N-Version Programming in Model-Based Design
Hu, Tingting UL; Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Navet, Nicolas UL

in 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies And Factory Automation (ETFA’2017), Limassol, Cyprus, September 12-15 2017 (2017)

The ever-growing complexity of present-day software systems raises new and more stringent requirements on their availability, pushing designers to make use of sophisticated fault tolerance techniques far ... [more ▼]

The ever-growing complexity of present-day software systems raises new and more stringent requirements on their availability, pushing designers to make use of sophisticated fault tolerance techniques far beyond the areas they were traditionally conceived for, and bringing new challenges to both the modelling and implementation phases. In this paper, we propose a design pattern to model in a domain-specific language one of the prominent fault-tolerant techniques, namely the N-version programming. It can be integrated seamlessly into existing applications to enhance their functional correctness, while still preserving the timing characteristics, in particular the sampling times. Besides, it is also designed in a way to ease the automatic code generation. A counterpart of the same framework is also implemented in a lower-level programming language, for use when direct model execution is impractical, like in severely resource-limited embedded targets. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Securing Communications in Infrastructure-poor Areas
Ahmat, Daouda; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Magoni, Damien

in Proceedings of the 5th EAI International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries (2013)

Structured P2P networks have proven to be effective in the exchange of data between nodes whose identity and content are generally indexed in a DHT. For years, such DHT networks have allowed, among other ... [more ▼]

Structured P2P networks have proven to be effective in the exchange of data between nodes whose identity and content are generally indexed in a DHT. For years, such DHT networks have allowed, among other users, third world inhabitants, such as African people, to exchange information among them and with the rest of the world without relying on a centralized infrastructure. Unfortunately, more than ever, reliability of communication across the Internet is threatened by various attacks, including usurpation of identity, eavesdropping or traffic modification. Thus, in order to overcome these security issues and allow peers to securely exchange data, we propose a new key management scheme that enables to handle public keys in the absence of a central coordination which would be required in a traditional PKI. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Security-aware Mutation Testing
Loise, Thomas; Devroey, Xavier; Perrouin, Gilles et al

in The 12th International Workshop on Mutation Analysis (Mutation 2017) (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 179 (4 UL)
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See detailTowards Semantic Interoperability in an Open IoT Ecosystem for Connected Vehicle Services
Kolbe, Niklas UL; Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL et al

in 2017 IEEE Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS) Proceedings (2017, July)

A present challenge in today’s Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is to enable interoperability across hetero- geneous systems and service providers. Restricted access to data sources and services limits ... [more ▼]

A present challenge in today’s Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is to enable interoperability across hetero- geneous systems and service providers. Restricted access to data sources and services limits the capabilities of a smart city to improve social, environmental and economic aspects. Interoperability in the IoT is concerned with both, messaging interfaces and semantic understanding of heterogeneous data. In this paper, the first building blocks of an emerging open IoT ecosystem developed at the EU level are presented. Se- mantic web technologies are applied to the existing messaging components to support and improve semantic interoperability. The approach is demonstrated with a proof-of-concept for connected vehicle services in a smart city setting. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 279 (11 UL)
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See detailTowards sustainable materials for solar energy conversion: Preparation and photoelectrochemical characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4
Scragg, Jonathan J.; Dale, Phillip UL; Peter, Laurence

in Electrochemistry Communications (2008), 10(4), 639-642

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (1 UL)
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See detailTowards Systematic Specification of Non-Functional Requirements for Sharing Economy Services
Symeonidis, Iraklis UL; Schroers, Jessica; Mustafa A. Mustafa, Mustafa A. et al

in Towards Systematic Specification of Non-Functional Requirements for Sharing Economy Services (2019, May)

Sharing Economy (SE) systems use technologies to enable sharing of physical assets and services among individuals. This allows optimisation of resources, thus contributing to the re-use principle of ... [more ▼]

Sharing Economy (SE) systems use technologies to enable sharing of physical assets and services among individuals. This allows optimisation of resources, thus contributing to the re-use principle of Circular Economy. In this paper, we assess existing SE services and identify their challenges in areas that are not technically connected to their core functionality but are essential in creating trust: information security and privacy, personal data protection and fair economic incentives. Existing frameworks for elicitation of non-functional requirements are heterogeneous in their focus and domain specific. Hence, we propose to develop a holistic methodology for non-functional requirements specification for SE systems following a top-down-top approach. A holistic methodology considering non-functional requirements is essential and can assist in the analysis and design of SE systems in a systematic and unified way applied from the early stages of the system development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 120 (4 UL)
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See detailTowards systemic change: On the co-creation and evaluation of a study programme in transformative sustainability science with stakeholders in Luxembourg
König, Ariane UL

in Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability (2015), 16

This paper examines a study programme in ‘Sustainability and social innovation’ at the University of Luxembourg that was co-created with key external stakeholders in local sustainability transitions.The ... [more ▼]

This paper examines a study programme in ‘Sustainability and social innovation’ at the University of Luxembourg that was co-created with key external stakeholders in local sustainability transitions.The programme’s aim is to equip scientists and citizens for the practice of transformative sustainability science to change human environment interactions. Addressing socially salient, complex problems invites a re-conception of what role universities can play in knowledge production processes in more applied and local contexts. We critically discuss the programme’s ambition to provide a platform for transformative social learning for sustainability and to contribute to fostering systemic change in Luxembourg. We deduce design requisites to achieve these ambitions. The paper also discusses the role of different forms of evaluation in effecting individual programme and systemic change. Research insights were drawn from documentary and literature research, concept-building, programme implementation, observation, analysis, and evaluation by students and contributors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 253 (13 UL)
See detailTowards systems ecology of the human gut microbiome
Wilmes, Paul UL

Presentation (2017, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards Tactile Internet in Beyond 5G Era: Recent Advances, Current Issues and Future Directions
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Woungang, Isaac; Anpalagan, Alagan et al

in IEEE Access (2020)

Tactile Internet (TI) is envisioned to create a paradigm shift from the content-oriented communications to steer/control-based communications by enabling real-time transmission of haptic information (i.e ... [more ▼]

Tactile Internet (TI) is envisioned to create a paradigm shift from the content-oriented communications to steer/control-based communications by enabling real-time transmission of haptic information (i.e., touch, actuation, motion, vibration, surface texture) over Internet in addition to the conventional audiovisual and data traffics. This emerging TI technology, also considered as the next evolution phase of Internet of Things (IoT), is expected to create numerous opportunities for technology markets in a wide variety of applications ranging from teleoperation systems and Augmented/Virtual Reality (AR/VR) to automotive safety and eHealthcare towards addressing the complex problems of human society. However, the realization of TI over wireless media in the upcoming Fifth Generation (5G) and beyond networks creates various non-conventional communication challenges and stringent requirements in terms of ultra-low latency, ultra-high reliability, high data-rate connectivity, resource allocation, multiple access and quality-latency-rate tradeoff. To this end, this paper aims to provide a holistic view on wireless TI along with a thorough review of the existing state-of-the-art, to identify and analyze the involved technical issues, to highlight potential solutions and to propose future research directions. First, starting with the vision of TI and recent advances and a review of related survey/overview articles, we present a generalized framework for wireless TI in the Beyond 5G Era including a TI architecture, the main technical requirements, the key application areas and potential enabling technologies. Subsequently, we provide a comprehensive review of the existing TI works by broadly categorizing them into three main paradigms; namely, haptic communications, wireless AR/VR, and autonomous, intelligent and cooperative mobility systems. Next, potential enabling technologies across physical/Medium Access Control (MAC) and network layers are identified and discussed in detail. Also, security and privacy issues of TI applications are discussed along with some promising enablers. Finally, we present some open research challenges and recommend promising future research directions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (14 UL)
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See detailTowards Temporal Conviviality Measures
Caire, Patrice UL; Alcalde, Baptiste UL; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (1 UL)
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See detailTowards Test-Driven and Architecture Model-Based Security and Resilience Engineering
Saidane, Ayda; Guelfi, Nicolas UL

in Singh, Hardeep; Kaur, Kulwant (Eds.) Designing, Engineering, and Analyzing Reliable and Efficient Software (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 115 (0 UL)
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See detailTowards the Application of Neuromorphic Computing to Satellite Communications
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in Towards the Application of Neuromorphic Computing to Satellite Communications (2022, October)

Artificial intelligence (AI) has recently received significant attention as a key enabler for future 5G-and-beyond terrestrial wireless networks. The applications of AI to satellite communications is also ... [more ▼]

Artificial intelligence (AI) has recently received significant attention as a key enabler for future 5G-and-beyond terrestrial wireless networks. The applications of AI to satellite communications is also gaining momentum to realize a more autonomous operation with reduced requirements in terms of human intervention. The adoption of AI for satellite communications will set new requirements on computing processors, which will need to support large workloads as efficiently as possible under harsh environmental conditions. In this context, neuromorphic processing (NP) is emerging as a bio-inspired solution to address pattern recognition tasks involving multiple, possibly unstructured, temporal signals and/or requiring continual learning. The key merits of the technology are energy efficiency and capacity for on-device adaptation. In this paper, we highlight potential use cases and applications of NP to satellite communications. We also explore major technical challenges for the implementation of space-based NP focusing on the available NP chipsets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (8 UL)
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See detailTowards the Arms Trade Treaty
Mochtak, Michal UL

in Majer, Marián; Ondrejcsál, Róbert; Tarasovič, Vladimír (Eds.) et al Panorama of global security environment 2014 (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 UL)
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See detailTowards the assessment of realistic hybrid precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems with hardware impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K; Papageorgiou, Georgios K; Kolawole, Oluwatayo Y et al

in IET Communications (2021), 15(12), 1606-1619

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the ... [more ▼]

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the impact of the inevitable residual transceiver hardware impairments (RTHIs), including the residual additive transceiver hardware impairments (RATHIs) and the amplified thermal noise (ATN), has not been sufficiently studied in mmWave hybrid processing. In this work, the hybrid precoder and combiner are designed, which include both digital and analog processing by taking into account the RATHIs and the ATN. In particular, a thorough study is provided to shed light on the degradation of the spectral efficiency (SE) of the practical system. The outcomes show the steady degradation of the performance by the ATN across all SNR values, which becomes increasingly critical for higher values of its variance. Furthermore, it is shown that RATHIs result in degradation of the system only in the high SNR regime. Hence, their impact in mmWave system operating at low SNRs might be negligible. Moreover, an increase concerning the number of streams differentiates the impact between the transmit and receive RATHIs with the latter having a more severe effect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 UL)