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See detailTaking Language Out Of The Equation: The Assessment Of Basic Math Competence Without Language
Greisen, Max UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Although numeracy, next to literacy, is an essential skill in many knowledge based societies of the 21st century, between 5 and 10 % of the population suffer from more or less severe mathematics learning ... [more ▼]

Although numeracy, next to literacy, is an essential skill in many knowledge based societies of the 21st century, between 5 and 10 % of the population suffer from more or less severe mathematics learning disorders or dyscalculia. However, mathematical ability is not a pure construct. Instead, mathematical ability maintains a complex relationship with linguistic abilities. This relationship has significant implications for the assessment of a person’s mathematical ability in multilingual contexts. The hereby presented research project addresses the consequences of that relationship in the context of Luxembourg, a highly multilingual country at the center of Europe. The aim of the project was to tackle psychometric issues that arise when the test taker does not master the language of the test sufficiently and to offer an alternative solution to available assessment batteries based on verbal instructions and tasks. In the first study, we demonstrate the role of reading comprehension in the language of instruction on third grader’s performance in mathematics in Luxembourg and show that non-native speaker’s underachievement in mathematics can be largely or entirely explained by their lacking reading comprehension in the language of assessment. In the next study we report on the two first pilot studies with NUMTEST, an assessment battery that aims to measure children’s basic mathematical competence by replacing verbal instructions and task content with video instructions and animated tasks. The findings of these studies show that children’s basic mathematical competence can indeed be reliably assessed using this new paradigm. Opportunities and limitations of the paradigm are discussed. The third and final study of this project addresses the psychometric characteristics of this newly developed assessment battery. Its findings show that the NUMTEST battery provides for good reliability and concurrent validity all while being language neutral. In summary, the presented project provides for an encouraging proof of concept for the video instruction method while offering preliminary evidence for its validity as an early screener for math learning difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailTaking Language out of the Equation: The Assessment of Basic Math Competence Without Language
Greisen, Max UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Baudson, Tanja Gabriele UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2018)

While numerical skills are fundamental in modern societies, some estimated 5–7% of children suffer from mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) that need to be assessed early to ensure successful ... [more ▼]

While numerical skills are fundamental in modern societies, some estimated 5–7% of children suffer from mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) that need to be assessed early to ensure successful remediation. Universally employable diagnostic tools are yet lacking, as current test batteries for basic mathematics assessment are based on verbal instructions. However, prior research has shown that performance in mathematics assessment is often dependent on the testee’s proficiency in the language of instruction which might lead to unfair bias in test scores. Furthermore, language-dependent assessment tools produce results that are not easily comparable across countries. Here we present results of a study that aims to develop tasks allowing to test for basic math competence without relying on verbal instructions or task content. We implemented video and animation-based task instructions on touchscreen devices that require no verbal explanation. We administered these experimental tasks to two samples of children attending the first grade of primary school. One group completed the tasks with verbal instructions while another group received video instructions showing a person successfully completing the task.We assessed task comprehension and usability aspects both directly and indirectly. Our results suggest that the non-verbal instructions were generally well understood as the absence of explicit verbal instructions did not influence task performance. Thus we found that it is possible to assess basic math competence without verbal instructions. It also appeared that in some cases a single word in a verbal instruction can lead to the failure of a task that is successfully completed with non-verbal instruction. However, special care must be taken during task design because on rare occasions non-verbal video instructions fail to convey task instructions as clearly as spoken language and thus the latter do not provide a panacea to non-verbal assessment. Nevertheless, our findings provide an encouraging proof of concept for the further development of non-verbal assessment tools for basic math competence. [less ▲]

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See detailtaking notes about ringing doorbells and barking dogs; the value of context for the re-use of oral history data
Scagliola, Stefania UL; De Jong, Franciska

in Apostolopoulos, Nicolas; Baricelli, Michelle; Koch, Gertrud (Eds.) preserving survivors memoires; Digital Testimony collections about nazi persecution; history, education and media (2016)

This article is about the value of collecting contextual information for the reuse of interview data, It describes 3 case studies in which the curator of the archive has tried to anticipate the needs of ... [more ▼]

This article is about the value of collecting contextual information for the reuse of interview data, It describes 3 case studies in which the curator of the archive has tried to anticipate the needs of various research disciplines, [less ▲]

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See detail“Taking over responsibility” as a subjective transition marker from youth into adulthood
Heinen, Andreas UL; Joachim, Patrice UL

Scientific Conference (2016, September 02)

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See detailTaking Stock of the Bologna Process at 20: The Possibilities and Limits of Soft Law Governance
Deca, Ligia; Harmsen, Robert UL

in Curaj, Adrian; Deca, Ligia; Pricopie, Remus (Eds.) European Higher Education Area: Challenges for a New Decade (2020)

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See detailTaking Stock of the Bologna Process at 20: The Possibilities and Limits of Soft Law Governance
Harmsen, Robert UL; Deca, Ligia

Scientific Conference (2019)

The Bologna Process stands as both an exemplar of regional cooperation in the higher education policy sector and as a comparatively successful instance of the use of so-called ‘soft law governance’ policy ... [more ▼]

The Bologna Process stands as both an exemplar of regional cooperation in the higher education policy sector and as a comparatively successful instance of the use of so-called ‘soft law governance’ policy instruments. Yet, as this pan-European process now marks two decades of existence, questions are increasingly being posed as to its direction and purpose. Against this background, the present paper seeks to take stock of Bologna as it enters adulthood, drawing on both the substantial body of scholarship that has emerged on the process and practitioner insights to examine its past achievements and current challenges. The paper specifically focuses on recent debates surrounding the (non-)implementation of key commitments; on the functioning of the EHEA as a policy forum in relation to both its own membership and the wider international higher education policy landscape; and on the manner in which the EHEA may respond to increasingly serious challenges to the fundamental values that underpin the process. An overall balance sheet is finally drawn, suggesting the likely direction(s) of the process going forward. [less ▲]

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See detailTaking stock of the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): from policy formulation to policy implementation
Evrard, Estelle UL; Engl, Alice

in Medeiros, Eduardo (Ed.) European Territorial Cooperation : Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to the Process and Impacts of Cross-Border and Transnational Cooperation in Europe (2018)

The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) has become a central tool for (sub-) state authorities to organise territorial cooperation in the EU. To take stock of this rapid change, the ... [more ▼]

The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) has become a central tool for (sub-) state authorities to organise territorial cooperation in the EU. To take stock of this rapid change, the present chapter suggests an analytical framework in two steps. Firstly, the EGTC instrument is symptomatic of a turn in how the European territorial cohesion policy relates to (sub-) state territorial cooperation (policy formulation). Before the publication of the EGTC regulation in 2006, the EU support for territorial cooperation was mainly financial (e.g. INTERREG) and regulatory (e.g. consolidation of the single market). No specific legal framework was provided. The contribution investigates this progressive turn in the cohesion policy. Secondly, the EGTC represents a tool for implementing territorial cooperation (policy implementation). The number of EGTCs created over about a decade demonstrates that this instrument fills a gap in the legislative framework of territorial cooperation. Our comparative assessment of the use of the tool reveals a dominant implementation pattern. Most of the existing EGTCs are territorially bound organisations, set-up on adjacent borders by local and regional authorities, a minority being interregional or transregional. Although they mostly have collective action resources and instruments and have identifiable objectives shared by their respective members, they follow a rather traditional pattern of cooperation where each individual member’s core activities primarily relate to a (sub-) state authority and where the EGTC acts primarily as an agent relying on its members. [less ▲]

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See detailTaking the Complex Dynamics of Human–Environment–Technology Systems Seriously: A Case Study in Doctoral Education at the University of Luxembourg
König, Ariane UL; Ravetz, Jerome; Raber, Bo Manuel UL et al

in Frontiers in Sustainability (2021), 2

Our existential sustainability challenges involve human–environment–technology systems that are complex, dynamic and tightly coupled. But at universities, knowledge, in teaching and research, is mostly ... [more ▼]

Our existential sustainability challenges involve human–environment–technology systems that are complex, dynamic and tightly coupled. But at universities, knowledge, in teaching and research, is mostly organized into discrete parcels, the disciplines. These are further divided into the categories of natural sciences, social science and the humanities. This paper addresses the question of how in their training of researchers, universities can equip them to better understand their roles and also to act as change agents. It describes a doctoral school course in transferable skills that is offered across faculties. The unique aim of the course is to provide a space for reflection on different research paradigms and the way they differ in their framing the role of a scientific researcher in pluralist societies that face existential challenges. The course introduces diverse more recent approaches to scientific inquiry that harness the potential of democratizing science in our networked knowledge society, including critical interdisciplinarity, post-normal science, citizen science and transformative sustainability science, that complement normal disciplinary research practices. [less ▲]

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See detailTaking Their Place: Educational Expansion and Inequality of Educational Opportunities—A Gendered Perspective
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; BLANK, Carmel; Rotman, Assaf

in Higher Education Policy (2018)

Educational expansion and gender differences in educational attainment have both been studied in various contexts, but their interdependence has rarely been examined, and even then, yielded conflicting ... [more ▼]

Educational expansion and gender differences in educational attainment have both been studied in various contexts, but their interdependence has rarely been examined, and even then, yielded conflicting results. We focus on the expansion of tertiary education in Israel resulting from several reforms introduced in the mid-1990s and ask two questions: (a) How did educational expansion affect inequality of opportunity (IEO)? (b) Did the effect of educational expansion differ between men and women? Based on the Israeli census, we examine changes in IEO between 1995 and 2008 across all levels of education. We find that women from lower socioeconomic background were the main beneficiaries of the expansion, especially at the MA+ level. Several explanations for these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA TALE OF ADVERSITY: THE IMPACT OF EARLY LIFE INFECTION BEYOND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Merz, Myriam Pia UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for chronic and noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Changes in the HPA axis and the immune system have been proposed to underlie this ... [more ▼]

Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for chronic and noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Changes in the HPA axis and the immune system have been proposed to underlie this association, however current ELA research remains mainly focused on neglect, abuse and low socioeconomic status as sources of childhood adversity. Early-life adversity covers a range of physical, social and environmental stressors. Acute viral infections in early life are a major source of such adversity and have been associated with a broad spectrum of later-life effects outside the immune system or “off-target”. These include an altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and metabolic reactions. Here, we used a murine postnatal day 14 (PND 14) Influenza A (H1N1) infection model and applied a semi-holistic approach including phenotypic measurements, gene expression arrays and diffusion neuroimaging techniques to investigate HPA axis dysregulation, energy metabolism, brain connectivity, microbial composition and immune cell shift . We then extended our mouse model for a postnatal day 56 (PND56) viral challenge to study immune reactivation after an early life “priming” event. We could show that an early life influenza A virus infection led to an immediate shift in lung microbiota and long-term changes in gut microbiome composition. We also observed several sex-specific effects: retarded growth of males, baseline blood glucose levels being increased in females and decreased in males, and baseline corticosterone levels were reduced while total number of CD3+ cells were higher in males. At the same time, we found a microbial composition shift persistent several weeks after the early life infection. For the brain, MRI scans identified reduced connectivity in the cortex, midbrain and cerebellum which were accompanied by tissue-specific gene expression signatures. Early-life infection appeared to have independently affected each of the systems, potentially independent of HPA axis or immune perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailA Tale of Location-Based User Authentication
Falk, Eric UL; Toth, Vendel; Knaff, Alexandre et al

in IEEE BigComp2019 - The 6th IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (2019)

The attitude towards passwords has drastically changed over the past years. Although they protected workstations from illicit access for decades, with today’s increased computational power, simple ... [more ▼]

The attitude towards passwords has drastically changed over the past years. Although they protected workstations from illicit access for decades, with today’s increased computational power, simple passwords became easy targets for attacks, whereas complex passwords are difficult to remember for the users. It appears as if the classical password protection has become obsolete and has to give way to similarly secured schemes, which are seamless for users. Novel methodologies may be sound and secure from a technical point of view, their success will be challenged by the simple question whether a user feels secure or not. In this work, we propose a proximity based login and session locking scheme, based on bluetooth beacons. We describe the big data architecture required to implement secured location-based services in smart buildings. To round our contribution out, we describe a medium scale user study with 40 participants, conducted to answer the question: Do users feel secure? [less ▲]

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See detailA Tale of Regulatory Divergence: Contrasting Transatlantic Policy Responses to the Alleged Role of Alternative Investment Funds in Financial Instability
Nabilou, Hossein UL

in Capital Markets Law Journal (2017), 12(1),

This article analyzes the regulatory measures adopted to address the potential contribution of hedge funds to financial instability in the U.S. and the EU in the wake of the Global Financial Crisis. The ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes the regulatory measures adopted to address the potential contribution of hedge funds to financial instability in the U.S. and the EU in the wake of the Global Financial Crisis. The relevant provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act include two sets of direct regulatory measures. The first set of these measures addresses information problems, whereas the second set is intended to address potential too-big-to-fail problems by imposing prudential regulation on systemically important nonbank financial companies. The article then studies the Volcker Rule, as an indirect regulatory measure intended to address the potential systemic risk of hedge funds originating from their interconnectedness with Large Complex Financial Institutions (LCFIs). The second part of this article analyzes the European Directive on Alternative Investment Fund Managers and its attempt to address the potential contribution of hedge funds to financial instability. Despite the common driving forces of hedge fund regulation across the Atlantic, ultimate policy outcomes were significantly divergent. Primarily concerned with creating a single market for Alternative Investment Funds, EU regulators prioritized the EU passport mechanism, which engendered demand for investor protection and more stringent and direct regulatory measures. In contrast, the main concern in the U.S. remained to be addressing potential systemic risk of hedge funds. Such differential regulatory objectives gave birth to indirect regulation of hedge funds with a focus on their interconnectedness with LCFIs. This is mainly embedded in the provisions of the Volcker Rule; a rule whose absence is significantly palpable in the EU regime for regulating hedge funds. [less ▲]

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See detailThe tale of SOLOIST: a specification language for service compositions interactions
Bianculli, Domenico UL; Ghezzi, Carlo; San Pietro, Pierluigi

in Păsăreanu, Corina; Salaün, Gwen (Eds.) Formal Aspects of Component Software (2012, September)

Service-based applications are a new class of software systems that provide the basis for enterprises to build their information systems by following the principles of service-oriented architectures ... [more ▼]

Service-based applications are a new class of software systems that provide the basis for enterprises to build their information systems by following the principles of service-oriented architectures. These software systems are often realized by orchestrating remote, third-party services, to provide added-values applications that are called service compositions. The distributed ownership and the evolving nature of the services involved in a service composition make verification activities crucial. On a par with verification is also the problem of formally specifying the interactions—with third-party services—of service compositions, with the related issue of balancing expressiveness and support for automated verification. This paper showcases SOLOIST, a specification language for formalizing the interactions of service compositions. SOLOIST has been designed with the primary objective of expressing the most significant specification patterns found in the specifications of service-based applications. The language is based on a many-sorted first-order metric temporal logic, extended with new temporal modalities that support aggregate operators for events occurring in a certain time window. We also show how, under certain assumptions, the language can be reduced to linear temporal logic, paving the way for using SOLOIST with established verification techniques, both at design time and at run time. [less ▲]

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See detailA tale of three homotopies
Dotsenko, Vladimir; Poncin, Norbert UL

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detailA Tale of Three Homotopies
Dotsenko, Vladimir; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Applied Categorical Structures (2016)

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See detailA Tale of Two Referenda: The Greek Plebiscite of 1946 and the Referendum of July 2015
Paravantis, Spero UL

in European Review of History (2019)

This paper compares two periods of crisis in Greece separated by 70 years, the crisis surrounding the national elections and the plebiscite on the return of the Greek monarchy in 1946, and the referendum ... [more ▼]

This paper compares two periods of crisis in Greece separated by 70 years, the crisis surrounding the national elections and the plebiscite on the return of the Greek monarchy in 1946, and the referendum on the terms contained in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of July 2015, and the international involvement in and reaction to these referenda. The inspirations for the paper, were the ways in which external forces attempted to direct their outcome, and the similarities in the ways in which in both periods, external forces attempted to frame the definition of the referenda in favour of their wider strategic objectives. The pressure placed on the Greek government, both from within Greece and from without, was also noteworthy, as was the rhetoric that was used both during and after both events. The paper concludes that in these two cases, rather than providing resolution to an issue, the referenda served mainly as a vehicle of protest, extremely susceptible to manipulation, leading to a situation worse than that which had preceded them. [less ▲]

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See detailA Tale of Two Theories: Government by Judiciary Theory Versus Guardianship of the Jurist Theory
Al Hajjaji, Shams Al Din UL

in Emory International Law Review (2019), 33

This research argues that Muslim scholars developed two theories of government over time. Even tough Islamic scholars—Shia and Sunni—agree on mandating the highest level of legal knowledge in any member ... [more ▼]

This research argues that Muslim scholars developed two theories of government over time. Even tough Islamic scholars—Shia and Sunni—agree on mandating the highest level of legal knowledge in any member of the Islamic government, they disagree on the legal nature of these members, whether they are judges, or jurists. Shia Islamic scholars adopted the theory of the guardianship of the jurist (Wilayat al-Faqih in Arabic, or Vilayat e-Faqih in Farsi). Unlike Sunni scholars, the Shia has developed a practical approach to apply their theory of government in practice. A prominent example of this theory is the Iranian practice of the Guardianship of the Jurist Theory. Sunni Islamic scholars adopt the theory of government by judiciary (Wilayat Al-Qadi). The assumption of this theory is that member of the government are judges. This is based on the assumption that Prophet Mohamed was a judge with enumerated executive authorities, namely the collection of Sadaqat (state financial revenue), military power, and foreign affairs’ representation. This theory has never been in practice since the assassination of the first four successors of the Prophet. This research is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the theory of Sunni-Muslim scholars, which is government by judiciary. The second section presents the theory of Shia-Muslim scholars, which is guardianship of the jurist. The last section deals with the major five distinctions between the two theories. [less ▲]

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See detailTalent development in natural science in elementary school: A juxtaposition of research and practice
Mack, Elena; Breit, Moritz; Krischler, Mireille UL et al

in Teaching and Teacher Education (2021), 104

We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and ... [more ▼]

We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and teachers' expertise. The results showed that both teachers and researchers conceive of talent development in natural science as a complex process including abilities, personality traits, and skills as predictors. However, teachers focused mainly on skills whereas the scientific literature emphasized cognitive abilities. The working theory can be used for the identification and promotion of natural science talent and the development of teachers' diagnostic skills to assess students’ potential in natural science. [less ▲]

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See detailTalent management in a context: four empirical essays
Usanova, Ksenia UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Recent research has determined that talent management is a highly context-sensitive phenomenon. Indeed, the way talent is defined and managed varies from one context to another. Although talent management ... [more ▼]

Recent research has determined that talent management is a highly context-sensitive phenomenon. Indeed, the way talent is defined and managed varies from one context to another. Although talent management has been studied for the last two decades, the majority of scientific works still focus on the context of large multinational corporations with a prevalence of managerial views. Therefore, this thesis aims to contribute to the literature by challenging the dominant understandings of talent management through examining the phenomenon in the contexts that are less explored. To that end, four empirical studies were conducted constituting this thesis. The first study explores how talent is defined and managed in the not-for-profit sector. Based on the interviews with 34 leaders of 34 mission-driven organizations, it offers a unique definition of a talent and an understanding of how TM is implemented in this sector. The second study analytically contextualizes talent management in micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises. Based on 31 interviews with TM leaders of 27 aerospace companies, this research proposes three types of TM in this context, namely “strategic”, “entrepreneurial” and “ad hoc”. The third study, in the context of the high technology industry, explores understanding of talent management not only from the perspective of managers but also that of talent. It is based on the discussions with 20 managers and 20 talents from the aerospace industry and identifies three views on TM: talents’, managers’ and shared. Finally, the fourth study explores gender differences in quitting intentions of talent in the knowledge-based field. Drawing on the survey responses from 119 talented individuals, it shows that gender moderates relationships between talent intention to quit and its main antecedents. This thesis provides an important theoretical contribution to the talent management literature and offers useful practical implications for organizational leaders, managers, talented individuals and policy-makers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 UL)