Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe cadre juridique européen des services à la demande: Quelle directive pour quels services?
Cole, Mark UL

in La réglementation des services audiovisuels à la demande: chaos ou cohérence? (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailCadres de participation en transition: une perspective multimodale sur l'organisation de la parole en classe
Steinbach Kohler, Fee; Fasel Lauzon, Virginie; Berger, Evelyne UL

in Congrès Mondial de Linguistique Française, Paris, France, 2008 (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaesarean section is associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Cardwell, C. R.; Stene, L. C.; Joner, G. et al

in Diabetologia (2008), 51(5), 726-35

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the evidence of an increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in children born by Caesarean section by systematically reviewing the ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the evidence of an increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in children born by Caesarean section by systematically reviewing the published literature and performing a meta-analysis with adjustment for recognised confounders. METHODS: After MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE searches, crude ORs and 95% CIs for type 1 diabetes in children born by Caesarean section were calculated from the data reported in each study. Authors were contacted to facilitate adjustments for potential confounders, either by supplying raw data or calculating adjusted estimates. Meta-analysis techniques were then used to derive combined ORs and to investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Twenty studies were identified. Overall, there was a significant increase in the risk of type 1 diabetes in children born by Caesarean section (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, p < 0.001). There was little evidence of heterogeneity between studies (p = 0.54). Seventeen authors provided raw data or adjusted estimates to facilitate adjustments for potential confounders. In these studies, there was evidence of an increase in diabetes risk with greater birthweight, shorter gestation and greater maternal age. The increased risk of type 1 diabetes after Caesarean section was little altered after adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, birth order, breast-feeding and maternal diabetes (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This analysis demonstrates a 20% increase in the risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes after Caesarean section delivery that cannot be explained by known confounders. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCAFIN Lecture UC Santa Cruz
Mehra, Rajnish UL

Scientific Conference (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaipirini: using gene sets to rank literature
Soldatos, Theodoros G.; O’Donoghue, S. I.; Satagopam, V. P. et al

in BioData Mining (2012), 5(1),

Background: Keeping up-to-date with bioscience literature is becoming increasingly challenging. Several recent methods help meet this challenge by allowing literature search to be launched based on lists ... [more ▼]

Background: Keeping up-to-date with bioscience literature is becoming increasingly challenging. Several recent methods help meet this challenge by allowing literature search to be launched based on lists of abstracts that the user judges to be ‘interesting’. Some methods go further by allowing the user to provide a second input set of ‘uninteresting’ abstracts; these two input sets are then used to search and rank literature by relevance. In this work we present the service ‘Caipirini’ (http:// caipirini.org) that also allows two input sets, but takes the novel approach of allowing ranking of literature based on one or more sets of genes. Results: To evaluate the usefulness of Caipirini, we used two test cases, one related to the human cell cycle, and a second related to disease defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana. In both cases, the new method achieved high precision in finding literature related to the biological mechanisms underlying the input data sets. Conclusions: To our knowledge Caipirini is the first service enabling literature search directly based on biological relevance to gene sets; thus, Caipirini gives the research community a new way to unlock hidden knowledge from gene sets derived via high-throughput experiments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcineurin in human heart hypertrophy.
Ritter, Oliver; Hack, Susanne; Schuh, Kai et al

in Circulation (2002), 105(19), 2265-9

BACKGROUND: In animal models, increased signaling through the calcineurin pathway has been shown to be sufficient for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Calcineurin activity has been reported to be ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In animal models, increased signaling through the calcineurin pathway has been shown to be sufficient for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Calcineurin activity has been reported to be elevated in the myocardium of patients with congestive heart failure. In contrast, few data are available about calcineurin activity in patients with pressure overload or cardiomyopathic hypertrophy who are not in cardiac failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated calcineurin activity and protein expression in 2 different forms of cardiac hypertrophy: hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and aortic stenosis (AS). We found that the C-terminus of calcineurin A protein containing the autoinhibitory domain was less abundant in myocardial hypertrophy than in normal heart, which suggests the possibility of proteolysis. No new splice variants could be detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. This resulted in a significant elevation of calcineurin enzymatic activity in HOCM and AS compared with 6 normal hearts. Increased calcineurin phosphatase activity caused increased migration of NF-AT2 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 2) in SDS-PAGE compatible with pronounced NF-AT dephosphorylation in hypertrophied myocardial tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertrophy in HOCM and AS without heart failure is characterized by a significant increase in calcineurin activity. This might occur by (partial) proteolysis of the calcineurin A C-terminus containing the autoinhibitory domain. Increased calcineurin activity has functional relevance, as shown by altered NF-AT phosphorylation state. Although hypertrophy in AS and HOCM may be initiated by different upstream triggers (internal versus external fiber overload), in both cases, there is activation of calcineurin, which suggests an involvement of this pathway in the pathogenesis of human cardiac hypertrophy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers in the dura mater of cat and rat: an immunoelectron microscopic study
Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Meßlinger, Karl; Baumgärtel, Mathias et al

in Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18 (1992)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcitonin gene-related peptide released from dural nerve fibers mediates increase of meningeal blood flow in the rat
Meßlinger, Karl; Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Kurosawa, Mieko et al

in Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology (1994), 72

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcitonin gene-related peptide released from dural nerve fibers mediates increase of meningeal blood flow in the rat.
Meßlinger, Karl; Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Kurosawa, Mieko et al

in Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology (1995)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-like immunoreactive fibers in the spermatic nerve and testis of the dog.
Tamura, Ryoko; Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Schmidt, Robert et al

in Neuroscience Letters (1997), 235

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcium signaling and regulation of neutrophil functions: Still a long way to go.
Hann, Justine UL; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tolle, Fabrice UL et al

in Journal of leukocyte biology (2019)

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and disruption in their functions often results in an increased risk of serious infections and inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Following recent ... [more ▼]

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and disruption in their functions often results in an increased risk of serious infections and inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Following recent discoveries in their influence over disease progression, a resurgence of interest for neutrophil biology has taken place. The multitude of signaling pathways activated by the engagement of numerous types of receptors, with which neutrophils are endowed, reflects the functional complexity of these cells. It is therefore not surprising that there remains a huge lack in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlining neutrophil functions. Moreover, studies on neutrophils are undoubtedly limited by the difficulty to efficiently edit the cell's genome. Over the past 30 years, compelling evidence has clearly highlighted that Ca(2+) -signaling is governing the key processes associated with neutrophil functions. The confirmation of the role of an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration has come from studies on NADPH oxidase activation and phagocytosis. In this review, we give an overview and update of our current knowledge on the role of Ca(2+) mobilization in the regulation of pro-inflammatory functions of neutrophils. In particular, we stress the importance of Ca(2+) in the formation of NETs and cytokine secretion in the light of newest findings. This will allow us to embrace how much further we have to go to understand the complex dynamics of Ca(2+) -dependent mechanisms in order to gain more insights into the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The potential for therapeutics to regulate the neutrophil functions, such as Ca(2+) influx inhibitors to prevent autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, has been discussed in the last part of the review. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcium signaling dysfunction in heart disease.
Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Mohamed, Tamer; Oceandy, Delvac et al

in BioFactors (Oxford, England) (2011), 37(3), 175-81

In the heart, Ca(2+) is crucial for the regulation of contraction and intracellular signaling, processes, which are vital to the functioning of the healthy heart. Ca(2+) -activated signaling pathways must ... [more ▼]

In the heart, Ca(2+) is crucial for the regulation of contraction and intracellular signaling, processes, which are vital to the functioning of the healthy heart. Ca(2+) -activated signaling pathways must function against a background of large, rapid, and tightly regulated changes in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations during each contraction and relaxation cycle. This review highlights a number of proteins that regulate signaling Ca(2+) in both normal and pathological conditions including cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and discusses how these pathways are not regulated by the marked elevation in free intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ](i)) during contraction but require smaller sustained increases in Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, we present published evidence that the pool of Ca(2+) that regulates signaling is compartmentalized into distinct cellular microdomains and is thus distinct from that regulating contraction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcium signaling: from single channels to pathways
Skupin, Alexander UL; Thurley, K.

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2012), 740

Ca(2+) is not only one of the most versatile and ubiquitous second messengers but also a well-established representative example of cell signaling. The identification of most key elements involved in Ca(2 ... [more ▼]

Ca(2+) is not only one of the most versatile and ubiquitous second messengers but also a well-established representative example of cell signaling. The identification of most key elements involved in Ca(2+) signaling enables a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of this particular pathway. Cellular behavior relies in general on the orchestration of molecular behavior leading to reliable cellular responses that allow for regulation and adaptation. Ca(2+) signaling uses a hierarchical organization to transform single molecule behavior into cell wide signals. We have recently shown experimentally that this organization carries single channel signatures onto the whole cell level and renders Ca(2+) oscillations stochastic. Here, we briefly review the co-evolution of experimental and theoretical studies in Ca(2+) -signaling and show how dynamic bottom-up modeling can be used to address -biological questions and illuminate biological principles of cell signaling. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcium signals driven by single channel noise.
Skupin, Alexander UL; Kettenmann, Helmut; Falcke, Martin

in PLoS computational biology (2010), 6(8),

Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular ... [more ▼]

Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are sequences of random spikes despite the involvement of many molecules in spike generation. This randomness arises from the stochastic state transitions of individual Ca2+ release channels and does not average out due to the existence of steep concentration gradients. The system is hierarchical due to the structural levels channel--channel cluster--cell and a corresponding strength of coupling. Concentration gradients introduce microdomains which couple channels of a cluster strongly. But they couple clusters only weakly; too weak to establish deterministic behavior on cell level. Here, we present a multi-scale modelling concept for stochastic hierarchical systems. It simulates active molecules individually as Markov chains and their coupling by deterministic diffusion. Thus, we are able to follow the consequences of random single molecule state changes up to the signal on cell level. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simulate a variety of experiments. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data of spontaneous oscillations in astrocytes emphasize the role of spatial concentration gradients in Ca2+ signalling. Analysis of extensive simulations indicates that frequency encoding described by the relation between average and standard deviation of interspike intervals is surprisingly robust. This robustness is a property of the random spiking mechanism and not a result of control. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcium transport in cardiovascular health and disease--the sarcolemmal calcium pump enters the stage.
Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Schuh, Kai; Neyses, Ludwig UL

in Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology (2005), 39(3), 403-6

Calcium is known to be one of the most important ionic regulators of the heart, where it has a crucial role in contraction-relaxation. Within a single beat of the cardiomyocyte there is a 100-fold ... [more ▼]

Calcium is known to be one of the most important ionic regulators of the heart, where it has a crucial role in contraction-relaxation. Within a single beat of the cardiomyocyte there is a 100-fold increase in the cytosolic free Ca(2+) level, this must be returned to its original concentration in order to maintain the normal physiological function of the cell. Two of the mechanisms involved in returning the Ca(2+) concentration back to resting levels are located at the sarcolemma; the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) and the sarcolemmal calcium pump. Compared to the NCX the sarcolemmal calcium pump extrudes significantly less calcium from the cardiomyocyte and has long been thought to be involved in the maintenance of low diastolic calcium levels. This review will outline recent evidence suggesting that the sarcolemmal calcium pump may in fact play a key role in signal transduction in the cardiovascular system. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCalcium transport systems in pressure overload cardiomyopathy
Neyses, Ludwig UL

in Timio, M; Wizemann, V; Venanzi, S (Eds.) Cardionephrology (1995)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (0 UL)
See detailLe calcul mental à l'école élémentaire : Les bases du calcul nécessaires à l'apprentissage des mathématiques
Gamo, Sylvie UL; Djament, Daniel

Book published by Hachette - Hachette édication (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (3 UL)