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See detailThe WHO-5 Well-Being Index – Testing measurement invariance across 33 countries
Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 15)

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points ... [more ▼]

In recent years, several studies have stressed out the importance to guarantee the comparability of theoretical constructs (i.e. measurement invariance) in the compared units (e.g., groups or time points) in order to conduct comparative analyses (e.g. Harkness, Van de Vijver, & Mohler, 2003; Meredith, 1993; Vandenberg, & Lance, 2000). If one does not test for measurement invariance (MI) or ignores lack of invariance, differences between groups in the latent constructs cannot be unambiguously attributed to ‘real’ differences or to differences in the measurement attributes. The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief standard measure in cross-cultural large-scale clinical studies (Topp, Østergaard, Søndergaard, & Bech, 2015). However, MI as a prerequisite for cross-country comparisons remains untested to date. We performed multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) and the alignment method (Asparouhov & Muthén, 2014) to test the WHO-5 for MI across 33 countries and for cross-time MI over five years. Analyses were based on data of the 2010 and 2015 waves from the European Working Condition survey (EWCS). The EWCS collected data via computer-aided personal interviews in a sample of 41,870 employees and self-employed individuals (wave 2010; wave 2015: 41,290) from the EU28 countries as well as Norway, Switzerland, Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey. MGCFA indicated metric MI and lack of scalar MI of the WHO-5. The alignment method revealed several non-invariant parameters across countries. We estimated latent mean differences between countries with the scalar and the alignment method. The results corroborate the need to use latent variable modeling and to account for non-invariant parameters when mean levels are of concern. Furthermore, the poor performance of some items in some countries has to be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailThe WHO-5 Well-Being Index – Validation based on item response theory and the analysis of measurement invariance across 35 countries.
Sischka, Philipp UL; Pinto Coelho da Costa, Andreia UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders Reports (2020)

Background: The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief standard measure in large-scale cross-cultural clinical studies. Despite its frequent use, some ... [more ▼]

Background: The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief standard measure in large-scale cross-cultural clinical studies. Despite its frequent use, some psychometric questions remain that concern the choice of an adequate item response theory (IRT) model, the evaluation of reliability at important cutoffpoints, and most importantly the assessment of measurement invariance across countries. Methods: Data from the 6th European Working Condition survey (2015) were used that collected nationally representative samples of employed and self-employed individuals ( N = 43,469) via computer-aided personal interviews across 35 European countries. An in-depth IRT analysis was conducted for each country, testing different IRT assumptions (e.g., unidimensionality), comparing different IRT-models, and calculating reliabilities. Furthermore, measurement invariance analysis was conducted with the recently proposed alignment procedure. Results: The graded response model fitted the data best for all countries. Furthermore, IRT assumptions were mostly fulfilled. The WHO-5 showed overall and at critical points high reliability. Measurement invariance analysis revealed metric invariance but discarded scalar invariance across countries. Analysis of the test characteristic curves of the aligned graded response model indicated low levels of differential test functioning at medium levels of the WHO-5, but differential test functioning increased at more extreme levels. Limitations: The current study has no external criterion (e.g., structured clinical interviews) to assess sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5 as a depression screening-tool. Conclusions: The WHO-5 is a psychometrically sound measure. However, large-scale cross-cultural studies should employ a latent variable modeling approach that accounts for non-invariant parameters across countries (e.g., alignment). [less ▲]

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See detailWhole genome mapping of 5' ends in bacteria by tagged sequencing: A comprehensive view in Enterococcus faecalis
Innocenti, Nicolas; Golumbeanu, Monica; Fouquier d'Hérouël, Aymeric UL et al

in RNA (New York, N.Y.) (2015), 21(5), 1018-1030

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See detailWHOQoL Psychological and employability skills among students at the universities of Luxembourg and Liege (Belgium).
Pelt, Véronique UL; Guillaume, J. F.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2009), 26

To analyse the relationships between a psychological quality of life and employability skills among first-year students of social sciences at the universities of Luxembourg and Belgium. Method. 84 ... [more ▼]

To analyse the relationships between a psychological quality of life and employability skills among first-year students of social sciences at the universities of Luxembourg and Belgium. Method. 84 students initially registered at bachelor professional (Faculty LSHASE), and 91 at bachelor academic (Institut SHS Liege) completed questionnaires. Results Scores for psychological WHOQoL (74.3 vs 63.9 Liege) and environmental WHOQoL (73.3 vs 68.4) were better among the Luxembourg students, as was the score for employability skills (73.0 vs 68.3) than ISHS Belgium. Psychological WHOQoL score was correlated with perceived health, scores for social relationships and environmental WHOQol domains, and employability skills score (with the exceptions of the father’s professional status in Luxembourg and students age in Belgium). Effect between psychological WHOQoL and employability skills was only observed among Luxembourg students. Conclusion Good mental health is a key factor of possession of employability skills in Luxembourg where students are older and their studies are professional dies. [less ▲]

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See detailWhose Decisions, Whose Livelihoods? Resettlement and Environmental Justice in Ethiopia
Wayessa, Gutu Olana UL; Nygren, Anja

in Society and Natural Resources (2015), 29(4), 387-402

This article analyzes recent state-implemented resettlement schemes in Oromia, Ethiopia, by examining the experiences and outcomes of resettlement from the perspective of both the resettlers and hosts ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes recent state-implemented resettlement schemes in Oromia, Ethiopia, by examining the experiences and outcomes of resettlement from the perspective of both the resettlers and hosts. Besides involving transformations in people’s access to resources and the ability to earn their livelihoods, resettlement invites deep-seated questions of governance and justice. Drawing on theoretical approaches of political ecology and environmental justice, we analyse the processes and outcomes of resettlement in terms of four interlinked dimensions, including resource (re)distribution, cultural recognition, political representation, and social recovery. Special attention is paid to the questions of who decides for whom, and who lives the consequences. The analysis is based on a mixed-methods approach, involving a combination of qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey. We conclude that both the resettlers and the hosts experienced uneven redistribution of resources and unfair forms of recognition and political representation, which in tandem limited their possibilities for social recovery. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 186 (7 UL)
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See detailWhose law for sharing research tools?
Balling, Rudi UL

in Nature (1998), 396(6711), 509

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See detailWhy 21st century children need to excel at problem solving
Greiff, Samuel UL; Müller, Jonas UL

Article for general public (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 1414 (2 UL)
See detailWhy always me? (Says the European Union). Il referendum svizzero sull'immigrazione, le relazioni con l'UE e le ricadute sull'economia
Zaccaroni, Giovanni UL

in Quaderni della Società Italiana di Diritto Internazionale (2014), I

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (0 UL)
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See detailThe why and the how of studying Hybrid Learning
Burton, Réginald UL; Mancuso, Giovanna UL

in Learning and Instruction (n.d.)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (5 UL)
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See detailWhy are difficult figural matrices hard to solve? The role of selective encoding and working memory capacity
Krieger, Florian UL; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Intelligence (2019), 72

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically ... [more ▼]

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically managed sub-goals (goal management), which requires more working memory capacity (WMC). The current research addresses the necessity to apply selective encoding as a requirement that goes beyond the ability to manage goals when solving figural matrices. In the first study (N = 38), we found that selective encoding demands are present in items with multiple rules in addition to goal management demands. Furthermore, eye movement data indicated that rule induction was hampered when selective encoding demands were present. The second study (N = 127) de-monstrated that individuals' ability to filter relevant features in working memory was positively related to figural matrices items with selective encoding demands. Moreover, there was no evidence that other sources of WMC are related to goal management in figural matrices. Hence, this study provides preliminary evidence that fil-tering of relevant information in working memory is critical for solving figural matrices with multiple rules and challenges the view that goal management is the only driver of the relationship between WMC and performance in solving figural matrices with multiple rules. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are Higher Education Participation Rates in Germany so Low? Institutional Barriers to Higher Education Expansion
Powell, Justin J W UL; Solga, Heike

in Journal of Education & Work (2011), 24(1), 49-68

Countries around the world have witnessed educational expansion at all levels, leading to the massification of tertiary education and training. Tertiary education has become a major factor of economic ... [more ▼]

Countries around the world have witnessed educational expansion at all levels, leading to the massification of tertiary education and training. Tertiary education has become a major factor of economic competitiveness in an increasingly science‐based global economy and a key response to shifts in national labour markets. Within the EU, the reform of skill formation systems has been advanced by the Lisbon strategy, with the Bologna and Copenhagen processes in higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET) articulating and diffusing overarching goals in European skill formation. If European benchmarks call for at least 40% of all 30‐ to 34‐year‐olds to hold a tertiary‐level certificate, Germany exhibits a relatively low proportion of each cohort entering HE and attaining that qualification level (28%). We analyse this ‘German exceptionalism’, locating a range of factors in the educational system: the institutional logic of segregation, the structure of secondary schooling, the division or schism between the organisational fields of VET and HE, and limited permeability throughout. Regardless of isomorphic pressures that led Germany to quickly implement undergraduate bachelor's (BA) and graduate master's (MA) courses of study, these factors limit the extent of HE expansion visible among other European countries. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are kesterite solar cells not 20% efficient?
Siebentritt, Susanne UL

in Thin Solid Films (2013)

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See detailWhy are male students less likely to opt for social science courses? A theory-driven analysis
Haunberger, Sigrid; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Social Work (2020), early online

In this article, we discuss the question of why only a few men decide to study social science courses such as social work. While the conceptual base of our analysis includes the theory of planned ... [more ▼]

In this article, we discuss the question of why only a few men decide to study social science courses such as social work. While the conceptual base of our analysis includes the theory of planned behaviour and theories centring on gender role orientations, the empirical base is a random cluster sample of high-school graduates in Switzerland. The results show different gender effects, as well as direct and indirect effects, for all the theory of planned behaviour factors. Gender role orientations and the question of how a social science profession fits one’s own gender identity appear to be of particular importance only among male students. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are you Silent? - Towards Responsiveness in Chatbots
Danilava, Sviatlana UL; Busemann, Stephan; Schommer, Christoph UL et al

in Avec le Temps! Time, Tempo, and Turns in Human-Computer Interaction". Workshop at CHI 2013, Paris, France (2013)

In this position paper we consider temporal phenomena in interaction with text-based conversational agents. In particular, we focus on two dimensions of time in instant messaging dialogues: responsiveness ... [more ▼]

In this position paper we consider temporal phenomena in interaction with text-based conversational agents. In particular, we focus on two dimensions of time in instant messaging dialogues: responsiveness as a measure for interaction placed in time, and interaction management performed by interaction participants caused by partner's exceeding of the maximum expected responsiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Be Afraid of Identity?
Parent, Xavier UL

in Logic Programs, Norms and Action (2012)

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See detailWhy Challenge the Ivory Tower? New Evidence on the Basicness of Academic Patents
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Kyklos : internationale Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaften (2009)

While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protectmore basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides ... [more ▼]

While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protectmore basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides new evidence on the basicness of academic patents using German professor patents linked to patent opposition data from the European Patent Office (EPO). Patent oppositions are the most important mechanism by which the validity of patents filed at the EPO can be challenged. Controlling for patent value, asymmetric information and diverging expectations between the opposition parties, the likelihood of a potentially litigious situation and the relative costs of opposition versus settlement, we find that academic patents are opposed less frequently than a control group of corporate patents.This suggests that academic patents cover rather basic inventions with a low immediate commercial value not threatening current returns of potential plaintiffs. The effect is weaker for academic patents filed in collaboration with the business sector, which suggests that those patents are evaluated as more applied by owners of potentially rival technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Dewey now?
Biesta, Gert UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Historiographie (2001), 7(2), 71-75

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 UL)
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See detailWhy do central bank intervene secretly? Preliminary evidence from the BoJ
Beine, Michel UL; Bernal, Oscar

in Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions & Money (2006), 17(3), 291-306

This paper empirically investigates the main determinants of secret interventions in the foreign exchange (FX) market. Using the recent experience of the Bank of Japan, we estimate a model that explains ... [more ▼]

This paper empirically investigates the main determinants of secret interventions in the foreign exchange (FX) market. Using the recent experience of the Bank of Japan, we estimate a model that explains the share of secret to reported interventions in the FX market. Two sets of determinants are clearly identified: the first is related to the probability of detection of the central bank orders by market participants; the second to the central bank’s internal decision to opt for secrecy. Our estimations support the arguments of current microstructure theories that rationalize the use of secret interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries.
Kovas, Y.; Garon-Carrier, G.; Boivin, M. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2015), 80

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 UL)