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See detailSearching for Human Rights Norms for Corporate Conduct in Domestic Jurisprudence: A Bottom-Up Approach to International Law
Baglayan, Basak UL

in Nordic Journal of Human Rights (2018)

The application of human rights norms to the behaviour of corporations has challenged legal scholars for a long time. With few notable exceptions, studies dealing with the question have relied on ... [more ▼]

The application of human rights norms to the behaviour of corporations has challenged legal scholars for a long time. With few notable exceptions, studies dealing with the question have relied on interpretations of existing international instruments, not least decisions of human rights treaty bodies. The present article proposes an alternative approach referred to as a ‘bottom-up’ methodology: a pluralist and inductive approach to international law. It focuses on the human rights claims brought by individuals or local communities affected by corporate activity who seek redress through existing complaints mechanisms including domestic courts and the OECD National Contact Points. The assumption is that through their interpretation and application of international norms in their particular national context, these institutions act to clarify the ambit of corporate human rights obligations. The article asks: Which substantive human rights norms do domestic institutions apply to corporations? From which sources do they derive these norms? What is the underlying theory of responsibility? [less ▲]

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See detailSearching for materials with high refractive index and wide band gap: A first-principles high-throughput study
Naccarato, Francesco; Ricci, Francesco; Suntivich, Jin et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS (2019), 3(4), 044602-12

Materials combining both a high refractive index and a wide band gap are of great interest for optoelectronic and sensor applications. However, these two properties are typically described by an inverse ... [more ▼]

Materials combining both a high refractive index and a wide band gap are of great interest for optoelectronic and sensor applications. However, these two properties are typically described by an inverse correlation with high refractive index appearing in small gap materials and vice versa. Here, we conduct a first-principles high-throughput study on more than 4000 semiconductors (with a special focus on oxides). Our data confirm the general inverse trend between refractive index and band gap but interesting outliers are also identified. The data are then analyzed through a simple model involving two main descriptors: the average optical gap and the effective frequency. The former can be determined directly from the electronic structure of the compounds, but the latter cannot. This calls for further analysis in order to obtain a predictive model. Nonetheless, it turns out that the negative effect of a large band gap on the refractive index can be counterbalanced in two ways: (i) by limiting the difference between the direct band gap and the average optical gap which can be realized by a narrow distribution in energy of the optical transitions and (ii) by increasing the effective frequency which can be achieved through either a high number of transitions from the top of the valence band to the bottom of the conduction band or a high average probability for these transitions. Focusing on oxides, we use our data to investigate how the chemistry influences this inverse relationship and rationalize why certain classes of materials would perform better. Our findings can be used to search for new compounds in many optical applications both in the linear and nonlinear regime (waveguides, optical modulators, laser, frequency converter, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal asymmetric persistence in volatility: an extension of GARCH models
Terraza, Virginie UL

in Wessex Institute of Technology (Ed.) Computational Finance and its Applications (2004)

In this paper, we study non-linear dynamics in the CAC 40 stock index. Our empirical results, suggest combining seasonality, persistence and asymmetric effects to model the conditional volatility. We ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study non-linear dynamics in the CAC 40 stock index. Our empirical results, suggest combining seasonality, persistence and asymmetric effects to model the conditional volatility. We observe that seasonality can have an asymmetric impact on the volatility. In particular, we show that negative shocks observed on Mondays have a greater impact on the volatility than the other days. Then we construct a seasonal asymmetric GARCH model. It consists to add seasonal terms in the variance equation of a GJR-GARCH (1,1) model. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal effect on vertical positioning by Satellite Laser Ranging and GPS on Absolute Gravity at the OCA geodetic station, Grasse, France
Nicolas, Joëlle; Nocquet, J.-M.; Van Camp, M. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2006), 167(3), 1127-1137

We present a comparison of the vertical displacement monitored by independent techniques at the geodetic observatory of Grasse (France). Both Satellite Laser Ranging and Global Positioning System (GPS ... [more ▼]

We present a comparison of the vertical displacement monitored by independent techniques at the geodetic observatory of Grasse (France). Both Satellite Laser Ranging and Global Positioning System (GPS) vertical position time-series over the period 1998–2003 show a prominent annual signal with a magnitude of 5–6 mm and reaching a maximum every year in July. Results from 14 absolute gravity measurements are also discussed. We investigate the possible origin of the observed signal by comparing it with predictions from various local and regional contributions. GPS results from a local network indicate that the periodic annual elastic deformation of the ∼1270 m high karstic plateau due to local water storage loading does not exceed 1–2 mm. In contrast, a combination of global model prediction for atmospheric and hydrological loading explains more than 70 per cent of the annual and semi-annual observed signals. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal low-degree changes in terrestrial water mass load from global GNSS measurements
Meyrath, Thierry UL; van Dam, Tonie UL; Collilieux, Xavier et al

in Journal of Geodesy (2017), 91(11), 1329-1350

Large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial water storage (TWS) leads to changes in the low-degree spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's surface mass density field. Studying these low ... [more ▼]

Large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial water storage (TWS) leads to changes in the low-degree spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's surface mass density field. Studying these low-degree fluctuations is an important task that contributes to our understanding of continental hydrology. In this study, we use global GNSS measurements of vertical and horizontal crustal displacements that we correct for atmospheric and oceanic effects, and use a set of modified basis functions similar to Clarke et al. (2007) to perform an inversion of the corrected measurements in order to recover changes in the coefficients of degree-0 (hydrological mass change), degree-1 (center of mass shift) and degree-2 (flattening of the Earth) caused by variations in the TWS over the period January 2003 - January 2015. We infer from the GNSS-derived degree-0 estimate an annual variation in total continental water mass with an amplitude of $(3.49 \pm 0.19) \times 10^{3}$ Gt and a phase of $70 \pm 3^{\circ}$ (implying a peak in early March), in excellent agreement with corresponding values derived from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) water storage model that amount to $(3.39 \pm 0.10) \times 10^{3}$ Gt and $71 \pm 2^{\circ}$, respectively. The degree-1 coefficients we recover from GNSS predict annual geocentre motion (i.e. the offset change between the center of common mass and the center of figure) caused by changes in TWS with amplitudes of $0.69 \pm 0.07$ mm for GX, $1.31 \pm 0.08$ mm for GY and $2.60 \pm 0.13$ mm for GZ. These values agree with GLDAS and estimates obtained from the combination of GRACE and the output of an ocean model using the approach of Swenson et al. (2008) at the level of about 0.5, 0.3 and 0.9 mm for GX, GY and GZ, respectively. Corresponding degree-1 coefficients from SLR, however, generally show higher variability and predict larger amplitudes for GX and GZ. The results we obtain for the degree-2 coefficients from GNSS are slightly mixed, and the level of agreement with the other sources heavily depends on the individual coefficient being investigated. The best agreement is observed for $T_{20}^C$ and $T_{22}^S$, which contain the most prominent annual signals among the degree-2 coefficients, with amplitudes amounting to $(5.47 \pm 0.44) \times 10^{-3}$ and $(4.52 \pm 0.31) \times 10^{-3}$ m of equivalent water height (EWH), respectively, as inferred from GNSS. Corresponding agreement with values from SLR and GRACE is at the level of or better than $0.4 \times 10^{-3}$ and $0.9 \times 10^{-3}$ m of EWH for $T_{20}^C$ and $T_{22}^S$, respectively, while for both coefficients, GLDAS predicts smaller amplitudes. Somewhat lower agreement is obtained for the order-1 coefficients, $T_{21}^C$ and $T_{21}^S$, while our GNSS inversion seems unable to reliably recover $T_{22}^C$. For all the coefficients we consider, the GNSS-derived estimates from the modified inversion approach are more consistent with the solutions from the other sources than corresponding estimates obtained from an unconstrained standard inversion. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal Motion in the Annapolis, Maryland GPS Monument
Schenewerk, M.; van Dam, Tonie UL; Nerem, Steven R.

in GPS Solutions (1999), 2(3), 41-49

The permanent GPS tracking site at Annapolis, MD shows a 7-mm seasonal signal primarily in its horizontal position. It is suggested that thermal expansion of the pier on which the antenna rests is the ... [more ▼]

The permanent GPS tracking site at Annapolis, MD shows a 7-mm seasonal signal primarily in its horizontal position. It is suggested that thermal expansion of the pier on which the antenna rests is the source of this motion. A simple numerical model of the pier reproduces the observed motion of the GPS antenna, lending credence to this hypothesis. Although adding an additional level of complexity, this motion is predictable and the site retains it s value for high precision monitoring. Although the arrangement of this GPS site it somewhat uncommon, these results emphasize the importance of the underlying antenna monumentation when measuring crustal motions. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variation in month of diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes registered in 23 European centers during 1989-2008: little short-term influence of sunshine hours or average temperature
Patterson, C.; Gyürüs, E.; Rosenbauer, J. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2015), 16(8), 573-580

BACKGROUND: The month of diagnosis in childhood type 1 diabetes shows seasonal variation. OBJECTIVE: We describe the pattern and investigate if year-to-year irregularities are associated with ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The month of diagnosis in childhood type 1 diabetes shows seasonal variation. OBJECTIVE: We describe the pattern and investigate if year-to-year irregularities are associated with meteorological factors using data from 50 000 children diagnosed under the age of 15 yr in 23 population-based European registries during 1989-2008. METHODS: Tests for seasonal variation in monthly counts aggregated over the 20 yr period were performed. Time series regression was used to investigate if sunshine hour and average temperature data were predictive of the 240 monthly diagnosis counts after taking account of seasonality and long term trends. RESULTS: Significant sinusoidal pattern was evident in all but two small centers with peaks in November to February and relative amplitudes ranging from ± 11 to ± 38% (median ± 17%). However, most centers showed significant departures from a sinusoidal pattern. Pooling results over centers, there was significant seasonal variation in each age-group at diagnosis, with least seasonal variation in those under 5 yr. Boys showed greater seasonal variation than girls, particularly those aged 10-14 yr. There were no differences in seasonal pattern between four 5-yr sub-periods. Departures from the sinusoidal trend in monthly diagnoses in the period were significantly associated with deviations from the norm in average temperature (0.8% reduction in diagnoses per 1 °C excess) but not with sunshine hours. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonality was consistently apparent throughout the period in all age-groups and both sexes, but girls and the under 5 s showed less marked variation. Neither sunshine hour nor average temperature data contributed in any substantial way to explaining departures from the sinusoidal pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal Variations of Low-degree Spherical Harmonics Derived from GPS Data and Loading Models
Wei, Na UL; van Dam, Tonie UL; Weigelt, Matthias UL et al

Scientific Conference (2014, September 30)

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See detailSeasonality of birth in patients with childhood type 1 diabetes in nineteen European regions
McKinney, P.A.; De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 67-74

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Differences in seasonality of birth patterns between the general population and the group who develop Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus indicate that environmental factors ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Differences in seasonality of birth patterns between the general population and the group who develop Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus indicate that environmental factors operating around the antenatal and perinatal period could be important. We investigated whether the same unsual patterns in seasonality of birth observed in children with Type I diabetes in Great Britain could also be found in other European populations. METHODS: Population-based incidence cohorts of children diagnosed with Type I diabetes under 15 years of age from 1989 onwards were analysed. Previously reported data sets from Great Britain were also included together with data on children diagnosed over an additional 5 year period (1988-1992). To assess the role of seasonality in diabetes, we used the method of Walter and Elwood to examine monthly birth figures for each country or region. RESULTS: Outside of Great Britain, no seasonality of birth was seen for any single or combination of European countries. Significant sinusoidal patterns were observed in Scotland, Yorkshire and Leicester, although the peak for Leicester appeared around autumn rather than spring. There was little evidence that sex or age at diagnosis played a part in differences in seasonal patterns, either overall or for any individual country. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found no uniform seasonal pattern of birth in childhood diabetes patients across European populations, either overall or according to sex and age. This study provides no consistent evidence that environmental factors, which vary from season to season, have any influence on the fetal or neonatal life to determine the onset of Type I diabetes. However, a study of seasonality that takes into account possible changes both over time and over geographical areas could provide more insights. [less ▲]

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See detailSEBV – Skala zur Erfassung des Bewältigungsverhaltens (Fragebogen zur Krankheitsverarbeitung; WOC). Test Info.
Ferring, Dieter UL; Filipp, Sigrun-Heide

in Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie (1989), 10(4)

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See detailSECAT: Quantifying Protein Complex Dynamics across Cell States by Network-Centric Analysis of SEC-SWATH-MS Profiles.
Rosenberger, George; Heusel, Moritz; Bludau, Isabell et al

in Cell systems (2020), 11(6), 589-6078

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play critical functional and regulatory roles in cellular processes. They are essential for macromolecular complex formation, which in turn constitutes the basis for ... [more ▼]

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play critical functional and regulatory roles in cellular processes. They are essential for macromolecular complex formation, which in turn constitutes the basis for protein interaction networks that determine the functional state of a cell. We and others have previously shown that chromatographic fractionation of native protein complexes in combination with bottom-up mass spectrometric analysis of consecutive fractions supports the multiplexed characterization and detection of state-specific changes of protein complexes. In this study, we extend co-fractionation and mass spectrometric data analysis to perform quantitative, network-based studies of proteome organization, via the size-exclusion chromatography algorithmic toolkit (SECAT). This framework explicitly accounts for the dynamic nature and rewiring of protein complexes across multiple cell states and samples, thus, elucidating molecular mechanisms that are differentially implemented across different experimental settings. Systematic analysis of multiple datasets shows that SECAT represents a highly scalable and effective methodology to assess condition/state-specific protein-network state. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information. [less ▲]

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See detailSecessionism and Minority Protection in an Uncertain World
Anesi, Vincent UL

in Journal of Public Economics (2012), 1-2

With the changing political and economic circumstances confronting their countries, regionally concentrated minorities have been facing a strategic problem, important aspects of which can be stylized as a ... [more ▼]

With the changing political and economic circumstances confronting their countries, regionally concentrated minorities have been facing a strategic problem, important aspects of which can be stylized as a situation in which a minority leader is uncertain about the costs of secession for her community. This paper shows that this uncertainty is a central cause of secession, using a model which incorporates both policies to appease secessionist aspirations and informational asymmetries. In a situation of asymmetric information, in which the policy-maker is better informed about the consequences of separation than the minority leader, signaling incentives make secession the unique equilibrium outcome, whether mutually advantageous compromises exist or not. We also show that the ruling majority may seek to maintain political unity by pre-committing to minority protection rules which prevent bluffing by the informed policy-maker. Additionally, the model generates comparative statics results on the question of which states are most likely to adopt constitutional rules protecting the minorities living within their borders. [less ▲]

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See detailSecommunity: A Framework for Distributed Access Control
Barker, Steve; Genovese, Valerio UL

in Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning (2011)

We describe an approach for distributed access control policies that is based on a nonmonotonic semantics and the use of logic programming for policy specification and the evaluation of access requests ... [more ▼]

We describe an approach for distributed access control policies that is based on a nonmonotonic semantics and the use of logic programming for policy specification and the evaluation of access requests. Our approach allows assertions of relevance to access control to be made by individual agents or on a community-based level and different strengths of testimonial warrant may be distinguished by using various logical operators. We describe a form of ASP that allows for remote access request evaluation and we discuss a DLV-based implementation of our approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase in Arabidopsis en route to vitamin C covalent intermediate and substrate requirements for the conserved reaction
Linster, Carole UL; Adler, Lital N.; Webb, Kristofor et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(27), 18483-92

The Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to plant ... [more ▼]

The Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to plant vitamin C synthesis. Mutations in VTC2 had previously been found to lead to only partial vitamin C deficiency. Here we show that the Arabidopsis gene At5g55120 encodes an enzyme with high sequence identity to VTC2. Designated VTC5, this enzyme displays substrate specificity and enzymatic properties that are remarkably similar to those of VTC2, suggesting that it may be responsible for residual vitamin C synthesis in vtc2 mutants. The exact nature of the reaction catalyzed by VTC2/VTC5 is controversial because of reports that kiwifruit and Arabidopsis VTC2 utilize hexose 1-phosphates as phosphorolytic acceptor substrates. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and a VTC2-H238N mutant, we provide evidence that the reaction proceeds through a covalent guanylylated histidine residue within the histidine triad motif. Moreover, we show that both the Arabidopsis VTC2 and VTC5 enzymes catalyze simple phosphorolysis of the guanylylated enzyme, forming GDP and L-galactose 1-phosphate from GDP-L-galactose and phosphate, with poor reactivity of hexose 1-phosphates as phosphorolytic acceptors. Indeed, the endogenous activities from Japanese mustard spinach, lemon, and spinach have the same substrate requirements. These results show that Arabidopsis VTC2 and VTC5 proteins and their homologs in other plants are enzymes that guanylylate a conserved active site His residue with GDP-L-galactose, forming L-galactose 1-phosphate for vitamin C synthesis, and regenerate the enzyme with phosphate to form GDP. [less ▲]

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See detailSecond issue
During, Marten UL; Rollinger, Christian; Stark, Martin et al

in Journal of Historical Network Research (2018)

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See detailSecond language learners’ self-initiated topic changes during book-related activities in preschool and their impact on Luxembourgish proficiency
Wirtz, Delia UL

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The present research traces the second language learning process in Luxembourgish during book related activities by 4- to 5-year old pre-schoolers with Portuguese, Cap Verdean and Brazilian origins. With ... [more ▼]

The present research traces the second language learning process in Luxembourgish during book related activities by 4- to 5-year old pre-schoolers with Portuguese, Cap Verdean and Brazilian origins. With 47,2% of the preschool population being of foreign origins, the Lusophone community forms the largest group with 24,1%. This salient fast growing multilingual and multicultural population learns Luxembourgish for integration and everyday interaction and, hence, challenges public education with its diverse and altering demands. The present study enlarges second language research in the Luxembourgish context and links to previous investigation on topics, however, by taking a pragmatic stance towards topics. Through the foregrounding of the local topic management as well as its impact on activities, which are less teacher controlled, the study pictures second language learning as a product of co-constructed interaction. The focus lies on the negotiation of story meaning through self-initiated topic changes during three book related activities: Joint reading, storytelling and play. The data consists of video recorded lessons and on stimulated recall interviews with the teachers. A multi-method framework is used to investigate pupils’ interaction and language learning processes. From a quantitative point of view, the study analyses how pupils’ utterance length varies according to the openness of the lesson by allowing self-initiated topic changes as well as the design of the book activity (1) led by teachers or (2) by the pupils. From a qualitative stance, a sequence-by-sequence analysis of the jointly constructed narrative identifies the interactional dynamics of the collaborative storytelling activities and the use of self-initiated topic changes which children draw upon to express themselves more freely. The results show that children’s utterances vary according to the activity type. Pupils produce longer utterances, when they can self-initiate a topic hereby boosting their second language proficiency – either because the teacher is withdrawing or because the participation framework is open enough for them to make creative use of the language. The children also show their capability of successfully managing topic changes without the presence of the teacher while at the same time co-constructing the meaning of the story and paying attention to lexical details. The interviews reveal the teachers’ astonishment for the degree of pupil participation as well as their pedagogical practices. Implications from the analysis are gathered in a theoretical model that links opportunities for self-initiated topic changes to language proficiency. Recommendations for a more active pupil participation during book related activities point to sense-making, joint topic negotiation and story enactment. [less ▲]

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See detailSecond law and Landauer principle far from equilibrium
Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Van den Broeck, C.

in Epl (2011), 95(4),

The amount of work that is needed to change the state of a system in contact <br /><br />with a heat bath between specified initial and final nonequilibrium states is at least equal to the <br /><br ... [more ▼]

The amount of work that is needed to change the state of a system in contact <br /><br />with a heat bath between specified initial and final nonequilibrium states is at least equal to the <br /><br />corresponding equilibrium free energy difference plus (respectively, minus) temperature times the <br /><br />information of the final (respectively, the initial) state relative to the corresponding equilibrium <br /><br />distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailSecond Order Bismut formulae and applications to Neumann semigroups on manifolds
Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Wang, Feng-Yu

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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