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See detailSmall-angle neutron scattering study of coercivity enhancement in grain-boundary-diffused Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets
Périgo, E.A.; Titov, Ivan UL; Weber, R. et al

in Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2016), 677

Detailed reference viewed: 139 (2 UL)
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See detailSmall-angle Neutron Scattering with One-dimensional Polarization Analysis
Michels, Andreas UL; Honecker, Dirk UL; Döbrich, Frank UL et al

in Neutron News (2011), 22(3), 15-19

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (2 UL)
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See detailSmall-scale positioning using digital compasses
Popleteev, Andrei UL; Arshadaghghaleh, Hossein UL; Lutkovski, Vladimir

in International Congress on Computer Science: Information Systems and Technologies (CSIST-2016) (2016, October 25)

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (0 UL)
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See detailSmall-world network approach to identify key residues in protein-protein interaction.
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL; O'Meara, Paul

in Proteins (2005), 58(3), 672-82

We show that protein complexes can be represented as small-world networks, exhibiting a relatively small number of highly central amino-acid residues occurring frequently at protein-protein interfaces. We ... [more ▼]

We show that protein complexes can be represented as small-world networks, exhibiting a relatively small number of highly central amino-acid residues occurring frequently at protein-protein interfaces. We further base our analysis on a set of different biological examples of protein-protein interactions with experimentally validated hot spots, and show that 83% of these predicted highly central residues, which are conserved in sequence alignments and nonexposed to the solvent in the protein complex, correspond to or are in direct contact with an experimentally annotated hot spot. The remaining 17% show a general tendency to be close to an annotated hot spot. On the other hand, although there is no available experimental information on their contribution to the binding free energy, detailed analysis of their properties shows that they are good candidates for being hot spots. Thus, highly central residues have a clear tendency to be located in regions that include hot spots. We also show that some of the central residues in the protein complex interfaces are central in the monomeric structures before dimerization and that possible information relating to hot spots of binding free energy could be obtained from the unbound structures. [less ▲]

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See detailSmallholder Farmers’ Adaptations of Agroecology in the Context of Livelihood Asset-Deprivation: Social and Ecological Consequences in Bilanga, Burkina Faso
Kapgen, Diane UL; Roudart, Laurence

in Tielkes, Eric (Ed.) Tropentag 2017: Future Agriculture: Social-ecological transitions and bio-cultural shifts (2017)

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See detailSmart Bound Selection for the Verification of UML/OCL Class Diagrams
Clarisó, Robert; Gonzalez Perez, Carlos Alberto UL; Cabot, Jordi

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

Correctness of UML class diagrams annotated with OCL constraints can be checked using bounded verification techniques, e.g., SAT or constraint programming (CP) solvers. Bounded verification detects faults ... [more ▼]

Correctness of UML class diagrams annotated with OCL constraints can be checked using bounded verification techniques, e.g., SAT or constraint programming (CP) solvers. Bounded verification detects faults efficiently but, on the other hand, the absence of faults does not guarantee a correct behavior outside the bounded domain. Hence, choosing suitable bounds is a non-trivial process as there is a trade-off between the verification time (faster for smaller domains) and the confidence in the result (better for larger domains). Unfortunately, bounded verification tools provide little support in the bound selection process. In this paper, we present a technique that can be used to (i) automatically infer verification bounds whenever possible, (ii) tighten a set of bounds proposed by the user and (iii) guide the user in the bound selection process. This approach may increase the usability of UML/OCL bounded verification tools and improve the efficiency of the verification process. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 197 (33 UL)
See detailSmart Cities at Play: Technology and Emerging forms of playfulness
Papangelis, Konstantinos; Saker, Michael; Jones, Catherine UL

in Behaviour and Information Technology (2020), 39(6), 607-609

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See detailSmart Cities, ‚big politics‘ und die Privatisierung der urbanen Governance
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

Article for general public (2019)

Die Diskussion über Smart Cities hat in den letzten Jahren einen regelrechten Hype in Stadtpolitik, -forschung und -wirtschaft hervorgebracht. Die digitale Optimierung von Gebäuden, Quartieren oder ganzen ... [more ▼]

Die Diskussion über Smart Cities hat in den letzten Jahren einen regelrechten Hype in Stadtpolitik, -forschung und -wirtschaft hervorgebracht. Die digitale Optimierung von Gebäuden, Quartieren oder ganzen Stadträumen, so könnte man Smart Cities definieren, hat auch Luxemburg erfasst. Während das Wirtschaftsministerium die Vision einer intelligenten digitalen Spezialisierung verfolgt, präsentiert sich die Hauptstadt seit geraumer Zeit als Bühne der Smart City. Als Kontrast zu diesen Bildern analysieren wir ein prominentes Beispiel, das die Vision einer kontrollierten, technologisch und ökonomisch durchoptimierten Stadt vermittelt – Quayside, das Konversionsprojekt der Alphabet Inc. in Torontos Hafengebiet. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Cities: Selbstzweck oder zum Wohl der Städte?
Carr, Constance UL

Article for general public (2019)

Die Idee der intelligenten Stadt – „Smart City“ – hat in den letzten Jahren unsere Fantasie beflügelt. Viele glauben, dass hier die Zukunft der Stadt liege. Die digitale Optimierung von Gebäuden ... [more ▼]

Die Idee der intelligenten Stadt – „Smart City“ – hat in den letzten Jahren unsere Fantasie beflügelt. Viele glauben, dass hier die Zukunft der Stadt liege. Die digitale Optimierung von Gebäuden, Kommunikations- und Verkehrsinfrastruktur begeistert Politiker, Wirtschaftsführer und die breite Öffentlichkeit. Alle wollen smart sein – ohne dass man jeweils wüsste, was genau eine Smart City ist. Von Constance Carr* Dies hat einen gewissen Wettlauf der Innovationen ausgelöst, wobei die Entwicklungsgeschwindigkeit ein solches Tempo erreicht hat, dass der Appetit der Technologieindustrie und der Städte, hier mitzuspielen, unersättlich erscheint. Die Digitalisierung ist insofern ein wichtiger Aspekt der Stadtentwicklungspolitik weltweit. Luxemburg bildet hier keine Ausnahme und strebt eine führende Position in der digitalen Entwicklung an. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart cloud collocation: a unified workflow from CAD to enhanced solutions
Jacquemin, Thibault Augustin Marie UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Computer Aided Design (CAD) software packages are used in the industry to design mechanical systems. Then, calculations are often performed using simulation software packages to improve the quality of the ... [more ▼]

Computer Aided Design (CAD) software packages are used in the industry to design mechanical systems. Then, calculations are often performed using simulation software packages to improve the quality of the design. To speed up the development costs, companies and research centers have been trying to ease the integration of the computation phase in the design phase. The collocation methods have the potential of easing such integration thanks to their meshless nature. The geometry discretization step which is a key element of all computational method is simplified compared to mesh-based methods such as the finite element method. We propose in this thesis a unified workflow that allows the solution of engineering problems defined by partial differential equations (PDEs) directly from input CAD files. The scheme is based on point collocation methods and proposed techniques to enhance the solution. We introduce the idea of “smart clouds”. Smart clouds refer to point cloud discretizations that are aware of the exact CAD geometry, appropriate to solve a defined problem using a point collocation method and that contain information used to improve locally the solution. We introduce a unified node selection algorithm based on a generalization of the visibility criterion. The proposed algorithm leads to a significant reduction of the error for concave problems and does not have any drawback for convex problems. The point collocation methods rely on many parameters. We select in this thesis parameters for the Generalized Finite Difference (GFD) method and the Discretization-Corrected Particle Strength Exchange (DC PSE) method that we deem appropriate for most problems from the field of linear elasticity. We also show that solution improvement techniques, based on the use of Voronoi diagrams or on a stabilization of the PDE, do not lead to a reduction of the error for all of the considered benchmark problems. These methods shall therefore be used with care. We propose two types of a posteriori error indicators that both succeed in identifying the areas of the domain where the error is the greatest: a ZZ-type and a residual-type error indicator. We couple these indicators to a h-adaptive refinement scheme and show that the approach is effective. Finally, we show the performance of Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) preconditions on the solution of linear systems compared to other preconditioning/solution methods. This family of preconditioners necessitates the selection of a large number of parameters. We assess the impact of some of them on the solution time for a 3D problem from the field of linear elasticity. Despite the performance of AMG preconditions, ILU preconditioners may be preferred thanks to their ease of usage and robustness to lead to a convergence of the solution. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Electrical and Thermal Energy Supply for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings
Rafii-Tabrizi, Sasan UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The European Union (EU) intends to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95 % below 1990 levels by 2050. To achieve this goal, the EU focuses on higher energy efficiency mainly within the building ... [more ▼]

The European Union (EU) intends to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95 % below 1990 levels by 2050. To achieve this goal, the EU focuses on higher energy efficiency mainly within the building sector and a share of renewable energy sources (RES) of around 30 % in gross final energy consumption by 2030. In this context, the concept of nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) is both an emerging and relevant research area. Balancing energy consumption with on-site renewable energy production in a cost-effective manner requires to develop suitable energy management systems (EMS) using demandside management strategies. This thesis develops an EMS using certainty equivalent (CE) economic model predictive control (EMPC) to optimally operate the building energy system with respect to varying electricity prices. The proposed framework is a comprehensive mixed integer linear programming model that uses suitable linearised grey box models and purely data-driven model approaches to describe the system dynamics. For this purpose, a laboratory prototype is available, which is capable of covering most building-relevant types of energy, namely thermal and electrical energy. Thermal energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water is buffered in thermal energy storage systems. A dual source heat pump provides thermal energy for space heating and domestic hot water, whereas an underground ice storage covers space cooling. The environmental energy sources of the heat pump are ice storage or wind infrared sensitive collectors. The collectors are further used to regenerate the ice storage. Photovoltaic panels produce electrical energy which can be stored in a battery storage system. The electrical energy system is capable of selling and buying electricity from the public power grid. The laboratory test bench interacts with a virtual building model which is integrated into the building simulation software TRNSYS Simulation Studio. The EMS prototype is tested and validated on the basis of various simulations and under close to real-life laboratory conditions. The different test scenarios are generated using the typical day approach for each season. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Enforcement Strategies to Counter Environmental Crime in the EU
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Marletta, Angelo UL

in Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal (2016)

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See detailSmart polymer surfaces: mapping chemical landscapes on the nanometre scale
Filimon, Marlena UL; Kopf, Ilona; Erik, Bründermann et al

in Soft Matter (2010)

We show that Scattering Infrared Near-field Microscopy (SNIM) allows chemical mapping of polymer monolayers that can serve as designed nanostructured surfaces with specific surface chemistry properties on ... [more ▼]

We show that Scattering Infrared Near-field Microscopy (SNIM) allows chemical mapping of polymer monolayers that can serve as designed nanostructured surfaces with specific surface chemistry properties on a nm scale. Using s-SNIM a minimum volume of 100 nm × 100 nm × 15 nm is sufficient for a recording of a “chemical” IR signature which corresponds to an enhancement of at least four orders of magnitudes compared to conventional FT-IR microscopy. We could prove that even in cases where it is essentially difficult to distinguish between distinct polymer compositions based solely on topography, nanophase separated polymers can be clearly distinguished according to their characteristic near-field IR response. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Probabilistic Fingerprinting for Indoor Localization over Fog Computing Platforms
Sciarrone, Andrea; Fiandrino, Claudio UL; Bisio, Igor et al

in IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet), Pisa, Italy (2016, October)

Indoor navigation and localization are becoming fundamental services nowadays. WiFi-based solutions such as FingerPrinting (FP) are the most widely adopted techniques for positioning and provide better ... [more ▼]

Indoor navigation and localization are becoming fundamental services nowadays. WiFi-based solutions such as FingerPrinting (FP) are the most widely adopted techniques for positioning and provide better results if compared to other approaches. It requires to compare WiFi Received Signal Strength (RSS) with an pre-computed radio map called fingerprint. The recently proposed Smart Probabilistic FingerPrinting (P-FP) algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the traditional FP approach without any accuracy detriment. On the other hand, fog computing has emerged as a new promising paradigm in the recent years, which extends traditional mobile cloud computing capabilities towards the edge of the network and enables location- aware services. In this paper we propose to offload Smart P-FP computation over a fog platform exploiting a novel distributed algorithm. Performance evaluation validates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with the analysis of: i) the amount of power saved and ii) the efficiency of candidate selection process for offloading. Having 2 or more devices in the vicinity contributing to the computation makes offloading beneficial from a power standpoint. The offloading effectiveness increases with the number of devices willing to contribute and the amount of data to be transferred. Power savings can be as high as 80% if compared with local computation. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Retail Banking: Potentiale und Herausforderungen Künstlicher Intelligenz
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Rägo, Vadim et al

Report (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (1 UL)
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See detailSmart Scheduling (SMASCH): multi-appointment scheduling system for longitudinal clinical research studies.
Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL; Gawron, Piotr UL; Lebioda, Jacek UL et al

in JAMIA open (2022), 5(2), 038

OBJECTIVE: Facilitate the multi-appointment scheduling problems (MASPs) characteristic of longitudinal clinical research studies. Additional goals include: reducing management time, optimizing clinical ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Facilitate the multi-appointment scheduling problems (MASPs) characteristic of longitudinal clinical research studies. Additional goals include: reducing management time, optimizing clinical resources, and securing personally identifiable information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following a model view controller architecture, we developed a web-based tool written in Python 3. RESULTS: Smart Scheduling (SMASCH) system facilitates clinical research and integrated care programs in Luxembourg, providing features to better manage MASPs and speed up management tasks. It is available both as a Linux package and Docker image (https://smasch.pages.uni.lu). DISCUSSION: The long-term requirements of longitudinal clinical research studies justify the employment of flexible and well-maintained frameworks and libraries through an iterative software life-cycle suited to respond to rapidly changing scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: SMASCH is a free and open-source scheduling system for clinical studies able to satisfy recent data regulations providing features for better data accountability. Better scheduling systems can help optimize several metrics that ultimately affect the success of clinical studies. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Transition to Renewable Energies? City-Regional Collaboration in Greater Manchester
Faller, Fabian UL

Scientific Conference (2012, May 14)

Making the transition to renewable, low carbon forms of energy could be the defining question of our times. Especially for complex problems like energy supply the regional scale and new forms of control ... [more ▼]

Making the transition to renewable, low carbon forms of energy could be the defining question of our times. Especially for complex problems like energy supply the regional scale and new forms of control, coordination and cooperation - subsumed under the term regional governance - are widely discussed both in politics (e.g. G8 conferences, Climate Summits etc.) and academia. The turn from conventional to renewable energies is one major topic of discussion. For this process of change regional governance can be seen as the best way to initiate it With the help of a case study conducted in Greater Manchester, UK, the article concentrates on two points: (1) the development of regional governance arrangements in the light of a low-carbon agenda as mixture of path-dependent bottom-up and top-down approaches and (2) the impacts of specific constellations for regional energy development that include institutional rules, strategic behaviour of actors and strategic discourses. For the analysis of these aspects, the concept of Actor-Centred Institutionalism offers a framework to investigate the two most important dimensions: Institutions and Actors. Institutions build the framework for actors, their constellations and modes of interactions. Actors influence the constellation, which builds the ground for modes of interaction. Interactions lead to decisions, which, after implementation, modify the situation, in which actors work and that influence the actors. This circular correlation is reflected by Wiechmann’s model for strategy development analysis. Contexts of decisions, strategic discourses, and induced and autonomous strategic behaviours of actors are fundamental to his approach. Hence, within this model it is possible to analyse preconditions for the development of a strategy and deal with the question of its (attributed) importance. In the paper I analyse in a first step the evolution of a governance arrangement for energy: starting in the 1970s with the first intercommunal City Council, via the 1990s collaborations for economic development, regeneration and revitalisation policies, reactions to the IRA bomb attack of 1996 and the bid for Olympic Summer Games 2000, to the current institutionalisations of regional governance with a special focus on renewable energy under the umbrella of a Combined Authority. In a second step I will present findings from a qualitative research. There, I focus impacts of specific actor constellations and institutional environments for the regional energy strategy. Therefor, the analysis is threefold: firstly, institutional rules for the mutual work on a regional energy strategy, secondly, strategic behaviours of actors as “mirror” for impacts of the regional governance, and thirdly, the strategic discourse within the region are reflected. The article closes with lessons learned from the studied case. Even though historic circumstances have been very important factors, several elements for the development of an energy strategy in GM can be highlighted – with regard to contexts of strategic decision-making and the role of regional institutions, organisations and actors: • a mutual view on development problems; • a shared vision for the region; • a commonly developed regional strategy; • an awareness of the need for coordination and cooperation among different policy levels; • a clear structure for development issues and • systematic institutionalizations of and rules for, e.g., cooperation, negotiations, or monetary concerns. The paper shows that city-regional collaboration can accelerate renewable energies’ adoption and help to prepare its local implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart TV - Smarte Regulierung
Giurgiu, Andra UL; Metzdorf, Jenny UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Big Data & Co., Neue Herausforderungen für das Informationsrecht (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 170 (11 UL)