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See detailThe State in the European Union; The Passion of a Great Actor
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in European Politeia (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 92 (1 UL)
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See detailA state machine for database non-functional testing
Meira, Jorge Augusto UL; Almeida, Eduardo; Le Traon, Yves UL

Poster (2014)

Over the last decade, large amounts of concurrent transactions have been generated from different sources, such as, Internet-based systems, mobile applications, smart- homes and cars. High-throughput ... [more ▼]

Over the last decade, large amounts of concurrent transactions have been generated from different sources, such as, Internet-based systems, mobile applications, smart- homes and cars. High-throughput transaction processing is becoming commonplace, however there is no testing technique for validating non functional aspects of DBMS under transaction flooding workloads. In this paper we propose a database state machine to represent the states of DBMS when processing concurrent trans- actions. The state transitions are forced by increasing concurrency of the testing workload. Preliminary results show the effectiveness of our approach to drive the system among different performance states and to find related defects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 163 (2 UL)
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See detailThe State of Affairs in BGP Security: A Survey of Attacks and Defenses
Mitseva, Asya UL; Panchenko, Andriy UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Computer Communications (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 320 (7 UL)
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See detailState of the Art in der Verhaltensmedizin: Keynote-Beiträge der DGVM-Jahrestagung 2013 - Editorial
Vögele, Claus UL; Leplow, Bernd; Hillert, Andreas

in Verhaltenstherapie (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (1 UL)
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See detailState of the Art in Lightweight Symmetric Cryptography
Biryukov, Alex UL; Perrin, Léo Paul UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Lightweight cryptography has been one of the ``hot topics'' in symmetric cryptography in the recent years. A huge number of lightweight algorithms have been published, standardized and/or used in ... [more ▼]

Lightweight cryptography has been one of the ``hot topics'' in symmetric cryptography in the recent years. A huge number of lightweight algorithms have been published, standardized and/or used in commercial products. In this paper, we discuss the different implementation constraints that a ``lightweight'' algorithm is usually designed to satisfy. We also present an extensive survey of all lightweight symmetric primitives we are aware of. It covers designs from the academic community, from government agencies and proprietary algorithms which were reverse-engineered or leaked. Relevant national (\nist{}...) and international (\textsc{iso/iec}...) standards are listed. We then discuss some trends we identified in the design of lightweight algorithms, namely the designers' preference for \arx{}-based and bitsliced-S-Box-based designs and simple key schedules. Finally, we argue that lightweight cryptography is too large a field and that it should be split into two related but distinct areas: \emph{ultra-lightweight} and \emph{IoT} cryptography. The former deals only with the smallest of devices for which a lower security level may be justified by the very harsh design constraints. The latter corresponds to low-power embedded processors for which the \aes{} and modern hash function are costly but which have to provide a high level security due to their greater connectivity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 1914 (12 UL)
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See detailState Owned Firms: Private Debt, Cost Revelation and Welfare
Picard, Pierre M. UL; Rusli, Ridwan UL

E-print/Working paper (2012)

In this paper we study the role of private debt financing in disciplining a state owned firm operating for a government that incurs a cost of public financing. We show that debt contracts allow the ... [more ▼]

In this paper we study the role of private debt financing in disciplining a state owned firm operating for a government that incurs a cost of public financing. We show that debt contracts allow the government to avoid socially costly subsidies by letting unprofitable state- owned firms default. Debt is never used when the firm and government share the same information about the firm. By contrast, when the state-owned firm has private information, the government has an incentive to use debt to reduce the firm's information rents. We identify the conditions under which a positive debt level benefits governments. They depend on the cost of public funds, the interbank funding rate, the share of foreign investors, the level and uncertainty of the firm's cost. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (7 UL)
See detailState owned firms: private debt, cost revelation and welfare
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, February)

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (11 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailState owned firms: private debt, cost revelation and welfare. Journal of Public Economic Theory.
Picard, Pierre; Rusli, Ridwan

in Journal of Public Economic Theory (2018)

We study the role of private debt financing in reducing government transfers and information costs in a state‐owned firm. We show that debt contracts allow the government to reduce socially costly ... [more ▼]

We study the role of private debt financing in reducing government transfers and information costs in a state‐owned firm. We show that debt contracts allow the government to reduce socially costly subsidies by letting underperforming state‐owned firms default. When the firm has private information, the government uses debt to reduce the firm's information rents. The option of default and privatization allows the government to stop subsidizing the firm. We identify the conditions under which information costs outweigh privatization costs and a positive debt level benefits governments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (3 UL)
See detailState Responsibility for Judicial Acts in Investment Arbitration
Cavdarevic, Ivan UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

This thesis deals with the issue of state responsibility for judicial acts in investment arbitration. In general, it is undisputed that states can be held internationally liable for the conduct of their ... [more ▼]

This thesis deals with the issue of state responsibility for judicial acts in investment arbitration. In general, it is undisputed that states can be held internationally liable for the conduct of their judiciary. The protection against denial of justice was traditionally the main international standard used for determining state responsibility for judicial acts, characterized by a relatively high threshold. Only with the proliferation of primary obligations of states towards individuals, the practical relevance of this standard was somewhat decreased. Nonetheless, this type of state responsibility – arising from domestic judicial acts – remains particularly sensitive due to the special nature and position of the national judiciary. It is commonly noted that role of national courts and their decision-making process is so particular that international courts and tribunals should not treat national judicial acts in an identical manner as acts of other state organs. Against this background, this thesis examines whether and to what extent the investment tribunals’ practice on cases concerning domestic judicial acts differs from comparable practices of other international adjudicatory bodies – in particular, the International Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. Through the analysis of various standards of protection – when applied to judicial acts – and the relevant case law, the thesis aims to address two different questions. Firstly, whether the standards of protection granted investment treaties substantially differ from standards commonly applied by other international adjudicatory bodies. Secondly, if the investment tribunals practice’ in cases concerning host states’ judicial acts is influenced only by these substantive standards or protection, or it is also shaped by more general features of investment law and the investor investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Ultimately, this research – through the analysis of these particular types of investor-state disputes – tries to offer novel insights into the deficiencies of the ISDS regime that should be taken into account, especially in light of the current initiatives for the reform of this regime. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 UL)
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See detailState subsidies and fair competition in international air services: the European perspective
Bergamasco, Federico UL

in Issues in Aviation Law and Policy (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 UL)
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See detailState-Based Testing: Industrial Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Round-Trip Path and Sneak-Path Strategies
Holt, Nina Elisabeth; Torkar, Richard; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 185 (4 UL)
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See detailA state-of the-art survey & testbed of Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) applications
Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; William, Derigent et al

in Expert Systems with Applications (2016), 65

As a practical popular methodology for dealing with fuzziness and uncertainty in Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) has been applied to a wide range of applications. As of the time ... [more ▼]

As a practical popular methodology for dealing with fuzziness and uncertainty in Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) has been applied to a wide range of applications. As of the time of writing there is no state of the art survey of FAHP, we carry out a literature review of 190 application papers (i.e., applied research papers), published between 2004 and 2016, by classifying them on the basis of the area of application, the identified theme, the year of publication, and so forth. The identified themes and application areas have been chosen based upon the latest state-of-the-art survey of AHP conducted by Vaidya and Kumar (2006). To help readers extract quick and meaningful information, the reviewed papers are summarized in various tabular formats and charts. Unlike previous literature surveys, results and findings are made available through an online (and free) testbed, which can serve as a ready reference for those who wish to apply, modify or extend FAHP in various applications areas. This online testbed makes also available one or more fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices (FPCMs) from all the reviewed papers (255 matrices in total). In terms of results and findings, this survey shows that: (i) FAHP is used primarily in the Manufacturing, Industry and Government sectors; (ii) Asia is the torchbearer in this field, where FAHP is mostly applied in the theme areas of Selection and Evaluation; (iii) a significant amount of research papers (43% of the reviewed literature) combine FAHP with other tools, particularly with TOPSIS, QFD and ANP (AHP’s variant); (iv) Chang’s extent analysis method, which is used for FPCMs’ weight derivation in FAHP, is still the most popular method in spite of a number of criticisms in recent years (considered in 57% of the reviewed literature). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 301 (22 UL)
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See detailState-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology.
Alepee, Natalie; Bahinski, Anthony; Daneshian, Mardas et al

in ALTEX: Alternativen zu Tierexperimenten (2014), 31(4), 441-77

Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk ... [more ▼]

Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk assessment; and (iii) increase our understanding of disease. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models are important building blocks of this strategy which has emerged during the last years. The majority of these models are organotypic, i.e., they aim to reproduce major functions of an organ or organ system. This implies in many cases that more than one cell type forms the 3D structure, and often matrix elements play an important role. This review summarizes the state of the art concerning commonalities of the different models. For instance, the theory of mass transport/metabolite exchange in 3D systems and the special analytical requirements for test endpoints in organotypic cultures are discussed in detail. In the next part, 3D model systems for selected organs--liver, lung, skin, brain--are presented and characterized in dedicated chapters. Also, 3D approaches to the modeling of tumors are presented and discussed. All chapters give a historical background, illustrate the large variety of approaches, and highlight up- and downsides as well as specific requirements. Moreover, they refer to the application in disease modeling, drug discovery and safety assessment. Finally, consensus recommendations indicate a roadmap for the successful implementation of 3D models in routine screening. It is expected that the use of such models will accelerate progress by reducing error rates and wrong predictions from compound testing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (2 UL)
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See detailStatelessness in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2020)

Statelessness is a global phenomenon which is also present in the European Union. At the end of 2018, UNHCR estimated the total number of stateless persons in the European Union plus Norway at 399 283 ... [more ▼]

Statelessness is a global phenomenon which is also present in the European Union. At the end of 2018, UNHCR estimated the total number of stateless persons in the European Union plus Norway at 399 283 individuals. This includes both stateless individuals and persons of undetermined nationality. UNHCR and UNICEF also estimate that, in 2017, there were 2 100 children registered stateless in Europe, a fourfold increase since 2010. Article 1 of the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons defines a stateless person as ‘a person who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law’. Statelessness is a legal anomaly, which can prevent those concerned from accessing fundamental human, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. As a result, such persons often live in conditions of protracted marginalisation and discrimination, facing numerous difficulties, such as the inability to receive medical assistance, enrol in educational programmes, acquire property, obtain legal employment, marry or open a bank account. Even though statelessness can occur in various contexts, its most common causes include state succession, ill-defined or discriminatory nationality laws, and arbitrary deprivation of nationality. Statelessness can also be a consequence of forced displacement and forced migration and can result when people face difficulties accessing civil registration documents, including birth certificates, necessary to acquire or confirm nationality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (6 UL)
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See detailStatelessness the proof of a negative
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

in Journaal Vreemdelingenrecht (2020), 19(2/2020), 30-37

This article provides an overview of what the Member States of the European Union are doing in order to tackle statelessness in the European Union through the European Migration Network Platform on ... [more ▼]

This article provides an overview of what the Member States of the European Union are doing in order to tackle statelessness in the European Union through the European Migration Network Platform on Statelessness. It also provides an overview of the state of play of statelessness in the European Union based on the EMN Inform entitled ‘Statelessness in the EU’ putting emphasis on the burden and standard of proof. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (27 UL)
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See detailStatement of the Board on Cultural and Ethnic Diversity towards intercultural and individual Diversity
De Ponte, Ulrike; Albert, Isabelle UL; Žegura, Iva

Scientific Conference (2019, July 03)

Cultural and individual diversity is getting more and more part of the daily work of each psychologist nowadays, but still this issue is less or insufficiently addressed in the study programmes all over ... [more ▼]

Cultural and individual diversity is getting more and more part of the daily work of each psychologist nowadays, but still this issue is less or insufficiently addressed in the study programmes all over Europe. Therefore, psychologists work repeating in situations of the quality of a cultural overlap being not or insufficient prepared for this yet. The psychologists’ core work of understanding and supporting people from a psychological point of view lacks knowledge as well as the performance of taking in account multiple and differentiated perspectives. The conclusion is: The subject Intercultural psychology needs to be mandatorily included into the curricula of study programmes of Psychology and this already on Bachelor levels. This joint-symposium is supposed to aim in working groups after the input-presentations in order to collect all kind of psychologists’ views on the needs that are seen out of the view of the divers working fields of psychologists. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (1 UL)
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See detailStates and the development of International Criminal Law: Report on Greece Report on Greece
Pichou, Maria UL

Report (2016)

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The ... [more ▼]

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The purpose of the report is to provide a short and profound view of the development of international criminal law in each country. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (5 UL)
See detailStates and traits in psychological assessment.
Steyer, Rolf; Ferring, Dieter UL; Schmitt, Manfred J.

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (1992), 8(2)

Detailed reference viewed: 287 (0 UL)
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See detailStates and unknown input estimation via non-linear sliding mode high-gain observers for a glucose-insulin system
Aguilera Gonzalez, Adriana UL; Voos, Holger UL; Darouach, Mohamed

in IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2016 (2016, December 04)

A meal-estimation algorithm is developed based on an extended mathematical model of the glucose-insulin system. The proposed model describes the dynamics of glucose levels in blood and in subcutaneous ... [more ▼]

A meal-estimation algorithm is developed based on an extended mathematical model of the glucose-insulin system. The proposed model describes the dynamics of glucose levels in blood and in subcutaneous layer, as well as the meal intake which is considered an unknown input of the system. This model seeks to represent in a more realistic manner, the pancreas malfunction in patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Based on model, a non-linear high gain observer (NHGO) with a sliding mode is designed in order to estimate the unmeasured states and the external disturbances of the system. This scheme is useful to maintain frequent monitoring of glucose levels and any changes in its behaviour. The unknown input or disturbance is estimated through the sliding mode based only the estimation error. Data from a real patient is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed estimation scheme. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (7 UL)
See detailStates of Education: Reflections on the Relationship between Welfare State and Education in Finland and the Federal Republic of Germany
Gardin, Matias UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

This PhD thesis examines the impact of political ideologies on the welfare state developments of the Republic of Finland and Federal Republic of Germany. It explores the issue by asking whether different ... [more ▼]

This PhD thesis examines the impact of political ideologies on the welfare state developments of the Republic of Finland and Federal Republic of Germany. It explores the issue by asking whether different ideas of ruling parties mattered in these developments or were there other factors, such as the level of economic strength, which became more influential in explaining cross-national welfare variations. Whereas mainstream analysts of comparative social policy since the early 1990s have taken for granted that politics mattered in the immediate post-war era reflecting the more pronounced left-right, catholic-protestant and other historical cleavages, this research moves beyond the oversimplified traditional welfare regime typologies and instead considers how welfare systems became intertwined with other more control-focused aspects of state development: in effect, whether and how they became instruments of discipline through educating citizens. Drawing on the Foucauldian idea of power of normalisation – and using educational expansion of the 1960s as a case study – it is suggested that there are aspects of the development of Finnish and West German policing which had a direct bearing on the emergence of the welfare state. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 182 (15 UL)