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See detailUnderstanding human need fulfilment to support the design of secure experiences
Distler, Verena UL

in Proceedings of NordiCHI' 18 Doctoral Consortium (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (12 UL)
See detailUnderstanding Investment Funds- Insights from performance and risk analysis
Terraza, Virginie UL; Razafitombo, Hery

Book published by Palgrave (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 236 (127 UL)
See detailUnderstanding learning culturally: Overcoming the dualism between social and individual views of learning
Hodkinson, Ph.; Biesta, Gert UL; James, D.

in Vocations and Learning (2008), 1(1), 27-47

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (1 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding learning culturally: Overcoming the dualism between social and individual views of learning.
Hodkinson, P.; Biesta, Gert UL; James, D.

in Vocations and Learning (2009), 1(1), 27-47

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (0 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding learning cultures.
Hodkinson, P.; Biesta, Gert UL; James, D.

in Educational Review (2007), 59(4), 415-427

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (3 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding Molecular Crystals with Dispersion-Inclusive Density Functional Theory: Pairwise Corrections and Beyond
Kronik, Leeor; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH (2014), 47(11, SI), 3208-3216

Molecular crystals are ubiquitous in many areas of science and engineering, including biology and medicine. Until recently, our ability to understand and predict their structure and properties using ... [more ▼]

Molecular crystals are ubiquitous in many areas of science and engineering, including biology and medicine. Until recently, our ability to understand and predict their structure and properties using density functional theory was severely limited by the lack of approximate exchangecorrelation functionals able to achieve sufficient accuracy. Here we show that there are many cases where the simple, minimally empirical pairwise correction scheme of Tkatchenko and Scheffler provides a useful prediction of the structure and properties of molecular crystals. After a brief introduction of the approach, we demonstrate its strength through some examples taken from our recent work. First, we show the accuracy of the approach using benchmark data sets of molecular complexes. Then we show its efficacy for structural determination using the hemozoin crystal, a challenging system possessing a wide range of strong and weak binding scenarios. Next, we show that it is equally useful for response properties by considering the elastic constants exhibited by the supramolecular diphenylalanine peptide solid and the infrared signature of water libration movements in brushite. Throughout, we emphasize lessons learned not only for the methodology but also for the chemistry and physics of the crystals in question. We further show that in many other scenarios where the simple pairwise correction scheme is not sufficiently accurate, one can go beyond it by employing a computationally inexpensive many-body dispersive approach that results in useful, quantitative accuracy, even in the presence of significant screening and/or multibody contributions to the dispersive energy. We explain the principles of the many-body approach and demonstrate its accuracy for benchmark data sets of small and large molecular complexes and molecular solids. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Moral Decision-Making in Video Games: A Focus Group Study
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Bernard, Steve UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2020, May)

Moral dilemmas have become increasingly popular in video games, although it is still widely unknown why players might find them pleasurable, how they process dilemmas, and which factors affect the ... [more ▼]

Moral dilemmas have become increasingly popular in video games, although it is still widely unknown why players might find them pleasurable, how they process dilemmas, and which factors affect the processing. Therefore, three different focus groups sessions with expert gamers (N = 16) were conducted. Gamers’ expressions of their experience with meaningful and morally relevant game situations were grouped for relevant topics. Topics are supported by direct quotations from participants of discussion groups, referring to up-to-date video game titles and presented together with respective theoretical assumptions. Results show that besides the game-defining theme of interactivity, statements can be grouped broadly into factors that describe why players engage or disengage in the first place (motivation) and factors that shape the moral interaction itself (influencing factors). In summary, our findings support the notion that moral-decision making in video games is a dynamic interplay between several game and user-dependent variables. Findings provide insights into players’ processing of moral dilemmas in video games, which also offers promising suggestions for future research using experimental setups. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding non-covalent interactions in larger molecular complexes from first principles
Al-Hamdani, Yasmine; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2019), 150

Non-covalent interactions pervade all matter and play a fundamental role in layered materials, biological systems, and large molecular complexes. Despite this, our accumulated understanding of non ... [more ▼]

Non-covalent interactions pervade all matter and play a fundamental role in layered materials, biological systems, and large molecular complexes. Despite this, our accumulated understanding of non-covalent interactions to date has been mainly developed in the tens-of-atoms molecular regime. This falls considerably short of the scales at which we would like to understand energy trends, structural properties, and temperature dependencies in materials where non-covalent interactions have an appreciable role. However, as more reference information is obtained beyond moderately sized molecular systems, our understanding is improving and we stand to gain pertinent insights by tackling more complex systems, such as supramolecular complexes, molecular crystals, and other soft materials. In addition, accurate reference information is needed to provide the drive for extending the predictive power of more efficient workhorse methods, such as density functional approximations that also approximate van der Waals dispersion interactions. In this perspective, we discuss the first-principles approaches that have been used to obtain reference interaction energies for beyond modestly sized molecular complexes. The methods include quantum Monte Carlo, symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, non-canonical coupled cluster theory, and approaches based on the random-phase approximation. By considering the approximations that underpin each method, the most accurate theoretical references for supramolecular complexes and molecular crystals to date are ascertained. With these, we also assess a handful of widely used exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory. The discussion culminates in a framework for putting into perspective the accuracy of high-level wavefunction-based methods and identifying future challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding political processes: A new arena for cultural psychology
Valsiner, Jaan UL

in Magioglou, Thalia (Ed.) Culture and political psychology : A societal perspective (2014)

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See detailUnderstanding primary-school students' beliefs regarding the adoption of pro-environmental behaviors
De Leeuw, Astrid UL; Valois, Pierre

in International Journal of Education, Economics, and Management Engeneering (2014), 8(5), 1391-1395

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding primary-school, high-school and university students sustainable behaviours: An approach based on the theory of planned behaviour
De Leeuw, Astrid UL

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Developing a more thorough understanding of what motivates young people to adopt sustainable behaviours is an important area of concern that has practical implications for creating sound educational ... [more ▼]

Developing a more thorough understanding of what motivates young people to adopt sustainable behaviours is an important area of concern that has practical implications for creating sound educational interventions and ensuring a sustainable future. The overall purpose of this thesis was to assess and understand primary- and high-school students’ environmentally sustainable behaviours in order to inform educational interventions. Moreover, it aimed at analysing one particular socially sustainable behavioural intention among university students, notably their intention to buy fair trade products. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as the basic theoretical framework to examine these behaviours. We first conducted a pilot study for each behaviour, with the aim to identify salient beliefs of the target populations with regard to the behaviour investigated. Open-ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 116 primary-school students, 92 high-school students, and 17 voluntary participants at the university level. A content analysis of the participants’ responses allowed the determination of the most salient beliefs, which were used as the basis for the quantitative measures of beliefs in the main studies. The first and second main studies investigated the beliefs of 812 primary-school students and 602 high-school students regarding the adoption of pro-environmental behaviours using a longitudinal approach. The gist of our results seems to be that for both age groups, educational interventions should target control beliefs especially. For instance, students insist on tools that would facilitate pro-environmental behaviours (e.g., having duplex printers or recycling bins at school and at home). However, behavioural and normative beliefs should not be neglected. The last study examined mainly differences in male and female university students’ intentions to consume fair trade products. The results indicate that for women, more emphasis should be placed on perceived behavioural control (e.g., factors that facilitate the ii purchase of fair trade products), while for men, more emphasis should be placed on attitudes towards buying fair trade products (i.e., the advantages of adopting this behaviour). Our results confirm the usefulness of the TPB as a framework for understanding young people’s sustainable intentions and behaviours, with perceived control and attitudes having considerable impacts on sustainable intentions and perceived social pressure having a rather low weight. In addition, perceived control and intentions contributed significantly to the explained variance in primary- and high-school students’ eco-friendly behaviours. This thesis makes a number of important contributions to the literature. From a practical point of view, primary- and high-school students are important populations because sustainability-related habits might be established early in life. Moreover, in their roles as potentially important future decision makers in our society (e.g., future company leaders, politicians, global citizens), university students should be sensitized to the unequal power relationships often involved in conventional trading. Offering fair trade products and encouraging their consumption should be considered a small, but important, step in universities’ duty to create awareness. Despite the positive input for interventions inspired by this thesis, some limitations have to be considered, for instance, our reliance on self-report questionnaires and the possibility that participants may have overestimated the extent to which they perform environmentally and socially desirable behaviours related to sustainability. Last, further research is needed to test the effectiveness of interventions based on the present results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 138 (11 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding procrastination: A motivational approach
Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (2018), 121

Procrastination is often seen as a self-regulatory failure. We want to offer a perspective that shifts the focus from volitional to motivational aspects of procrastination. In an attempt to demystify the ... [more ▼]

Procrastination is often seen as a self-regulatory failure. We want to offer a perspective that shifts the focus from volitional to motivational aspects of procrastination. In an attempt to demystify the phenomenon, we combine two studies exploring the motivational foundations of procrastination with a study aiming to uncover its implicit normative connotations. Study 1 investigated the link between value orientations and procrastination at a general level, showing that people high in procrastination entertain low achievement and high well-being value orientations. Study 2 investigated the link between self-determination and procrastination within and across daily activities. Low self-determination related to low levels of activity completion and to procrastination in general. Finally, Study 3 investigated the link between value as well as political orientations and perceptions of procrastination. Individuals who favored modern, conservative values were more likely to attribute academic procrastination as personal failure, whereas individuals who endorsed post-modern, liberal values were more likely to consider situational causes of academic procrastination. Against this background, we argue for a less normative view on procrastination and recommend motivational (e.g., goal selection) rather than volitional (e.g., goal implementation) interventions to prevent procrastination. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)
See detailUnderstanding Stereophony? Early Dummy Head Research on Sound Localization
Krebs, Stefan UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding Structure and Bonding of Multilayered Metal-Organic Nanostructures
Egger, David A.; Ruiz, Victor G.; Said, Wissam A. et al

in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C (2013), 117(6), 3055-3061

For organic and hybrid electronic devices, the physicochemical properties of the contained interfaces play a dominant role. To disentangle the various interactions occurring at such heterointerfaces we ... [more ▼]

For organic and hybrid electronic devices, the physicochemical properties of the contained interfaces play a dominant role. To disentangle the various interactions occurring at such heterointerfaces we here model a complex, yet prototypical, three-component system consisting of a Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) film on a 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer adsorbed on Ag(111). The two encountered interfaces are similar, as in both cases there would be no bonding without van der Waals interactions. Still they are also distinctly different, as only at the Ag-(111) PTCDA interface do massive charge-rearrangements occur. Using recently developed theoretical tools, we show that it has become possible to provide atomistic insight into the physical and chemical processes in this comparatively complex nanostructure distinguishing between interactions involving local rearrangements of the charge density and long-range van der Waals attraction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (0 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding students' performance in a computer-based assessment of complex problem solving. An analysis of behavioral data from computer-generated log files.
Greiff, Samuel UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2016), 61

Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving (CPS) that have been used in international large-scale surveys require students to engage in an in-depth interaction with the problem environment. In ... [more ▼]

Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving (CPS) that have been used in international large-scale surveys require students to engage in an in-depth interaction with the problem environment. In this, they evoke manifest sequences of overt behavior that are stored in computer-generated logfiles. In the present study, we explored the relation between several overt behaviors, which N=1476 Finnish ninth-grade students (mean age=15.23,SD=.47 years) exhibited when exploring a CPS environment, and their CPS performance. We used the MicroDYN approach to measure CPS and inspected students' behaviors through log-file analyses. Results indicated that students who occasionally observed the problem environment in a noninterfering way in addition to actively exploring it (noninterfering observation) showed better CPS performance, whereas students who showed a high frequency of (potentially unplanned) interventions (intervention frequency) exhibited worse CPS performance. Additionally, both too much and too little time spent on a CPS task (time on task) was associated with poor CPS performance. The observed effects held after controlling for students' use of an exploration strategy that required a sequence of multiple interventions (VOTAT strategy) indicating that these behaviors exhibited incremental effects on CPS performance beyond the use of VOTAT. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 314 (28 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding the Context of Product Development
Gericke, Kilian UL; Meißner, Moritz; Paetzold, Kristin

in Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (2013, August)

Adaptation of design methodologies to the context in which they should be actually applied is seen as a necessity in order to enhance its acceptance and to widen its application. Even though, a context ... [more ▼]

Adaptation of design methodologies to the context in which they should be actually applied is seen as a necessity in order to enhance its acceptance and to widen its application. Even though, a context dependent adaptation is seen as a suitable means to make a substantial improvement of current design methodologies, only few contributions were made over the last years, and it often remains somewhat fuzzy what context actually means. This paper is intended to consolidate the different meanings of context, ways to represent and specify the context and ways to structure the different views on the context. A scheme for categorising influencing factors is presented. The scheme consolidates factors from literature which have been identified as having an influence on design projects. It is seen as a means to support understanding of a design approach and its context. Therefore, the scheme is a consolidation of existing work, which allows a more comprehensive description and analysis of the context than the more specific lists and schemes from literature. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding the differences between how novice and experienced designers approach design tasks
Ahmed, S.; Wallace, K. M.; Blessing, Lucienne UL

in Research in Engineering Design (2003), 14(1), 1-11

Research was undertaken to understand how to provide the most appropriate support for novice designers in engineering design. However, how designers apply their experience and knowledge is not understood ... [more ▼]

Research was undertaken to understand how to provide the most appropriate support for novice designers in engineering design. However, how designers apply their experience and knowledge is not understood and further research in this area is required. This paper describes an observational study to understand how novice and experienced designers approach design tasks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 130 (0 UL)