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Education for a Knowledge Society in Arabian Gulf Countries (2014)Qatar’s higher education system is growing rapidly, as science in the Islamic world witnesses a contemporary renaissance. Steering a course toward becoming a “knowledge society,” Qatar and other countries ... [more ▼]Qatar’s higher education system is growing rapidly, as science in the Islamic world witnesses a contemporary renaissance. Steering a course toward becoming a “knowledge society,” Qatar and other countries in the Arabian Gulf region are now home to dozens of universities. The establishment of many international offshore, satellite or branch campuses further emphasizes the international dynamism of higher education development there. The remarkable expansion of higher education in Qatar builds upon unifying two distinct strategies, both prevalent in capacity-building attempts worldwide. Firstly, Qatar seeks to cultivate human capital domestically through massive infrastructure investment and development of educational structures, including Qatar University. Secondly, Qatar seeks to match the strongest global universities through direct importation of existing organizational capacity, faculty and staff, and accumulated reputation. Local capacity in higher education and scientific productivity is built simultaneously with the on-going import of ideas and talent from different regions of the world. The relative youth of the higher education system and the state’s small geographic and demographic size are being compensated by considerable investments in the standard-bearing university—a national university taking root—simultaneously with hosting branches of eminent foreign higher education institutions, mainly on the Education City campus. Exemplifying extreme glocalization and mondialisation, Qatar has become a regional hub, bridging the traditional university strongholds in the West and the rising powerhouses in the East. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 248 (18 UL) University vs. Research Institute? The Dual Pillars of German Science Production, 1950–2010Dusdal, Jennifer ; Powell, Justin J W ; Baker, David et alin Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2020), 58(3), 319-342The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy ... [more ▼]The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy differentiates these organizational forms functionally: universities specialize in advanced research-based teaching; institutes specialize intensely on research. Over the past decades this policy affected each sector differently: while universities suffered a lingering “legitimation crisis,” institutes enjoyed deepening “favored sponsorship”—financial and reputational advantages. Universities led the nation’s reestablishment of scientific prominence among the highly competitive European and global science systems after WWII. But sectoral analysis of contributions to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical and health journal publications (1950–2010) finds that Germany’s small to medium-sized independent research institutes have made significant, growing contributions, particularly in publishing in higher impact journals proportionally more than their size. Simultaneously—despite dual-pillar policy implications—the university sector continues to be absolutely and relatively successful; not eclipsed by the institutes. Universities have consistently produced two-thirds of the nation’s publications in the highest quality journals since at least 1980 and have increased publications at a logarithmic rate; higher than the international mean. Indeed, they led Germany into the global mega-science style of production. Contrary to assumed benefits of functional differentiation, our results indicate that relative to their size, each sector has produced approximately similar publication records. While institutes have succeeded, the larger university sector, despite much less funding growth, has remained fundamental to German science production. Considering these findings, we discuss the future utility of the dual-pillar policy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 153 (19 UL) The Unknown Bel-ValGanschow, Inna Speeches/Talks (2019)The speech was held as a guided tour through the university campus and surroundings of Belval in Esch-sur-Alzette. Looking for the traces of camps and other presence of ca. 4.000 soviet forced labourers ... [more ▼]The speech was held as a guided tour through the university campus and surroundings of Belval in Esch-sur-Alzette. Looking for the traces of camps and other presence of ca. 4.000 soviet forced labourers engaged by the steel industry of Luxembourg in 1942-1944, the audience was invited to discuss about the collective memory and its selectiveness. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 UL) An Unknown Input Fractional-Order Observer Design for Fractional-Order Glucose-Insulin SystemNdoye, Ibrahima ; Voos, Holger ; Darouach, Mohamed et alin IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Malaysia, 17th - 19th December, 2012 (2012)In this paper, we introduce fractional-order derivatives into a generalized minimal model of glucose-insulin. A fractional-order state observer is designed for estimating the structure of a blood glucose ... [more ▼]In this paper, we introduce fractional-order derivatives into a generalized minimal model of glucose-insulin. A fractional-order state observer is designed for estimating the structure of a blood glucose-insulin with glucose rate disturbance to show the complete dynamics of the glucose-insulin system where the fractional-order \alpha belonging to 0<\alpha<1. A nonlinear fractional-order unknown input observer strategy is used where the glucose rate disturbance is considered as an unknown input to the perspective dynamical system. The developed method provides the observer estimation algorithm for a glucose-insulin system with unknown time-varying glucose rate disturbance. The stability analysis of the fractional-order error system is completed and showed that the fractional-order observer design is as stable as their integer-order counterpart and guarantees the best convergence of the estimation error. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 145 (5 UL) Unknown Input Functional Observers Design for Polytopic Discrete Time SystemsBezzaoucha, Souad ; Voos, Holger ; Darouach, Mohemedin Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Systems and Control (ICSC) 2017 (2017, May)In this paper, a step by step algorithm is given to design functional unknown input observer for nonlinear discrete time systems under the Polytopic Takagi-Sugeno framework (also known as multiple models ... [more ▼]In this paper, a step by step algorithm is given to design functional unknown input observer for nonlinear discrete time systems under the Polytopic Takagi-Sugeno framework (also known as multiple models systems). Applying the Lyapunov theory and the L2 attenuation, Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI)s conditions are deduced which are solved for feasibility to obtain observer design matrices. To reject the effect of unknown input, classical approach of decoupling the unknown input for the linear case is used. A solver based solution is proposed. The novelty of the proposed approach consists in solving simultaneously both structural constraints and LMIs, which ensure a mean for the efficient design of the gains of the observers. To illustrate the proposed theoretical results, an application example of model reference tracking control applied to an electro-mechanical model of a motor with a time varying parameter is discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (1 UL) Unkonventionelle politische Partizipation im Zeitverlauf – Hat die Bildungsexpansion zu einer politischen Mobilisierung beigetragen?Hadjar, Andreas ; Becker, Rolfin Kolner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (2007), 59(3), 410-439In Demokratien wird von vielen Seiten eine zunehmende Abkehr der Bürger und Bürgerinnen von Politik beklagt. Haben die Bildungsreformen der 1960er Jahre, zu deren Grundanliegen auch die Förderung ... [more ▼]In Demokratien wird von vielen Seiten eine zunehmende Abkehr der Bürger und Bürgerinnen von Politik beklagt. Haben die Bildungsreformen der 1960er Jahre, zu deren Grundanliegen auch die Förderung politischen Engagements und die Erziehung zu mündigen Bürgerinnen und Bürgern gehörten, in diesem Punkt versagt? Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob die Bildungsexpansion eine politische Mobilisierung zur Folge hatte, im Zuge derer unkonventionelle politische Partizipationsformen an Bedeutung gewonnen haben. Unter Nutzung kumulierter ALLBUS-Datensätze werden zunächst soziale Hintergrundmechanismen des Zusammenhangs zwischen Bildung und politischer Partizipation auf der individuellen Ebene betrachtet, um dann anhand einer simultanen Modellierung von Alters-, Perioden- und Kohorteneffekt unkonventionelle politische Partizipation im Zeitverlauf zu untersuchen. Im Ergebnis zeigen sich gleich bleibend starke Effekte des Bildungsniveaus sowie Hinweise, dass eine politische Mobilisierung stattgefunden hat. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 307 (0 UL) Unkritisch kritisch. Über die (Un-)möglichkeit einer Theorie Sozialer Arbeit als Kritik.Neumann, Sascha in Hartmann, Jutta; Hünersdorf, Bettina (Eds.) Was ist und wozu betreiben wir Kritik in der Sozialen Arbeit? Disziplinäre und interdisziplinäre Dis-kurse. (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 112 (6 UL) The unlikely Carnot efficiencyVerley, Gatien ; Esposito, Massimiliano ; Willaert, Tim et alin Nature Communications (2014)The efficiency of an heat engine is traditionally defined as the ratio of its average output work over its average input heat. Its highest possible value was discovered by Carnot in 1824 and is a ... [more ▼]The efficiency of an heat engine is traditionally defined as the ratio of its average output work over its average input heat. Its highest possible value was discovered by Carnot in 1824 and is a cornerstone concept in thermodynamics. It led to the discovery of the second law and to the definition of the Kelvin temperature scale. Small-scale engines operate in the presence of highly fluctuating input and output energy fluxes. They are therefore much better characterized by fluctuating efficiencies. In this study, using the fluctuation theorem, we identify universal features of efficiency fluctuations. While the standard thermodynamic efficiency is, as expected, the most likely value, we find that the Carnot efficiency is, surprisingly, the least likely in the long time limit. Furthermore, the probability distribution for the efficiency assumes a universal scaling form when operating close-to-equilibrium. We illustrate our results analytically and numerically on two model systems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 381 (125 UL) Unlinkable CommunicationFusenig, Volker ; Staab, Eugen ; Sorger, Ulrich et alin Privacy, Security and Trust, 2008. PST '08. Sixth Annual Conference on (2008)In this paper we present a protocol for unlinkable communication, i.e. where an attacker cannot map the sender and receiver node of a communication. Existing anonymity protocols either do not guarantee ... [more ▼]In this paper we present a protocol for unlinkable communication, i.e. where an attacker cannot map the sender and receiver node of a communication. Existing anonymity protocols either do not guarantee unlinkability (e.g. Tor and Mix networks), or produce huge overhead -- the dining cryptographers network causes quadratic number of messages. Our protocol needs only a linear number of messages while it still guarantees unlinkability. We introduce a measure of unlinkability and show that our protocol offers the highest possible degree of unlinkability. We show how to use the protocol in practice by adapting it to internet and ad hoc communication. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 122 (1 UL) Unlinkable Updatable Databases and Oblivious Transfer with Access ControlDamodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar ; Rial, Alfredo in 25th Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (2020)An oblivious transfer with access control protocol (OTAC) allows us to protect privacy of accesses to a database while enforcing access control policies. Existing OTAC have several shortcomings. First ... [more ▼]An oblivious transfer with access control protocol (OTAC) allows us to protect privacy of accesses to a database while enforcing access control policies. Existing OTAC have several shortcomings. First, their design is not modular. Typically, to create an OTAC, an adaptive oblivious transfer protocol (OT) is extended ad-hoc. Consequently, the security of the OT is reanalyzed when proving security of the OTAC, and it is not possible to instantiate the OTAC with any secure OT. Second, existing OTAC do not allow for policy updates. Finally, in practical applications, many messages share the same policy. However, existing OTAC cannot take advantage of that to improve storage efficiency. We propose an UC-secure OTAC that addresses the aforementioned shortcomings. Our OTAC uses as building blocks the ideal functionalities for OT, for zero-knowledge (ZK) and for an \emph{unlinkable updatable database} ($\UUD$), which we define and construct. $\UUD$ is a protocol between an updater $\fuudUpdater$ and multiple readers $\fuudReader_k$. $\fuudUpdater$ sets up a database and updates it. $\fuudReader_k$ can read the database by computing UC ZK proofs of an entry in the database, without disclosing what entry is read. In our OTAC, $\UUD$ is used to store and read the policies. We construct an $\UUD$ based on subvector commitments (SVC). We extend the definition of SVC with update algorithms for commitments and openings, and we provide an UC ZK proof of a subvector. Our efficiency analysis shows that our $\UUD$ is practical. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 96 (13 UL) Unlocking the Potential of Educationally Diverse Founding Teams for Firm Growth: The Moderating Role of New Venture ActivitiesTryba, Anne ; Patzelt, Holger; Breugst, NicolaScientific Conference (2018, April)Detailed reference viewed: 78 (1 UL) Unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs attitude, height, motion estimation and control using visual systemsMondragon, Ivan F.; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel ; Campoy, Pascual et alin AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS (2010), 29(1), 17-34This paper presents an implementation of an aircraft pose and motion estimator using visual systems as the principal sensor for controlling an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or as a redundant system for an ... [more ▼]This paper presents an implementation of an aircraft pose and motion estimator using visual systems as the principal sensor for controlling an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or as a redundant system for an Inertial Measure Unit (IMU) and gyros sensors. First, we explore the applications of the unified theory for central catadioptric cameras for attitude and heading estimation, explaining how the skyline is projected on the catadioptric image and how it is segmented and used to calculate the UAV's attitude. Then we use appearance images to obtain a visual compass, and we calculate the relative rotation and heading of the aerial vehicle. Additionally, we show the use of a stereo system to calculate the aircraft height and to measure the UAV's motion. Finally, we present a visual tracking system based on Fuzzy controllers working in both a UAV and a camera pan and tilt platform. Every part is tested using the UAV COLIBRI platform to validate the different approaches, which include comparison of the estimated data with the inertial values measured onboard the helicopter platform and the validation of the tracking schemes on real flights. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 122 (4 UL) The Unnoticed Corssroads of Russian-Luxembourgish HistoryGanschow, Inna Presentation (2018, October 02)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 UL) Unordentliche Verhältnisse. Familie als Argument in Suppliken und BittbriefenGerstenmayer, Christina; Tatarinov, Juliane in Arbeitskreis Repräsentation des SFB 600 (Ed.) Die 'andere' Familie. Repräsentationskritische Analysen von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart (2013)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 UL) Unpacking Collaboration in Digital History ProjectsKemman, Max Scientific Conference (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 63 (8 UL) Unpacking Luxembourg Governance through Sustainable Development PolicyCarr, Constance Presentation (2012, February)Luxembourg has an almost two century history of cross-border political economic interdependence, whether that was through the Zollverein and expansion of the railroads during the 19th century, the steel ... [more ▼]Luxembourg has an almost two century history of cross-border political economic interdependence, whether that was through the Zollverein and expansion of the railroads during the 19th century, the steel industry that remains largely intact, or the banking and related services sector that dominates the Luxembourgish economy today. Luxembourg has also cultivated deep cross-border connections through its role in the European Union, and establishment of itself as one of the centres for important EU institutions. These structures overlay its otherwise feudal and agricultural legacy. This has led to a political structure that some complain is non-transparent and undemocratic, but that others notice is horizontal, direct, and entails shorter power distances. It has also led to a demos whose membership is defined by the usual legal parameters of nationhood, but at the same time is inter-reliant on cross-border competencies and cycles of de- and reinvestment, as well as personal relations. These paths of governance are easily traced through the mobility of Luxembourg’s sustainable development policies. In so doing, it can be seen that the uncertain governance structure that operates simultaneously multi-scalar, cross-national, and informal, which poses many obstructions to the implementation of environmental policy and renders the normative of sustainable development, that permeates all levels of planning in Luxembourg, postpolitical. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (4 UL) Unpacking Luxembourg Governance through Sustainable Development Policy MobilityCarr, Constance Report (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 70 (10 UL) Unpolitisches Mega-Event oder neue soziale Bewegung?Sabra, Martina; Schröder, Christian Diverse speeches and writings (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 41 (3 UL)