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See detailUnemployment at 50+: economic and psychosocial consequences
Murdock, Elke UL; Filbig, Marceline; Borges Neves, Rita

in Wanka, Anna; Walsh, Kieran; Scharf, Thomas (Eds.) et al Social Exclusion in Later Life: Interdisciplinary and Policy Perspectives. International Perspectives on Aging (in press)

Throughout the lifespan, unemployment has severe consequences in terms of economic exclusion, and overall social exclusion, but is compounded in older age. Within the EU, a growing number of older adults ... [more ▼]

Throughout the lifespan, unemployment has severe consequences in terms of economic exclusion, and overall social exclusion, but is compounded in older age. Within the EU, a growing number of older adults (50+) are affected by joblessness. Job loss at a later stage in a professional career may determine an early and permanent exit from the labour market with significant psychosocial consequences. Herein lies the age-specific risk for older unemployed adults: once becoming unemployed they are at greater risk at staying unemployed. As a result, older unemployed people may face income cuts, deprivation of a central adulthood role and their mental and physical health may suffer. In this chapter, we draw attention to the latent functions of work, and the psychosocial consequences of job loss in later life. Applying a life-course perspective, the aim of this chapter is to explore how job loss can be framed as a form of acute economic exclusion, and how this exclusion can have significant implications for poor mental health. In a context of rising retirement ages, and the lack of preparedness of the labour market to deal with an ageing workforce, it is essential to understand these dynamics to guide policy development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (0 UL)
See detailUnemployment in Belgium: Lessons from a Macroeconomic Model with Quantity Constraints
Sneessens, Henri UL; Drèze, Jacques H.

in Van der Wee, H.; Blomme, J. (Eds.) The Economic Development of Belgium since 1870 (1997)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 UL)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailUnemployment Insurance in Europe: Unemployment Duration and Subsequent Employment Stability
Tatsiramos, Konstantinos UL

in Journal of the European Economic Association (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (4 UL)
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See detailUnemployment Normalization in Different Economic Contexts
Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne UL

in Liu, Yang (Ed.) Unemployment - Perspectives and Solutions (2017)

A recent strand of research has raised the question of whether a change is underway in the relationships that people have with work and nonwork. This body of work suggests that the manner in which people ... [more ▼]

A recent strand of research has raised the question of whether a change is underway in the relationships that people have with work and nonwork. This body of work suggests that the manner in which people view unemployment and not working is changing. This chapter pursues and clarifies the first results of this research. The authors hypothesize a process of unemployment normalization, defined as the view that unemployment is a normal or even inevitable phase of life in a person’s career path and is the result of external circumstances rather than personal ones. This was tested with 600 unemployed people in two different economic contexts—France and Luxembourg—using a scale that revealed two latent factors: Justification for current unemployment situation and Perceived normality of unemployment. The findings reveal differences in the degree of normalization according to socioeconomic variables as well as an impact on the perceived health of the unemployed. [less ▲]

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See detailUnemployment Normalization: Its Effect on Mental Health During Various Stages of Unemployment.
Thill, Steve UL; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Psychological Reports (2018), 122(5), 1600-1617

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (7 UL)
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See detailUnemployment Scarring and Gendered Occupations: Evidence from a Cross-Country Factorial Survey
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Presentation (2019, January 18)

The experience of early unemployment has been linked to a wide range of subsequent outcomes such as lower levels of well-being, lower wages and a host of other disadvantages in the labor market ... [more ▼]

The experience of early unemployment has been linked to a wide range of subsequent outcomes such as lower levels of well-being, lower wages and a host of other disadvantages in the labor market ("unemployment scarring"). As youth unemployment continues to be one of the main challenges of our time, it is important to anlayse the determinants affecting transitions to employment for young individuals. Empirical evidence from recent experimental studies emphasizes the long-neglected role of recruiters in the reintegration of individuals into the labor market. However, these studies rarely address potential gender differences in unemployment scarring by employing experimental designs that do not allow for extensive gender comparisons - potentially leaving important mechanisms behind recruiters' role in the reproduction of gender inequalities widely unexplored. Moreover, these studies differ in the context in which they were conducted making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the extent to which unemployment might have different consequences for men and women. We extend the previous literature by examining how unemployment and gender interactively shape recruiters' evaluation of young applicants' hiring chances. Speci fically, we aim at addressing the shortcomings of previous research by comparing the hiring chances for young male and female jobseekers between different occupations and national contexts. Drawing on established labor market theories and social psychological theories about gendered role expectations and their impact on the evaluation of behavior ("role congruity theory"), we expect to find differences in unemployment scarring across gender. In particular, we expect that the gendered stereotypes associated with certain occupations affect recruiters' evaluation of unemployment for men and women. Recruiters might use unemployment as justifi cation to discriminate against workers when applying for gender-atypical jobs (e.g. women applying for traditionally and culturally male-typed jobs). On the other hand, recruiters might apply a more lenient standard towards the opposite-sex unemployed worker in order to overcompensate for the low share of e.g. women in male-typed jobs. To test our hypotheses, we use data from a large-scale factorial survey experiment among recruiters in four European countries and different occupational sectors. We focus on a male-typed and a female-typed occupational sector (mechanics and nursing, respectively) to explore the workings of gendered stereotypes. The multifactorial experimental design of the factorial survey allows us to compare different types of unemployment (timing and duration) and to hold unemployment orthogonal to other factors (e.g. education). Employing linear multilevel regression models, we fi nd, overall, heterogeneous scarring effects of unemployment across gender. Especially current unemployment spells seem to negatively affect the hiring chances for men applying for nursing jobs. Our preliminary findings constitute new evidence on gender differences in scarring due to unemployment. Moreover, they demonstrate that ignoring contextual factors in studying heterogeneous scarring effects across gender potentially leaves important mechanisms in recruiters' hiring decisions undetected. This study further contributes to the literature on transitions to employment as well as on gender inequalities in the labor market more generally by studying the demand-side mechanisms leading recruiters to discriminate against men and women in gendered-occupations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (22 UL)
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See detailUnequal-sphere packing model for simulation of the uniaxially compressed iodine adlayer on Au(111)
Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL; Batina, Nikola

in JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B (2005), 109(46), 21710-21715

A simple unequal-sphere packing (USP) model, based on pure geometrical principles, was applied to study the centered-rectangular iodine c(p x root 3)R30 degrees adlayer on the Au(111) surface, well-known ... [more ▼]

A simple unequal-sphere packing (USP) model, based on pure geometrical principles, was applied to study the centered-rectangular iodine c(p x root 3)R30 degrees adlayer on the Au(111) surface, well-known from surface X-ray structure (SXS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments. To reproduce the exact patterns observed in experiments, two selective conditions-minimum average adsorbate height and minimum adlayer roughness-were imposed. As a result, a series of adlayer patterns with c(p x root 3)R30 degrees symmetry (2.3 < p < 3), with precise structural details, including atomic registry and identification of the p-bisector as the most likely trajectory for the iodine adatom movement during the so-called uniaxial compression phenomenon, were identified. In addition, using the same model, the difference between the iodine adlayer arranged in hexagonal and centered-rectangular c(p x root 3)R30 degrees patterns, as in the case of Pt(111) and Au(111) surfaces, was investigated. Qualitative and quantitative comparison shows that iodine adatoms in these two arrangements differ significantly in atomic registry, distance from the substrate, and the adlayer corrugation. Our findings could be of special interest in the study of the nature of the iodine adatom bonding to different substrates (i.e., Au vs Pt). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (1 UL)
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See detailUnequal-sphere packing model for the structural arrangement of the well-ordered adsorbate-substrate system
Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL; Batina, Nikola

in Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2004), 70(19), 1-8

In order to understand the well-ordered adsorbate-substrate systems at atomic level, a method is developed based on the simulation of packing arrangements for layers of unequal spheres, in three ... [more ▼]

In order to understand the well-ordered adsorbate-substrate systems at atomic level, a method is developed based on the simulation of packing arrangements for layers of unequal spheres, in three-dimensional space. The model, based on geometrical principles, is developed for fee structure consisting of two hexagonal ordered layers. During simulation, adsorbate spheres were accommodated in different positions, forming a great variety of structures, in dependence of the intersphere distance of the upper layer spheres. Using the average height of the adsorbate layer on the flat substrate as a determinant parameter, several specific structures have been selected as the most probable: (√3 x √3)R30°, (√7 x √7)R19.1°, and (3 x 3). Indeed, they correspond to typical accommodations of the iodine adatoms on the Pt(111) surface, earlier found in experimental studies, which clearly supports the validity of our model. The model developed in our study could completely and satisfactorily describe the accommodation process of the iodine adlayer on the Pt(111) surface. This methodology could be of great help for interpretation of scanning tunneling microscopy images, better understanding of adlayer structures, and design of adsorbate-substrate systems with exciting properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 218 (8 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDas Unerhörte der Erinnerung des Unerhörten. Zur ästhetischen Produktivität der Memoria in der Nach-Wende-Novellistik
Heimböckel, Dieter UL

in Gilleir, Anke; De Winde, Arne (Eds.) Literatur im Krebsgang. Totenbeschwörung und Memoria in der deutschsprachigen Gegenwartsliteratur nach 1989 (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (1 UL)
See detailUnerhörtes aus dem Niemandsland. Ralf Rothmanns Roman „Wäldernacht“
Heimböckel, Dieter UL

in Der Deutschunterricht : Beiträge zu seiner Praxis und wissenschaftlichen Grundlegung (2010), 62(2), 68-76

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (2 UL)
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See detailDas UNESCO Weltkulturerbe der Großregion SaarLorLux
Mendgen, Eva; Pauly, Michel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2011)

In der Großregion gibt es heute nicht weniger als dreizehn UNESCO-Welterbestätten. Sie stehen für die reiche Geschichte und die außergewöhnliche kulturelle Vielfalt der Großregion, sie repräsentieren ... [more ▼]

In der Großregion gibt es heute nicht weniger als dreizehn UNESCO-Welterbestätten. Sie stehen für die reiche Geschichte und die außergewöhnliche kulturelle Vielfalt der Großregion, sie repräsentieren unterschiedliche Epochen und Kategorien. Bau- und Industriedenkmäler gehören ebenso dazu, wie Platz- und Altstadtensembles, Festungsanlagen und ganze Kulturlandschaften. Jede Welterbestätte bringt ihre eigene Geschichte mit sich, ihr eigenes räumliches, kulturelles, gesellschaftliches Koordinatensystem. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (1 UL)
See detailUnexpected flow and relaxation behaviour of a low molecular weight glass former
Baller, Jörg UL

Presentation (2015, January 22)

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (6 UL)
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See detailUnfair play? Video games as exploitative monetized services: An examination of game patents from a consumer protection perspective
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Gainsbury, Sally M. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 101

ABSTRACT Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections related to in-game purchasing by anticipating some of the potential design strategies that might contribute to higher risk consumer behavior. Attention was directed towards the analysis of patents for potential in-game purchasing systems, with 13 identified on Google Patents. The design features were analysed in relation to the consumer rights and guarantees described in the terms of use agreements of the patent assignees. The analysis revealed that some in-game purchasing systems could be characterized as unfair or exploitative. These systems describe tactics that capitalize on informational advantages (e.g., behavioral tracking) and data manipulation (e.g., price manipulation) to optimize offers to incentivize continuous spending, while offering limited or no guarantees or protections (e.g., refund entitlement), with the potential to exploit vulnerable players (e.g., adolescents, problematic gamers). These findings are critically discussed in relation to behavioral economics, addiction psychology, and the clinical conceptualization of gaming disorder. Appropriate policy and consumer protection measures, psychologically informed interventions, and ethical game design guidelines are needed in order to protect the interests and wellbeing of consumers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (0 UL)
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See detailUnfairness at Work: Well-Being and Quits
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Barazzetta, Marta UL

in Labour Economics (2018), 51

We here consider the effect of the level of income that individuals consider to be fair for the job they do, which we take as measure of comparison income, on both subjective well-being and objective ... [more ▼]

We here consider the effect of the level of income that individuals consider to be fair for the job they do, which we take as measure of comparison income, on both subjective well-being and objective future job quitting. In six waves of German Socio-Economic Panel data, the extent to which own labour income is perceived to be unfair is significantly negatively correlated with subjective well-being, both in terms of cognitive evaluations (life and job satisfaction) and affect (the frequency of feeling happy, sad and angry). Perceived unfairness also translates into objective labour-market behaviour, with current unfair income predicting future job quits. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 440 (36 UL)
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See detailUnfavorable Land Endowment, Cooperation, and Reversal of Fortune
Litina, Anastasia UL

E-print/Working paper (2012)

This research advances the hypothesis that reversal of fortunes in the process of economic develop- ment can be traced to the effect of natural land productivity on the desirable level of cooperation in ... [more ▼]

This research advances the hypothesis that reversal of fortunes in the process of economic develop- ment can be traced to the effect of natural land productivity on the desirable level of cooperation in the agricultural sector. In early stages of development, unfavorable land endowment enhanced the economic incentive for cooperation in the creation of agricultural infrastructure that could mitigate the adverse effect of the natural environment. Nevertheless, despite the beneficial effects of cooperation on the intensive margin of agriculture, low land productivity countries lagged behind during the agricultural stage of development. However, as cooperation, and its persistent effect on social capital, have become increasingly important in the process of industrialization, the transition from agriculture to industry among unfavorable land endowment economies was expedited, permitting those economies that lagged behind in the agricultural stage of development, to overtake the high land productivity economies in the industrial stage of development. Exploiting exogenous sources of variations in land productivity across countries the research further explores the testable predictions of the theory. It establishes that: (i) reversal of fortunes in the process of development can be traced to variation in natural land productivity across countries. Economies characterized by favorable land endowment dominated the world economy in the agricultural stage of development but were overtaken in the process of industrialization; (ii) lower level of land productivity in the past is associated with higher levels of contemporary social capital; (iii) cooperation, as reflected by agricultural infrastructure, emerged primarily in places were land was not highly productive and collective action could have diminished the adverse effects of the environment and enhance agricultural output. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (7 UL)
See detailUnfree Agricultural Work in Brazil
Harnoncourt, Julia UL

Presentation (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 UL)
See detailUnfreie Arbeit. Trabalho escravo in der brasilianischen Landwirtschaft.
Harnoncourt, Julia UL

Book published by Promedia (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL)