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See detailTwin Research in the Post-Genomic Era: Dissecting the Pathophysiological Effects of Adversity and the Social Environment
Turner, Jonathan UL; D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2020), 21

The role of twins in research is evolving as we move further into the post-genomic era. With the re-definition of what a gene is, it is becoming clear that biological family members who share a specific ... [more ▼]

The role of twins in research is evolving as we move further into the post-genomic era. With the re-definition of what a gene is, it is becoming clear that biological family members who share a specific genetic variant may well not have a similar risk for future disease. This has somewhat invalidated the prior rationale for twin studies. Case co-twin study designs, however, are slowly emerging as the ideal tool to identify both environmentally induced epigenetic marks and epigenetic disease-associated processes. Here, we propose that twin lives are not as identical as commonly assumed and that the case co-twin study design can be used to investigate the effects of the adult social environment. We present the elements in the (social) environment that are likely to affect the epigenome and measures in which twins may diverge. Using data from the German TwinLife registry, we confirm divergence in both the events that occur and the salience for the individual start as early as age 11. Case co-twin studies allow for the exploitation of these divergences, permitting the investigation of the role of not only the adult social environment, but also the salience of an event or environment for the individual, in determining lifelong health trajectories. In cases like social adversity where it is clearly not possible to perform a randomised-controlled trial, we propose that the case cotwin study design is the most rigorous manner with which to investigate epigenetic mechanisms encoding environmental exposure. The role of the case co-twin design will continue to evolve, as we argue that it will permit causal inference from observational data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (1 UL)
See detailTwin Studies.
Spinath, F.M.; Gottschling, Juliana UL

in Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 UL)
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See detailThe twin-PhD model contributs to knowledge production in Africa
Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; Schriver, Michael; Uwizihiwe, Jean Paul et al

in The Lancet (2019), 393(10191), 2590

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See detailTwisted Edwards-Form Elliptic Curve Cryptography for 8-bit AVR-based Sensor Nodes
Chu, Dalin; Groszschädl, Johann UL; Liu, Zhe UL et al

in Chen, Kefei; Xie, Qi; Qiu, Weidong (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the first ACM Workshop on Asia Public-Key Cryptography (ASIAPKC 2013) (2013, May)

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) pose a number of unique security challenges that demand innovation in several areas including the design of cryptographic primitives and protocols. Despite recent progress ... [more ▼]

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) pose a number of unique security challenges that demand innovation in several areas including the design of cryptographic primitives and protocols. Despite recent progress, the efficient implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for WSNs is still a very active research topic and techniques to further reduce the time and energy cost of ECC are eagerly sought. This paper presents an optimized ECC implementation that we developed from scratch to comply with the severe resource constraints of 8-bit sensor nodes such as the MICAz and IRIS motes. Our ECC software uses Optimal Prime Fields (OPFs) as underlying algebraic structure and supports two different families of elliptic curves, namely Weierstraß-form and twisted Edwards-form curves. Due to the combination of efficient field arithmetic and fast group operations, we achieve an execution time of 5.8*10^6 clock cycles for a full 158-bit scalar multiplication on an 8-bit ATmega128 microcontroller, which is 2.78 times faster than the widely-used TinyECC library. Our implementation also shows that the energy cost of scalar multiplication on a MICAz (or IRIS) mote amounts to just 19 mJ when using a twisted Edwards curve over a 160-bit OPF. This result compares fairly well with the energy figures of two recently-presented hardware designs of ECC based on twisted Edwards curves. [less ▲]

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See detailTwistor space observables and quasi-amplitudes in 4D higher spin gravity
Colombo, Nicolo UL; Sundell, Per

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2010)

Vasiliev equations facilitate globally defined formulations of higher-spin gravity in various correspondence spaces associated with different phases of the theory. In the four-dimensional case this ... [more ▼]

Vasiliev equations facilitate globally defined formulations of higher-spin gravity in various correspondence spaces associated with different phases of the theory. In the four-dimensional case this induces a map from a generally covariant formulation in spacetime with higher-derivative interactions to a formulation in terms of a deformed symplectic structure on a noncommutative doubled twistor space, sending spacetime boundary conditions to various sectors of an associative star-product algebra. We look at observables given by integrals over twistor space defining composite zero-forms in spacetime that do not break any local symmetries and that are closed on shell. They can be evaluated locally in spacetime and interpreted as building blocks for dual amplitudes. To regularize potential twistor-space divergencies arising in their curvature expansion, we propose a closed-contour prescription that respects associativity and hence higher-spin gauge symmetry. As a sample calculation, we examine next-to-leading corrections to quasi-amplitudes for twistor-space plane waves, and find cancellations that we interpret using transgression properties in twistor space. [less ▲]

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See detailTwitter data as primary sources for historians: a critical approach
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Papastamkou, Sofia

Scientific Conference (2018, October 25)

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (9 UL)
See detailTwo Approaches to World Management
Katsikis, Nikolaos UL

in Brenner, Neil (Ed.) Implosions/Explosions: Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization (2013)

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See detailTwo Conserved Histone Demethylases Regulate Mitochondrial Stress-Induced Longevity.
Merkwirth, Carsten; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Durieux, Jenni et al

in Cell (2016), 165(5), 1209-1223

Across eukaryotic species, mild mitochondrial stress can have beneficial effects on the lifespan of organisms. Mitochondrial dysfunction activates an unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a stress ... [more ▼]

Across eukaryotic species, mild mitochondrial stress can have beneficial effects on the lifespan of organisms. Mitochondrial dysfunction activates an unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a stress signaling mechanism designed to ensure mitochondrial homeostasis. Perturbation of mitochondria during larval development in C. elegans not only delays aging but also maintains UPR(mt) signaling, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism that modulates both longevity and mitochondrial proteostasis throughout life. We identify the conserved histone lysine demethylases jmjd-1.2/PHF8 and jmjd-3.1/JMJD3 as positive regulators of lifespan in response to mitochondrial dysfunction across species. Reduction of function of the demethylases potently suppresses longevity and UPR(mt) induction, while gain of function is sufficient to extend lifespan in a UPR(mt)-dependent manner. A systems genetics approach in the BXD mouse reference population further indicates conserved roles of the mammalian orthologs in longevity and UPR(mt) signaling. These findings illustrate an evolutionary conserved epigenetic mechanism that determines the rate of aging downstream of mitochondrial perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo dimensional Standard Deontic Logic [including a detailed analysis of the 1985 Jones-Pörn deontic logic system]
Boer, Mathijs De; Gabbay, Dov M. UL; Parent, Xavier UL et al

in Synthese (2012), 187(2), 623--660

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See detailTwo faces of the same coin: benign familial infantile seizures and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia caused by PRRT2 mutations.
Schmidt, Alexander; Kumar, Kishore R.; Redyk, Katharina et al

in Archives of neurology (2012), 69(5), 668-70

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (5 UL)
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See detailTwo Limitations in Legal Knowledge Base Constructing and Formalizing Law
Markovich, Réka UL

in IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications (2019)

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See detailTwo More Efficient Variants of the J-PAKE Protocol
Skrobot, Marjan UL; Lancrenon, Jean UL; Tang, Qiang UL

in ACNS 2016 (2016, June)

Recently, the password-authenticated key exchange protocol J-PAKE of Hao and Ryan (Workshop on Security Protocols 2008) was formally proven secure in the algebraic adversary model by Abdalla et al. (IEEE ... [more ▼]

Recently, the password-authenticated key exchange protocol J-PAKE of Hao and Ryan (Workshop on Security Protocols 2008) was formally proven secure in the algebraic adversary model by Abdalla et al. (IEEE S&P 2015). In this paper, we propose and examine two variants of J-PAKE - which we call RO-J-PAKE and CRS-J-PAKE - that each makes the use of two less zero-knowledge proofs than the original protocol. We show that they are provably secure following a similar strategy to that of Abdalla et al. We also study their efficiency as compared to J-PAKE's, also taking into account how the groups are chosen. Namely, we treat the cases of subgroups of finite fields and elliptic curves. Our work reveals that, for subgroups of finite fields, CRS-J-PAKE is indeed more efficient than J-PAKE, while RO-J-PAKE is much less efficient. On the other hand, when instantiated with elliptic curves, both RO-J-PAKE and CRS-J-PAKE are more efficient than J-PAKE, with CRS-J-PAKE being the best of the three. We illustrate this experimentally, making use of recent research by Brier et al. (CRYPTO 2010). Regardless of implementation, we note that RO-J-PAKE enjoys a looser security reduction than both J-PAKE and CRS-J-PAKE. CRS-J-PAKE has the tightest security proof, but relies on an additional trust assumption at setup time. We believe our results can be useful to anyone interested in implementing J-PAKE, as perhaps either of these two new protocols may also be options, depending on the deployment context. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 268 (40 UL)
See detailTwo Neighbors, One Vision? The Impact of the European Union's Accession on the Development of Sociology in the Common Border Region Slovenia and Southern Austria. PhD thesis, University of Graz.
Hoenig, Barbara UL

Doctoral thesis (2009)

This dissertation thesis in the sociology of knowledge investigates the impact of European Union's research policies on the formation of sociology as a scientific discipline. From a comparative ... [more ▼]

This dissertation thesis in the sociology of knowledge investigates the impact of European Union's research policies on the formation of sociology as a scientific discipline. From a comparative perspective, Slovenia and Austria as two small Central European neighbour states and their common border region are taken as a case study, applying a mixed methods design. Based on extensive empirical data analyses with a strong focus on scientific institutions, findings show enabling and constraining effects of opportunity structures given by Europeanization of research policies. Transnational cooperation of scholars contributes to a stock of knowledge more and more known as European sociology. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (7 UL)
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See detailTwo new projects on the Early Cold War period of European Integration
Paravantis, Spero UL

Report (2016)

Core Junior Web Page Announcement

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 UL)
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See detailTwo New Techniques of Side-Channel Cryptanalysis
Biryukov, Alex UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

in Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems - CHES 2007 (2007)

We describe two new techniques of side-channel cryptanalysis which we call the impossible collision attack and the multiset collision attack. These are inspired by the state-of-the-art cryptanalytic ... [more ▼]

We describe two new techniques of side-channel cryptanalysis which we call the impossible collision attack and the multiset collision attack. These are inspired by the state-of-the-art cryptanalytic techniques of impossible differential attacks [BihamBS99] and partial-function collision attacks [GilbertM00] respectively. Using these techniques on an example of the AES we show that one has to mask all the rounds of a 128-bit key AES in order to prevent such attacks. For example these attacks can be used to break a recent proposal by Schramm et al. [SchrammP06] of high order masking for the AES, since it protects only 3 external rounds. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo novel regulators of N-acetyl-galactosamine utilization pathway and distinct roles in bacterial infections
Zhang, Huimin; Ravcheev, Dmitry UL; Hu, Dan et al

in MicrobiologyOpen (2015), 4(6), 983-1000

Bacterial pathogens can exploit metabolic pathways to facilitate their successful infection cycles, but little is known about roles of d-galactosamine (GalN)/ N-acetyl-d- galactosamine (GalNAc) catabolism ... [more ▼]

Bacterial pathogens can exploit metabolic pathways to facilitate their successful infection cycles, but little is known about roles of d-galactosamine (GalN)/ N-acetyl-d- galactosamine (GalNAc) catabolism pathway in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we report the genomic reconstruction of GalN/GalNAc utilization pathway in Streptococci and the diversified aga regulons. We delineated two new paralogous AgaR regulators for the GalN/GalNAc catabolism pathway. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays experiment demonstrated that AgaR2 (AgaR1) binds the predicted palindromes, and the combined in vivo data from reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA-seq suggested that AgaR2 (not AgaR1) can effectively repress the transcription of the target genes. Removal of agaR2 (not agaR1) from Streptococcus suis 05ZYH33 augments significantly the abilities of both adherence to Hep-2 cells and anti-phagocytosis against RAW264.7 macrophage. As anticipated, the dysfunction in AgaR2-mediated regulation of S. suis impairs its pathogenicity in experimental models of both mice and piglets. Our finding discovered two novel regulators specific for GalN/GalNAc catabolism and assigned them distinct roles into bacterial infections. To the best of our knowledge, it might represent a first paradigm that links the GalN/GalNAc catabolism pathway to bacterial pathogenesis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 UL)
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See detailTwo professional attitudes measurement scales evaluated by patients for general practitioners and dispensing chemists
Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL

in Society for Health and Medical Sociology (2006)

To construct and validate a scale of Professional Attitudes for both General Practitioners (in french, Attitudes Professionnelles des Médecins Generalistes) and dispensing chemists (Attitudes ... [more ▼]

To construct and validate a scale of Professional Attitudes for both General Practitioners (in french, Attitudes Professionnelles des Médecins Generalistes) and dispensing chemists (Attitudes Professionnelles des Pharmaciens d’Officine). Methods: Stage 1. The construction and qualitative validation of a scale. By interviewing 40 patients in a preventive-care center in east of France in addition to 21 general practitioners and 22 dispensing chemists, we targeted items which could possibly help us formalize a theoretical construction of professional attitudes which intervened in the instauration and follow-up of patient treatments. Then, with the help of a group of experts, we determined which generic items in the questionnaire could be validated and, finally, identified the functions which fulfilled these attitudes. Stage 2. We statistically validated the APMG and APPO scales and then studied the classic metric characteristics of the scales by using a questionnaire which was auto-administered to 393 patients from East of France. We have completed this validation with a differential item functioning analysis to determine if the questions have similar properties among men and women. Results: 15 relational items in general practitioners and 9 in dispensing chemists were identified. They are associated with information, communication and education. Each scale is one-dimensional. Analysis showed high internal coherence (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.91 and 0.87 respectively) and acceptable reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficients were respectively 0.74 and 0.72). Differential item functioning analysis for gender is in progress. Conclusion: The professional attitudes, we isolated represent important criteria in the quality of interpersonal doctor-patient and chemist-patient relationships. The metric characteristics of the two scales were deemed satisfactory. This suggests that they can be used as an aid in training in the healthcare professional-patient relationship, in decision-making and in assessing relational competencies. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo properties of vectors of quadratic forms in Gaussian random variables
Poly, Guillaume; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Bogachev, Vladimir et al

in Teoriya Veroyatnostei i ee Primeneniya (2014), 59(2), 214-232

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (2 UL)