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See detailTranslanguaging as a pedagogy, a practice or a strategy? Examples from a preschool and a primary school class in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Degano, Sarah UL; Mortini, Simone UL

Scientific Conference (2019, July 01)

The concept of translanguaging has been continuously redefined in education, psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, which has led to some loss of meaning. Regarding teacher translanguaging, studies show ... [more ▼]

The concept of translanguaging has been continuously redefined in education, psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, which has led to some loss of meaning. Regarding teacher translanguaging, studies show that it has been used as a strategy to further comprehension and learning, and as a pedagogy. The latter recognizes the existence of multiple languages in class and leverages the students’ semiotic system to make meaning and learn (García et al. 2017). Translanguaging has thereby been understood either as a resource-oriented pedagogy that challenges traditional conceptualizations of bilingualism and language learning, or as a pedagogy that fights social inequalities. Most research studies adopt the first view (Poza, 2017). The present paper combines two longitudinal doctoral studies and investigates the ways in which a preschool and a primary school teacher use translanguaging in their classes in Luxembourg. Drawing on interviews and observations, the findings show that the preschool teacher implemented a translanguaging pedagogy. She planned for the use of several languages, opened translanguaging spaces, and systematically translanguaged where she believed it would support learning (Kirsch et al. submitted). By contrast, the primary school teacher used translanguaging as a pedagogical strategy. She used the curricular languages and only translanguaged to support particular students. These differences are explained by the curriculum and the preschool teacher’s attendance of a professional development course. The findings contribute to our understanding of possible ways of implementing translanguaging as a pedagogy. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging at Primary School: A longitudinal study on the language practices of a newly-arrived 4th-grader
Degano, Sarah UL

Presentation (2019, September 03)

Migration flows of the 21st century have led to increasingly multilingual societies and schools. To engage with this ever-evolving multilingualism, students need to develop linguistic repertoires they can ... [more ▼]

Migration flows of the 21st century have led to increasingly multilingual societies and schools. To engage with this ever-evolving multilingualism, students need to develop linguistic repertoires they can use flexibly and strategically. However, not all the resources of their linguistic repertoires are equally valued as language policies tend to exclusively support standard majority language(s). This unequal support translates into low achievement levels among linguistic minority students (Lewis, Jones and Baker 2012) and the reification of social stratification. A growing body of scholars promote flexible multilingual pedagogies that capitalize on students’ linguistic resources with the aim of providing a more equitable access to the curriculum (García and Flores 2012, Weber 2014). Translanguaging, the deployment of a speaker’s full linguistic repertoire (Otheguy et al. 2015), is a pillar of these pedagogies. Although debated in recent years (Hamman 2017, Jaspers 2018), research in bi- and trilingual schools has shown that translanguaging can increase participation (Kirsch 2017), understanding (Baker and Wright 2017) and identity development (García 2009). Yet, research on translanguaging including migrant languages in multilingual schools remains scarce (Duarte 2018, Rosiers 2018). The present doctoral project investigates the translanguaging practices of students with different language and migration backgrounds in multilingual Luxembourg. As the country with the highest percentage of immigrants in Europe (Eurostat 2018), Luxembourg has a highly diverse linguistic landscape. This diversity is reflected in the education system, where more than 60% of the students indicate having a dominant language other than Luxembourgish (MENJE 2018), with Portuguese being the most used. Not only is the education system characterized by its linguistic diversity, it also is trilingual in French, Luxembourgish and German, the latter being the main medium of instruction in primary school. Accounting for 40.5% of all curricular time, language instruction leaves little room for other linguistic resources; migrant students’ home languages are largely ignored (Horner and Weber 2018) and teachers widely draw on translanguaging practices that are restricted to shifts into Luxembourgish, a Germanic language (Weber 2014). Luxembourg’s education system fails to provide access to the curriculum for migrant students with a Romance-language background. By contrast, recent studies (Kirsch 2017) have shown that in some Luxembourgish preschool, Year 1 and Year 2 classes, teachers have begun to encourage the deployment of the students’ entire linguistic repertoires. Little attention has, however, been paid to the later years of primary school where the achievement levels of students with a migration background are at their lowest (MENJE 2017). This study targets Year 4. It explores the flexible language use of 4thgraders in different school subjects and the development of their language practices across Years 4 and 5. The present paper is based on one of the three investigated schools and focusses on the classroom interactions of an 11-year-old newly arrived student with a Portuguese background. The following research questions underpin the paper: - In what ways and to what extent does a newcomer deploy his semiotic repertoire while interacting with his peers and this teacher? - In what ways and to what extent do his language practices differ across Year 4 and Year 5? The findings contribute to the understanding of multilingual students’ language practices and their development; provide insight into how linguistic repertoires of students with a Romance-language background can be capitalized on; and help denaturalize the ‘student with a migration background - stereotype’ by shedding light on the importance of translanguaging practices in short-cutting gatekeeping mechanisms that restrict access to educational opportunities for more than 20% of the school population (Horner and Weber 2018). [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging at school: students’ perspectives on using multiple languages
Degano, Sarah UL

Presentation (2020, September 25)

Numerous scholars advocate for translanguaging pedagogies to increase participation and learning opportunities for all students, in particular students with a migration background (Rosiers, Van Lancker ... [more ▼]

Numerous scholars advocate for translanguaging pedagogies to increase participation and learning opportunities for all students, in particular students with a migration background (Rosiers, Van Lancker, & Delarue, 2018). Conversely, critics argue that translanguaging can contribute to reiterate unequal participation dynamics and question the equitable access to curricular resources (Hamman, 2018). While most qualitative studies draw on observations of classroom practices of the teachers and/or the students, only few consider the students’ perspectives on these practices. The present paper aims to address this issue. While my doctoral project explores the translanguaging practices of four fourth-graders of different backgrounds and their development over time, this paper investigates their perspectives on translanguaging. From January to December 2018, I observed the students’ interactions with their peers and teachers in Years 4 and 5 and identified and recorded key events. Subsequently, selected events were shown to and discussed with the students. Findings based on recordings from discussions and stimulated recall interviews revealed, first, that translanguaging was the default mode of communication of all four students and was perceived as a common practice. Second, the newcomers reported that they translanguaged to communicate quicker and that translanguaging was particularly frequent in students who were not yet proficient language users. Similarly, students with more experience in the education system perceived translanguaging as an inferior practice and indicated using their home language as a scaffold with other students, but not with their teachers. The students’ self-monitoring connects to the classroom practices. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging Course for Teachers
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebic-Crestany, Dzoen

Scientific Conference (2019, July 01)

Amongst the many terms to describe the natural linguistic experiences of bilinguals, translanguaging is standing out as the socio-linguistic theory that consciously recognises a unitary linguistic ... [more ▼]

Amongst the many terms to describe the natural linguistic experiences of bilinguals, translanguaging is standing out as the socio-linguistic theory that consciously recognises a unitary linguistic repertoire of bilinguals. Translanguaging is used without regards to boundaries imposed by socio-politically constructed named languages and the unnatural differentiation of various forms of communication. The extensive research of many scholars, most notably by Li Wei and Ofelia García, confronts the social and educational suppression of minorities’ languages and cultures in schools. Their analyses and proposed solutions for social justice, therefore, serve as the theoretical and pedagogical basis of our research in Luxembourg’s multilingual education. The understanding that bilinguals translanguage naturally in conversation and for sense- and meaning-making purposes has also been shown in Luxembourg: 64% of four-year olds in Luxembourg do not speak Luxembourgish and translanguaging happens naturally. Research also shows that students of minority groups generally underperform at school. The implementation of translanguaging in Luxembourg’s multilingual education would therefore enable a better development of school and home language, metalinguistic awareness, linguistic tolerance, socio-emotional development and multilingual identity. To address the challenges of multilingual education in Luxembourg, we firstly offer a professional development (PD) course that aims to help teachers take a translanguaging stance, vital for its success. Secondly, we adapt the general translanguaging pedagogical methodology to incorporate home languages in teachers’ daily classroom activities. Our project has been supported by the Luxembourg National Research Fund* to deliver 8 sessions from the Translanguaging guide developed at the City University of New York. Given the local multilingual context, introducing translanguaging and adapting the guide is a challenge for us as researchers. We will use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the success of the PD and better understand translanguaging as a theory, practice and pedagogy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe translanguaging en pratique: des salles de classe aux équipes projet du constructeur automobile smart
Ehrhart, Sabine UL; Langinier, Hélène; Polzin-Haumann, Claudia

Presentation (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (1 UL)
See detailTranslanguaging in a Multilingual Classroom in Luxembourg
Degano, Sarah UL

Presentation (2019, April 12)

Research in bilingual and trilingual schools shows that knowledge and understanding can be increased by translanguaging (Baker & Wright 2017, Kirsch 2017), the enactment of a student’s linguistic and non ... [more ▼]

Research in bilingual and trilingual schools shows that knowledge and understanding can be increased by translanguaging (Baker & Wright 2017, Kirsch 2017), the enactment of a student’s linguistic and non-linguistic resources. Yet, research on translanguaging including migrant languages in multilingual schools remains scarce (Duarte 2018). In multilingual Luxembourg, over 60% of the students indicate to have a dominant home language other than Luxembourgish, with Portuguese being the most used language (MENJE 2018). Considering that theteaching of Luxembourgish, French and German accounts for 40.5% of the instruction time, little room is left for the students’ home languages and the school system is particularly challenging for the students whose language repertoires deviate from the official curriculum. The present doctoral project investigates how primary school students with a migration background deploy their language repertoires to learn. In this paper, I examine the extent to which two fourth-graders with a Portuguese background and a different migration experience mobilize their languages while interacting with the teacher and peers. Data stem from eighteen days of observation and video-recordings. The thematic analysis focuses on the students’ participation and their language use in different school subjects. Preliminary findings show that the students participate unequally and use their languages differently in terms of purpose and frequency and depending on their migration experience. The findings are tentative because data collection is on-going. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging of children and teachers during storytelling activities with iTEO in nursery and primary schools in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2015, April 20)

Symposium: Spaces for translanguaging in diverse language learning situations 20 April, 13:30 – 15:00 While translanguaging has been described as a natural practice amongst multilinguals in our globalized ... [more ▼]

Symposium: Spaces for translanguaging in diverse language learning situations 20 April, 13:30 – 15:00 While translanguaging has been described as a natural practice amongst multilinguals in our globalized world, it is uncommon in formal and informal educational institutions (Creese & Blackledge, 2010; García, 2009). Translanguaging capitalizes on the learners’ diverse resources and encourages them to draw on their entire semiotic repertoire thereby promoting deep level learning. It is transformative in that it contributes to cognitive and personal development, and develops language and literacy practices that challenge traditional teaching which tends to reproduce social inequalities (García & Wei, 2014). Our presentations focus on data from research projects in three countries that show how learning is mediated when practitioners (e.g. teachers, teacher assistants, educators, parents) adopt child-centred teaching models, implement a “funds of knowledge” theoretical perspective (Gonzalez, Moll & Armanti, 2005), create bridges between the home and school languages, and encourage translanguaging, including gestures and other body language. This view is particularly relevant to young children. We argue that translanguaging harmonizes with models of early years pedagogy which foreground the co-construction of learning between child and adult. We will present four qualitative, small-scale studies, three of them longitudinal. Research was undertaken in a community class in England, a nursery class in France, nursery and primary schools in Luxembourg and crèches and day care centres in Luxembourg. The researchers used a mix method approach comprising video and audio recordings, interviews, field notes and documents to collect data on regular intervals. The presentations will situate the studies within the local and national contexts that mediate the pedagogical practices and present interactions between the practitioners and the children aged between 3 and 11. The key discussion points are the need to create “safe spaces” (Conteh & Brock, 2011) in order to “activate” children’s and practitioners’ translanguaging abilities, the particular challenges practitioners face, and implications for policies and practice. Jean Conteh: Translanguaging as pedagogy in multilingual primary classrooms in England- from the margins to the mainstream Using data from small-scale, longitudinal, ethnographic research in a complementary class situated in a multilingual community in a city in the north of England, this presentation will analyse the interactions between multilingual teachers and their pupils, using a “funds of knowledge” theoretical perspective. It will consider the implications for policy and practice for both teaching and learning. Latisha Mary and Andrea Young: Supporting very young learners in transition from home to school: Translanguaging in a French nursery school class with emergent bilingual children. This paper focuses on the translanguaging practices of a teacher in France with three-year old children and their families. It illustrates how she harnesses the children’s language repertoires as resources and how she creates ‘safe spaces’. Her inclusive linguistic approach appears to facilitate the children’s learning and adjustment to their first year in formal education. Claudine Kirsch: Translanguaging of children and teachers during storytelling activities with iTEO in nursery and primary schools in Luxembourg The project addresses the need for innovative didactic methods to manage the diversity and heterogeneity in Luxembourg’s trilingual schools. The paper shows how learning takes place when teachers and emergent bilinguals translanguage during storytelling activities on the iPad App iTEO. Katja Andersen and Claudine Kirsch: Multilingual oracies in formal and informal settings in Luxembourg The empirical qualitative study, based on visual ethnography, structured interviews and a survey, is situated at the transition from formal to informal education sectors in Luxembourg. The aim is to study explicit and implicit forms of multilingual oracies in the interactions between 3 to 6 year-olds and their educators within practices of using pictures and rhymes. References Conteh, J. and Brock, A. (2011) “Safe spaces”? Sites of bilingualism for young learners in home, school and community, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14:3, 347-360. Creese, A. and Blackledge, A. (2010) Translanguaging in the Bilingual Classroom: A Pedagogy for Learning and Teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94, i. García, O. (2009) Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. García, O. and Wei, L. (2014) Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. González, N., Moll, L. and Amanti, C. (eds) (2005) Funds of Knowledge: Theorising Practices in Households, Communities and Classrooms. New York: Routledge. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging pedagogy in multilingual early childhood classes: A video ethnography in Luxembourg
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

in Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts (2017), 3(2), 167-183

This paper investigates translanguaging practices and pedagogy with very young children in the trilingual country of Luxembourg. Recent research has shown that in early childhood education in Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates translanguaging practices and pedagogy with very young children in the trilingual country of Luxembourg. Recent research has shown that in early childhood education in Luxembourg there is a focus on Luxembourgish to the exclusion of other languages and that this appears to exclude children with foreign language backgrounds from everyday institutional life. Our research asks how and in which forms can a translanguaging pedagogy offer young multilingual children opportunities to engage in literacy practices. Our empirical qualitative pilot study carried out among children aged 2 to 6 in Luxembourgish early childhood programs clarifies forms of translanguaging when instruction is accompanied by pictures and reading in German. The findings suggest that gesture and body language are part of translanguaging, providing multiple resources that enable the young multilingual learner to make meaning. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging practices in early childhood education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalizing on multilingualism in European mainstream education. (2020)

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home ... [more ▼]

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home languages are given little space. For multilingual programmes to be inclusive and empowering, professionals need to break with monolingual practices based on monolingual ideologies. The resource-oriented pedagogy of translanguaging which challenges hegemonic practices, is one way in which professionals can give space to all languages, leverage children’s resources and contribute to their development. The present chapter presents the findings of a professional development on multilingual pedagogies in Luxembourg. Data stem from observations, video-recorded activities and interviews with four practitioners, two working in a formal education setting and two in a non-formal one. The findings show that the practitioners developed a positive stance towards translanguaging and multilingual education, learned to design a child-centred and holistic multilingual learning environment and used languages flexibly, deploying translation, code-switching and translanguaging. This dynamic language use facilitated communication, participation, language learning and well-being. There were differences between the practitioners’ flexible language use. The professionals in the school did not use pair talk, made less use of code-switching and used languages more strategically and responsibly than the caregivers in the crèche. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging practices on iTEO in Preschools
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts (2017), 3(2), 145-166

Whilst contributing to a person’s language, cognitive and personal development and whilst a common practice in the daily lives of bilinguals, translanguaging is rarely observed in educational institutions ... [more ▼]

Whilst contributing to a person’s language, cognitive and personal development and whilst a common practice in the daily lives of bilinguals, translanguaging is rarely observed in educational institutions. The present paper examines the situations and the ways in which preschool children in trilingual Luxembourg translanguage during collaborative storytelling on iTEO, an iPad app which allows for the recording and editing of oral language. Currently 62.4% of children do not speak Luxembourgish on school entry. Language policies focus on the learning of Luxembourgish. This, the small class sizes and the absence of peers with similar language backgrounds may limit the opportunities for translanguaging. The present qualitative, longitudinal study takes a mixed-method approach. The findings show that the 5 focus children in preschool translanguaged frequently, in different ways and for a range of purposes, while drawing on features of several languages. The process of translanguaging depended on the individual child and on contextual factors. We argue that storytelling on iTEO opens up safe translanguaging spaces that contribute to inclusive multilingual pedagogies. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging. Eine innovative Lehr-und Lernstrategie
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Mortini, Simone UL

in Forum für Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur in Luxemburg (2016), 365

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See detailTranslating converging competences into the reality of teaching, learning and research and life at higher education institutions
Deca, Ligia UL

in Bergan, Sjur; Damian, Radu (Eds.) Higher education for modern societies: competences and values (2010)

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See detailTranslating Lucretia: word, image and 'ethical non-indifference' in Simon de Hesdin's translation of Valerius Maximus's 'Facta et dicta memorabilia'
Leglu, Catherine UL

in Campbell, Emma; Mills, Robert (Eds.) Rethinking Medieval Translation. Ethics, Politics, Theory (2012)

An analysis of how illustrations functioned as a distinctive and important aspect of the translation of Latin versions of the story of the rape and suicide of Lucretia into Middle French texts, especially ... [more ▼]

An analysis of how illustrations functioned as a distinctive and important aspect of the translation of Latin versions of the story of the rape and suicide of Lucretia into Middle French texts, especially the 'Faits et dits memorables' (a translation-adaptation of Valerius Maximus's 'Facta et dicta memorabilia'). The study focuses on a selection of 14th- and 15th- century illuminations, and proposes also that the early modern 'Lucretia' portrait tradition should be viewed in the context of these images. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslingual Discursive Spaces in Language and Arts Lessons
Degano, Sarah UL

in Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (2019, March), 10(1), 3094-3102

Flexible multilingual pedagogies such as translanguaging pedagogies are promising stepping stones towards a more equitable access to educational resources for students of different backgrounds. Recent ... [more ▼]

Flexible multilingual pedagogies such as translanguaging pedagogies are promising stepping stones towards a more equitable access to educational resources for students of different backgrounds. Recent research in Luxembourgish preschool, Year 1 and Year 2 classes, show that teachers have begun to implement such pedagogies by encouraging the deployment of the students’ full linguistic repertoires, including their home languages. Little attention has however been paid to the later years of primary school where the achievement gap between students with and without a migration background is particularly high. The present qualitative longitudinal study focusses on students in Years 4 and 5 and examines to what extent they deploy their linguistic repertoires in interaction with their peers. Drawing on observations, recordings and interviews, this paper explores the language use of two Portuguese-speaking 4th graders in Language and Arts lessons. Findings show that the students mobilize their linguistic and cultural resources to different extents and, hereby, open or close translingual discursive spaces for further exchange. The findings should contribute to the understanding of multilingual students’ language practices and provide insight into how their linguistic and cultural resources can be capitalized on. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transmission des contrats et la protection des créanciers
T'Kint, François; Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Centre Jean Renauld, Université Catholique de Louvain (Ed.) Le nouveau droit des fusions et des scissions de sociétés (1994)

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See detailTransmission of Collective Memory and Jewish Identity in Postwar Jewish Generations through War Souvenirs
Bronec, Jakub UL

in Heritage (2019)

The contribution includes a sample of testimonies containing the life stories of Jews born in the aftermath of World War II in two countries (Czechoslovakia and Luxembourg). At that time, Czechoslovak ... [more ▼]

The contribution includes a sample of testimonies containing the life stories of Jews born in the aftermath of World War II in two countries (Czechoslovakia and Luxembourg). At that time, Czechoslovak Jews were living through the era of de-Stalinization and their narratives offer new insights into this segment of Jewish postwar history that differ from those of Jews living in liberal democratic European states. On the basis of personal documents, photos, letters and souvenirs, the conducted interviews highlight an interesting way of maintaining personal memories in Jewish families and how this varies from one generation to the next. In my contribution, I am planning to illustrate the importance of these small artifacts for the transmission of Jewish collective memory. The case study aims to answer the following research questions: What is the relationship between the Jewish postwar generation and their heirlooms? Who is in charge of maintaining Jewish family heirlooms within the family? Are there any intergenerational distinctions in keeping and maintaining the family history? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (8 UL)