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See detailThe Transformation of the European Economic Constitution
Hofmann, Herwig UL; Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

E-print/Working paper (2015)

The current times of constitutional transformation in the EU place the following question on the agenda: Is the ongoing economic crisis demarcating the end of the original conception of a ‘European ... [more ▼]

The current times of constitutional transformation in the EU place the following question on the agenda: Is the ongoing economic crisis demarcating the end of the original conception of a ‘European Economic Constitution’ as it has developed since the early days of the EEC? Or are we witnessing simply a shift towards a new more encompassing model of an EU ‘Economic Constitution’ in which economic government and economic governance tools are used in parallel to deepen integration and continue the spill-over of economic integration into previously national policies? This contribution traces and evaluates conceptual, regulatory, institutional and legitimacy-related changes and challenges to the EU’s model of the ‘Economic Constitution’ as the basic legal framework and conceptions of EU law governing economic policy. This chapter argues that the EU’s constitutional framework in the form of the existing Treaties and General Principles of EU law did not provide an adequate legal framework to cope with the ongoing crisis. This failure has, in our view, initiated an ongoing transformation of the EU’s ‘Economic Constitution’ as we know it. Laying the foundations for the transformation took place in several consecutive steps mostly on the intergovernmental level and often as a combination of EU law, public international law and in some cases mixed with private law instruments. The nature of this development creates challenges regarding ensuring compliance of these newly developed structures with the Union’s foundational principles of ensuring transparency, democratic legitimacy, fundamental rights and effective review mechanisms in the context of a system under the rule of law. In order to illustrate the modes of the continuous transformation of the ‘Eoncomic Constitution’ and to evaluate the direction it is taking, this chapter will start with tracing its origins and follow its evolution over time. It thereby distinguishes two separate but interlinked elements of the ‘Economic Constitution.’ It first looks at the original focus of European regulation regarding what we refer to as ‘micro-economic’ matters with policies including competition law and the control of state aids. This chapter then turns to the evolving focus of EU law the larger questions of economic and fiscal policies which we refer to in the following as the ‘macro-economic’ element of the constitutional framework. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 291 (43 UL)
See detailThe transformation of the European Economic Constitution
Hofmann, Herwig UL; Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

in Hofmann, Herwig; Pantazatou, Aikaterini; Zaccaroni, Giovanni (Eds.) The Metamorphosis of the European Economic Constitution (2019)

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See detailA transformation of the position based visual servoing problem into a convex optimization problem
Wang, Y.; Thunberg, Johan UL; Yu, X.

in Proceedings of the 51th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2012)

Here we address the problem of moving a camera from an initial pose to a final pose. The trajectory between the two poses is subject to constraints on the camera motion and the visibility, where we have ... [more ▼]

Here we address the problem of moving a camera from an initial pose to a final pose. The trajectory between the two poses is subject to constraints on the camera motion and the visibility, where we have bounds on the allowed velocities and accelerations of the camera and require that a set of point features are visible for the camera. We assume that the pose is possible to retrieve from the observations of the point features, i.e., we have a Position Based Visual Servoing Problem with constraints. We introduce a two step method that transforms the problem into a convex optimization problem with linear constraints. In the first step the rotational motion is restricted to be of a certain type. This restriction allows us to retrieve an explicit solution of the rotational motion that is optimal in terms of minimizing geodesic distance. Furthermore, this restriction guarantees that the rotational motion satisfies the constraints. Using the explicit solution, we can formulate a convex optimization problem for the translational motion, where we include constraints on workspace and visibility. [less ▲]

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See detailTransformation of Type Graphs with Inheritance for Ensuring Security in E-Government Networks
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Ermel, Claudia

in Wirsing, Martin; Chechik, C. (Eds.) Proc. International Conference on Fundamental Aspects of Software Engineering (FASE'09) (2009)

E-government services usually process large amounts of confidential data, but simultaneously they shall provide simple and userfriendly graphical interfaces. Therefore, security requirements for the ... [more ▼]

E-government services usually process large amounts of confidential data, but simultaneously they shall provide simple and userfriendly graphical interfaces. Therefore, security requirements for the communication between components have to be adhered in a very strict way. Hence it is of main interest that developers can analyze their modularized models of actual systems and that they can detect critical patterns. For this purpose, we present a general and formal framework for critical pattern detection and user-driven correction as well as possibilities for automatic analysis and verification of security requirements on the meta model level. The technique is based on the formal theory of graph transformation, which we extend to transformations of type graphs with inheritance within a type graph hierarchy in order to enable the specification of relevant security requirements in this scenario. The extended theory is shown to fulfil the conditions of a weak adhesive HLR category allowing us to transfer analysis techniques and results shown for this abstract framework of graph transformation. In particular, we discuss how confluence analysis and parallelization can be used to enable distributed critical pattern detection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (1 UL)
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See detailTransformation of Type Graphs with Inheritance for Ensuring Security in E-Government Networks (Long Version)
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Ermel, Claudia

Report (2008)

E-government services usually process large amounts of confidential data. Therefore, security requirements for the communication between components have to be adhered in a strict way. Hence, it is of main ... [more ▼]

E-government services usually process large amounts of confidential data. Therefore, security requirements for the communication between components have to be adhered in a strict way. Hence, it is of main interest that developers can analyze their modularized models of actual systems and that they can detect critical patterns. For this purpose, we present a general and formal framework for critical pattern detection and user-driven correction as well as possibilities for automatic analysis and verification at meta-model level. The technique is based on the formal theory of graph transformation, which we extend to transformations of type graphs with inheritance within a type graph hierarchy. We apply the framework to specify relevant security requirements. The extended theory is shown to fulfil the conditions of a weak adhesive HLR category allowing us to transfer analysis techniques and results shown for this abstract framework of graph transformation. In particular, we discuss how confluence analysis and parallelization can be used to enable parallel critical pattern detection and elimination. [less ▲]

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See detailTransformation Systems with Incremental Negative Application Conditions
Corradini, Andrea; Heckel, Reiko; Hermann, Frank UL et al

in Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques (2013)

In several application areas, Graph Transformation Systems (GTSs) are equipped with Negative Application Conditions (NACs) that specify “forbidden contexts”, in which the rules shall not be applied. The ... [more ▼]

In several application areas, Graph Transformation Systems (GTSs) are equipped with Negative Application Conditions (NACs) that specify “forbidden contexts”, in which the rules shall not be applied. The extension to NACs, however, introduces inhibiting effects among transformation steps that are not local in general, causing a severe problem for a concurrent semantics. In fact, the relation of sequential independence among derivation steps is not invariant under switching, as we illustrate with an example. We first show that this problem disappears if the NACs are restricted to beincremental. Next we present an algorithm that transforms a GTS with arbitrary NACs into one with incremental NACs only, able to simulate the original GTS. We also show that the two systems are actually equivalent, under certain assumptions on NACs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (18 UL)
See detailLa transformation transfrontalière des sociétés dans l’Union européenne
Schwarz, Paloma Natascha UL

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2014)

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See detailDie Transformation von ländlichen Räumen und den darin lebenden Gesellschaften in Westdeutschland
Nienaber, Birte UL

in Kühne, Olaf; Gawronski, Krzysztof; Hernik, Jozef (Eds.) Transformation und Landschaft - die Folgen sozialer Wandlungsprozesse auf Landschaft (2015)

Die Transformation ländlicher Räume im westlichen Europa ist eng verbunden mit der europäischen Integration und dabei vor allem mit der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik, durch deren Richtlinien auch die ... [more ▼]

Die Transformation ländlicher Räume im westlichen Europa ist eng verbunden mit der europäischen Integration und dabei vor allem mit der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik, durch deren Richtlinien auch die Gesellschaft im ländlichen Raum stark geprägt wurde. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (0 UL)
See detailTransformationen von Regionalität in wissenschaftlichen und literarischen Diskursen.
Amann, Wilhelm UL

in Caspers, Britta; Hallenberger, Dirk; Jung, Werner (Eds.) et al Theorien, Modelle und Probleme regionaler Literaturgeschichtsschreibung. (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 UL)
See detailTransformationen, Sprachkosmen, Projektionen – Zwei Theatertexte von Guy Helminger
Bloch, Natalie UL

in Parr, Rolf (Ed.) Guy Helminger – Poet in Residence (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (3 UL)
See detailTransformationen. Interdisziplinäre Betrachtungen.
Baudson, Tanja Gabriele UL; Seemüller, Anna

Book published by Cuvillier (2011)

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See detailTransformations of sex education since the mid-twentieth century
Rothmüller, Barbara UL

in IJHE Bildungsgeschichte - International Journal for the Historiography of Education (2016), 6(2),

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (8 UL)
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See detailTransformations of social work practise with homeless people: a case study
Haas, Claude UL; Schmit, Charel UL

Scientific Conference (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (2 UL)
See detailTransforming borders in Europe. Concepts and spatial planning practices
Connor, Ulla UL

Presentation (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 UL)
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See detailTransforming Collaboration Data into Network Layers for Enhanced Analytics
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Piyatumrong, Apivadee; Bouvry, Pascal UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, February 25)

We consider the problem of automatically generating networks from data of collaborating researchers. The objective is to apply network analysis on the resulting network layers to reveal supplemental ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of automatically generating networks from data of collaborating researchers. The objective is to apply network analysis on the resulting network layers to reveal supplemental patterns and insights of the research collaborations. In this paper, we describe our data-to-networks method, which automatically generates a set of logical network layers from the relational input data using a linkage threshold. We, then, use a series of network metrics to analyze the impact of the linkage threshold on the individual network layers. Moreover, results from the network analysis also provide beneficial information to improve the network visualization. We demonstrate the feasibility and impact of our approach using real-world collaboration data. We discuss how the produced network layers can reveal insights and patterns to direct the data analytics more intelligently. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 122 (33 UL)
See detailTransforming Learning Cultures in Further Education
Biesta, Gert UL; James, D.; Hodkinson, P. et al

in James, D.; Gert Biesta et al. (Eds.) Improving learning cultures in Further Education. (2007)

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See detailTransforming the World by Transforming the University: Envisioning the University of 2040
König, Ariane UL; Dyball, Robert; Davila, Federico

in Solutions (2016), 7(3), 12-16

This article is part of a regular section in Solutions in which the author is challenged to envision a future society in which all the right changes have been made.

Detailed reference viewed: 212 (23 UL)
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See detailTransforming Time Series for Efficient and Accurate Classification
Li, Daoyuan UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Time series data refer to sequences of data that are ordered either temporally, spatially or in another defined order. They can be frequently found in a variety of domains, including financial data ... [more ▼]

Time series data refer to sequences of data that are ordered either temporally, spatially or in another defined order. They can be frequently found in a variety of domains, including financial data analysis, medical and health monitoring and industrial automation applications. Due to their abundance and wide application scenarios, there has been an increasing need for efficient machine learning algorithms to extract information and build knowledge from these data. One of the major tasks in time series mining is time series classification (TSC), which consists of applying a learning algorithm on labeled data to train a model that will then be used to predict the classes of samples from an unlabeled data set. Due to the sequential characteristic of time series data, state-of-the-art classification algorithms (such as SVM and Random Forest) that performs well for generic data are usually not suitable for TSC. In order to improve the performance of TSC tasks, this dissertation proposes different methods to transform time series data for a better feature extraction process as well as novel algorithms to achieve better classification performance in terms of computation efficiency and classification accuracy. In the first part of this dissertation, we conduct a large scale empirical study that takes advantage of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for time series dimensionality reduction. We first transform real-valued time series data using different families of DWT. Then we apply dynamic time warping (DTW)-based 1NN classification on 39 datasets and find out that existing DWT-based lossy compression approaches can help to overcome the challenges of storage and computation time. Furthermore, we provide assurances to practitioners by empirically showing, with various datasets and with several DWT approaches, that TSC algorithms yield similar accuracy on both compressed (i.e., approximated) and raw time series data. We also show that, in some datasets, wavelets may actually help in reducing noisy variations which deteriorate the performance of TSC tasks. In a few cases, we note that the residual details/noises from compression are more useful for recognizing data patterns. In the second part, we propose a language model-based approach for TSC named Domain Series Corpus (DSCo), in order to take advantage of mature techniques from both time series mining and Natural Language Processing (NLP) communities. After transforming real-valued time series into texts using Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX), we build per-class language models (unigrams and bigrams) from these symbolized text corpora. To classify unlabeled samples, we compute the fitness of each symbolized sample against all per-class models and choose the class represented by the model with the best fitness score. Through extensive experiments on an open dataset archive, we demonstrate that DSCo performs similarly to approaches working with original uncompressed numeric data. We further propose DSCo-NG to improve the computation efficiency and classification accuracy of DSCo. In contrast to DSCo where we try to find the best way to recursively segment time series, DSCo-NG breaks time series into smaller segments of the same size, this simplification also leads to simplified language model inference in the training phase and slightly higher classification accuracy. The third part of this dissertation presents a multiscale visibility graph representation for time series as well as feature extraction methods for TSC, so that both global and local features are fully extracted from time series data. Unlike traditional TSC approaches that seek to find global similarities in time series databases (e.g., 1NN-DTW) or methods specializing in locating local patterns/subsequences (e.g., shapelets), we extract solely statistical features from graphs that are generated from time series. Specifically, we augment time series by means of their multiscale approximations, which are further transformed into a set of visibility graphs. After extracting probability distributions of small motifs, density, assortativity, etc., these features are used for building highly accurate classification models using generic classifiers (e.g., Support Vector Machine and eXtreme Gradient Boosting). Based on extensive experiments on a large number of open datasets and comparison with five state-of-the-art TSC algorithms, our approach is shown to be both accurate and efficient: it is more accurate than Learning Shapelets and at the same time faster than Fast Shapelets. Finally, we list a few industrial applications that relevant to our research work, including Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring as well as anomaly detection and visualization by means for hierarchical clustering for time series data. In summary, this dissertation explores different possibilities to improve the efficiency and accuracy of TSC algorithms. To that end, we employ a range of techniques including wavelet transforms, symbolic approximations, language models and graph mining algorithms. We experiment and evaluate our approaches using publicly available time series datasets. Comparison with the state-of-the-art shows that the approaches developed in this dissertation perform well, and contribute to advance the field of TSC. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 485 (36 UL)
See detailTransforming Under Growth Pressure: Grassroots Sprawl or Top Down and Smart
Carr, Constance UL; Affolderbach, Julia UL

Presentation (2012, July)

At the turn of the millennium, it was decided that Luxembourg should target four percent economic growth in order to best sustain existing quality of life standards. This target has largely been met as ... [more ▼]

At the turn of the millennium, it was decided that Luxembourg should target four percent economic growth in order to best sustain existing quality of life standards. This target has largely been met as Luxembourg’s growth, which was mainly driven by the financial industry and a non-resident labour force, has averaged around five percent annually. Emerging out of a quasi-rural and industrial landscape, Luxembourg has come under the considerable growth pressures associated with a tertiary economy. It is thus facing particular challenges with respect to sustainable development. As a result, Luxembourg planning officials formulated spatially integrative sustainable development guidelines that postulate a polycentric growth model while targeting sufficient provision of housing, preventing sprawl, preserving green spaces, densifying growth poles, and enhancing public transportation. This research examines these strategies that are designed to manage growth and compares it with existing local land use practices. The small size of the Grand Duchy and narrow functional relationships between the capital city and the rest of the country justify treating the whole country as an integrated city region. The absence of a regional administrative level implies direct and strong policy dependencies between the national political and administrative levels. In this paper, particular attention is given to national policy mechanisms and their translation and implementation at the local level. The analysis reveals a number of challenges particularly with respect to enforcement and interpretation related to existing power relationships and different development visions adopted by the municipalities. Observations of the organization and capital flows of retail and commerce, housing and real estate development patterns, and the governance patterns that structure both illustrate how national smart growth policies of integrated smart growth can turn into grassroots sprawl or a governance of dispersal. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 153 (5 UL)