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See detailSignal transduction, receptors, mediators and genes: Younger than ever - The 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society focused on aging and immunology
Entschladen, F.; Altschmied, J.; Baumgrass, R. et al

in Cell Communication and Signaling (2010), 8

The 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society was held in Weimar, from October 28 to 30, 2009. Special focus of the 2009 conference was "Aging and Senescence", which was co-organized by the SFB 728 ... [more ▼]

The 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society was held in Weimar, from October 28 to 30, 2009. Special focus of the 2009 conference was "Aging and Senescence", which was co-organized by the SFB 728 "Environmentally-Induced Aging Processes" of the University of Düsseldorf and the study group 'Signal Transduction' of the German Society for Cell Biology (DGZ). In addition, several other areas of signal transduction research were covered and supported by different consortia associated with the Signal Transduction Society including the long-term associated study groups of the German Society for Immunology and the Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and for instance the SFB/Transregio 52 "Transcriptional Programming of Individual T Cell Subsets" located in Würzburg, Mainz and Berlin. The different research areas that were introduced by outstanding keynote speakers attracted more than 250 scientists, showing the timeliness and relevance of the interdisciplinary concept and exchange of knowledge during the three days of the scientific program. This report gives an overview of the presentations of the conference. © 2010 Entschladen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Entschladen, F.; Institute of Immunology, Witten/Herdecke UniversityGermany; email: entschladen@uni-wh.de [less ▲]

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See detailSignal-Based Properties of Cyber-Physical Systems: Taxonomy and Logic-based Characterization
Boufaied, Chaima UL; Jukss, Maris; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (in press)

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed ... [more ▼]

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed using signal-based temporal properties. Expressing such requirements is challenging, because of (1) the many features that can be used to characterize a signal behavior; (2) the broad variation in expressiveness of the specification languages (i.e., temporal logics) used for defining signal-based temporal properties. Thus, system and software engineers need effective guidance on selecting appropriate signal behavior types and an adequate specification language, based on the type of requirements they have to define. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of the various types of signal-based properties and provide, for each type, a comprehensive and detailed description as well as a formalization in a temporal logic. Furthermore, we review the expressiveness of state-of-the-art signal-based temporal logics in terms of the property types identified in the taxonomy. Moreover, we report on the application of our taxonomy to classify the requirements specifications of an industrial case study in the aerospace domain, in order to assess the feasibility of using the property types included in our taxonomy and the completeness of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailSignaling in Insulin-Secreting MIN6 Pseudoislets and Monolayer Cells.
Chowdhury, Azazul; Satagopam, Venkata UL; Manukyan, Levon et al

in Journal of proteome research (2013)

Cell-cell interactions are of fundamental importance for cellular function. In islets of Langerhans, which control blood glucose levels by secreting insulin in response to the blood glucose concentration ... [more ▼]

Cell-cell interactions are of fundamental importance for cellular function. In islets of Langerhans, which control blood glucose levels by secreting insulin in response to the blood glucose concentration, the secretory response of intact islets is higher than that of insulin-producing beta-cells not arranged in the islet architecture. The objective was to define mechanisms by which cellular performance is enhanced when cells are arranged in three-dimensional space. The task was addressed by making a comprehensive analysis based on protein expression patterns generated from insulin-secreting MIN6 cells grown as islet-like clusters, so-called pseudoislets, and in monolayers. After culture, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured from monolayers and pseudoislets. GSIS rose 6-fold in pseudoislets but only 3-fold in monolayers when the glucose concentration was increased from 2 to 20 mmol/L. Proteins from pseudoislets and monolayers were extracted and analyzed by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry, and differentially expressed proteins were mapped onto KEGG pathways. Protein profiling identified 1576 proteins, which were common to pseudoislets and monolayers. When mapped onto KEGG pathways, 11 highly enriched pathways were identified. On the basis of differences in expression of proteins belonging to the pathways in pseudoislets and monolayers, predictions of differential pathway activation were performed. Mechanisms enhancing insulin secretory capacity of the beta-cell, when situated in the islet, include pathways regulating glucose metabolism, cell interaction, and translational regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailSignaling legitimacy for small and medium-size enterprises in transition environments - The case of the Bulgarian IT sector
Ivanova, Olga UL

Doctoral thesis (2010)

The process of institutional transition from one coordination mechanism to another one is an important period in the evolution of any society. Transitions are associated with fundamental political, legal ... [more ▼]

The process of institutional transition from one coordination mechanism to another one is an important period in the evolution of any society. Transitions are associated with fundamental political, legal, economic and social changes (Danis et al. 2010) affecting all aspects of life (Peng 2003). The transition from planned to open-market economy that has taken place in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), East Asia, and the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union represents an institutional transition. An environment that goes through transition is characterized by high level of vulnerability and uncertainty which impacts all actors evolving in it, including the organizations (Peng 2003). The dynamic relationship environment-organization is reflected in the concept of legitimacy. Legitimacy is a pertinent concept to study the transition stage since it exists on the borderline between the organization and its environment. In transition environments, the processes of deinstitutionalization of the old structures and the reinstitutionalization of the new ones coexist. This leads to a lack of institutional framework to guide behavior of actors or a situation called institutional vacuum. Since institutions regulate economic exchanges (North 1990), the lack of them leads to elevated costs for all actors due to the proliferation of opportunistic behavior (Meyer 2001). In such environments, demonstrating legitimacy becomes crucial for the survival of structures and actors. Legitimation is sought by new elites (Raychev and Stoichev 2008), the government (Peng 2000a), the new laws, decrees and regulations (Stark 1992), and the private organizations (Peng 2000a). The success of the transition directly depends on the strategies of organizations evolving in such environments (Peng 2000). Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) play an important role as catalysts of the process of change (McIntyre 2003: 1) since they are expected to spur economic growth and employment (Peng 2000a), and maintain social peace (McIntyre 2003: 1). Despite their central role in transition environments, little is known about the challenges SMEs face and the actions that can be undertaken in order to overcome them (Danis, Chaburu and Lyles 2010). One of the main challenges of SMEs in transition environments is to demonstrate that they are legitimate players implying that they comply with the expectations of relevant stakeholders’ groups. The main objective of this study is to shed some light on how SMEs in transition environments gain organizational legitimacy necessary for obtaining stakeholders’ support. The interest of the study lies in the fact that if organizational legitimacy is problematic for all organizations due to changing norms, beliefs, and stakeholders’ expectations over time (Ashforth and Gibbs 1990), it is even more problematic for small organizations in transition environments since the norms, beliefs and expectations are not clearly defined. In order to address the legitimacy needs of small organizations in transition environments, I propose a signaling theory of legitimacy, which postulates that the legitimacy-claiming entities can rely on valid signals in order to demonstrate (communicate) their adherence to the requirements of the evaluating audiences. In general, the signaling theory of legitimacy should hold for any organization facing a liability - the discount the evaluating audiences place on it in comparison to its potential competitors. Organizations in transition environments face liability of origin (Bartlett and Ghoshal 2000) – a discount that the evaluating audiences (both domestic and foreign) may place on them based on their context of origin. For small organizations , the challenges resulting from liability of origin are even bigger because of their size, they are more prone to import instability from the environment. The higher level of vulnerability of small firms encourages them to engage in opportunistic behavior. Hence, demonstrating their legitimacy is a key issue for SMEs operating in transition environments. Organizational legitimacy becomes especially important when organizations engage in long-term arrangements since this requires an assessment of the organization not only in terms of its products/services but also in terms of its ongoing access to resources and capabilities as well as its reliability as a partner. In order to address the legitimacy needs of small firms evolving in transition environments and trying to obtain long-term partnerships, a new legitimacy typology is proposed. It is comprised of two types – functional and relational legitimacy. Functional legitimacy represents the adherence to the evaluating audiences’ requirements regarding relevant resources and capabilities. Relational legitimacy is the conformity with the evaluating audiences’ expectations regarding the reliability of an organization as a partner. Hence, this study addresses two research questions: 1. What are the dimensions (and valid signals) of functional and relational legitimacy (for small organizations in transition environment)? 2. Does using signals of specific types of legitimacy (depending on the liability faced) enhance organizational legitimacy? This doctoral research examines the legitimacy challenges of SMEs in transition environments trying to obtain long-term arrangements. In the first part of the study, the two types of legitimacy - functional and relational legitimacy - are constructed. Similar to organizational legitimacy (Deephouse and Carter 2005), functional and relational legitimacy are also multidimensional constructs comprised of different facets. In the second part, I examine whether the signals of functional and relational legitimacy help SMEs in transition environment gain organizational legitimacy. The research model is tested on data collected from the information technology (IT) sector in Bulgaria. Based on the data analysis and results, this research has several theoretical and methodological contributions. The results also have practical implications for the managers of small organizations in transition environments as well as the public policy agents. The theoretical contributions are associated mainly with the signaling theory of legitimacy. It looks at how organizations can overcome certain liabilities by communicating their adherence to the expectations of relevant stakeholders’ groups. Organizations can demonstrate their conformity to the evaluating audiences’ requirements by using valid signals – organizational characteristics that can be observed, are costly to imitate and are based on shared meaning between the sending and the receiving party. In addition, the study contributes to the literature on transition environments by looking at the particular case of SMEs and their attempt to demonstrate that they are legitimate players when trying to engage in long-term arrangements. The methodological contribution lies in the way the two types of legitimacy (functional and relational) are measured via formative measurement constructs (Diamantopoulos and Winklhofer 2001; Jarvis et al. 2003) under the partial least squares (PLS) technique. Formative constructs are associated with causality that goes from the manifest (directly observable) variable to the latent construct or in other words, the manifest variables cause/build the latent construct (Diamantopoulos 1999). This made possible to match the legitimacy claims of organizations from once side based on the functional and relational signals and the legitimacy granted by relevant stakeholders’ groups, on the other side. In addition, the research contributes to the growing number of studies in strategic management that use PLS as a structural equation modeling technique (Birkinshaw et al. 1995; Cool et al. 1989; Fornell et al. 1990; Johansson and Yip 1994; Tsang 2002). The practical implications of this research shed some light on which signals (organizational characteristics) are important for managers of small organizations in transition environments. Signals are costly and since all organizations (and especially small firms) have limited resources, managers have to know which signals to invest in. It is important to note that many managers disregard the relational aspect of their legitimacy claims which (based on the results of the study) are more important in the communication process between the legitimacy-claiming and legitimacy-granting entities. Overall, this study represents a fertile area for future research. Researchers can test the signaling theory of legitimacy in other contexts – i.e., other transition environments (Eastern Europe vs. China), as well as compare the signals used by organizations in transition environments and developed economies. Researchers can also test the signaling theory of legitimacy on organizations facing different liabilities (i.e. liability of market newness) and try to extend the existing legitimacy typologies. In addition, future studies can focus on issues of meaning construction (based on signals) in the communication process between organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailSignaling or Marketing? The Role of Discount Control Mechanisms
Kräussl, Roman UL; Stefanova, Denitsa UL; Joshua, Pollet

Scientific Conference (2019)

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See detailSignaling or Marketing? The Role of Discount Control Mechanisms
Kräussl, Roman UL; Stefanova, Denitsa UL; Pollet, Joshua

Scientific Conference (2018)

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See detailSignaling or Marketing? The Role of Discount Control Mechanisms
Kräussl, Roman UL; Polletc, Joshua; Stefanova, Denitsa UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailSignaling-Dependent Control of Apical Membrane Size and Self-Renewal in Rosette-Stage Human Neuroepithelial Stem Cells
Medelnik, Jan-Philip; Roensch, Kathleen; Okawa, Satoshi UL et al

in Stem Cell Reports (2018)

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See detailSignalling of interleukin-6 type cytokines via gp130, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and oncostatin M receptor
Behrmann, Iris UL; Hermanns, H. M.; Haan, Claude UL et al

in European Cytokine Network (2000), 11(3), 491-2

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See detailSignalling the enforceability of the forum's judgments abroad
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Rivista di diritto internazionale privato e processuale (2020), (1), 33

The aim of this Article is to document and assess the efforts made by international commercial courts to signal the enforce-ability of their judgments abroad. To that effect, three strategies were ... [more ▼]

The aim of this Article is to document and assess the efforts made by international commercial courts to signal the enforce-ability of their judgments abroad. To that effect, three strategies were developed. The first and most obvious one was to enter into agreements providing for the mutual enforcement of judgments of contracting states which could serve the same function as the 1958 New York Convention for arbitral awards. Yet, as the 2005 Hague Convention has a limited scope and the 2019 Hague Convention is not yet in force, alternative strategies were identified. Several international commercial courts are actively pursuing the conclusion of non binding documents with other courts or even law firms suggesting that the judgments of the forum would be enforced by the courts of other states. Finally, one international court has also explored how it could convert its judgments into arbitral awards. [less ▲]

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See detailThe signature method : a new tool enhancing time series clustering
Clausel, Marianne; Lejay, Antoine; Terraza, Virginie UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailA Signature Scheme for Distributed Executions based on Control flow Analysis.
Bertholon, Benoit UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proc. of the 19th Intl. conference on Security and Intelligent Information Systems (SIIS 2011) (2011)

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See detailA Signature Scheme for Distributed Executions based on Control flow Analysis..
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Bertholon, Benoit UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in 19th Intl. conference on Security and Intelligent Information Systems (SIIS 2011) (2011, June)

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See detailSignatures of MicroRNAs and selected MicroRNA target genes in human melanoma
Philippidou, Demetra UL; Schmitt, Martina UL; Moser, Dirk et al

in Cancer Research (2010), 70(10), 4163-4173

Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by repressing their translation or orchestrating their sequence-specific degradation. In this study, we investigated miRNA and ... [more ▼]

Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by repressing their translation or orchestrating their sequence-specific degradation. In this study, we investigated miRNA and miRNA target gene expression patterns in melanoma to identify candidate biomarkers for early and progressive disease. Because data presently available on miRNA expression in melanoma are inconsistent thus far, we applied several different miRNA detection and profiling techniques on a panel of 10 cell lines and 20 patient samples representing nevi and primary or metastatic melanoma. Expression of selected miRNAs was inconsistent when comparing cell line-derived and patient-derived data. Moreover, as expected, some discrepancies were also detected when miRNA microarray data were correlated with qPCR-measured expression levels. Nevertheless, we identified miRNA-200c to be consistently downregulated in melanocytes, melanoma cell lines, and patient samples, whereas miRNA-205 and miRNA-23b were markedly reduced only in patient samples. In contrast, miR-146a and miR-155 were upregulated in all analyzed patients but none of the cell lines. Whole-genome microarrays were performed for analysis of selected melanoma cell lines to identify potential transcriptionally regulated miRNA target genes. Using Ingenuity pathway analysis, we identified a deregulated gene network centered around microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a transcription factor known to play a key role in melanoma development. Our findings define miRNAs and miRNA target genes that offer candidate biomarkers in human melanoma. ©2010 AACR. [less ▲]

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See detailThe significance of meaning in and the meaning of biodiversity research: Why IPBES needs the social sciences and humanities
Jetzkowitz, Jens; Wong, Catherine UL; Lidskog, Rolf et al

in Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research (2017)

The term “biodiversity” is often used to describe phenomena of nature, which can be studied without a reference to the socially constructed, evaluative, or indeed normative contexts. In our paper, we ... [more ▼]

The term “biodiversity” is often used to describe phenomena of nature, which can be studied without a reference to the socially constructed, evaluative, or indeed normative contexts. In our paper, we challenge this conception by focusing particularly on methodological aspects of biodiversity research. We thereby engage with the idea of interdisciplinary biodiversity research as a scientific approach directed at the recognition and management of contemporary society in its ecological embedding. By doing this, we explore how research on and assessments of biodiversity can be enhanced if meaning, aspiration, desires, and related aspects of agency are methodically taken into account. In six sections, we substantiate our claim that the discourse on biodiversity (including the IPBES (Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) debate) is incomplete without contributions from the social sciences and humanities. In the introduction, a brief overview of biodiversity’s conceptual history is provided showing that “biodiversity” is a lexical invention intended to create a strong political momentum. However, that does not impede its usability as a research concept. Section 2 examines the origins of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) by way of sociological discourse analysis. Subsequently, it proposes a matrix as a means to structure the ambiguities and tensions inherent in the CBD. The matrix reemphasizes our main thesis regarding the need to bring social and ethical expertise to the biodiversity discourse. In Section 3, we offer a brief sketch of the different methods of the natural and social sciences as well as ethics. This lays the groundwork for our Section 4, which explains and illustrates what social sciences and ethics can contribute to biodiversity research. Section 5 turns from research to politics and argues that biodiversity governance necessitates deliberative discourses in which participation of lay people plays an important role. Section 6 provides our conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Significance of the Doctrine of Accessory Allocation As a Connecting Factor Under Article 4 of the Rome I Regulation
Okoli, Chukwuma UL

in Journal of Private International Law (2013), 9(3), 49

The doctrine of accessory allocation is given special significance as a connecting factor by the framers of Rome I Regulation (through Recitals 20 and 21) in utilising the escape clause and principle of ... [more ▼]

The doctrine of accessory allocation is given special significance as a connecting factor by the framers of Rome I Regulation (through Recitals 20 and 21) in utilising the escape clause and principle of closest connection under Article 4. This article analyses the application of the doctrine under the Rome Convention; the possible reasons why the framers of Rome I gave the doctrine special significance; the nature of inquiry a Member State court would be faced with in applying the doctrine especially in very closely related contracts such as back-to-back contracts; and the dilemma faced by the court in determining the quantum of weight to attach to the application of the doctrine as it relates to displacing the main rule(s). The author concludes by stating that there is need for more clarity on the significance of the doctrine of accessory allocation as a connecting factor under Article 4 of Rome I. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Significance of the Place of Performance in Commercial Contracts under the European Union Choice of Law Rules
Okoli, Chukwuma UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

The central theme of this thesis is that the place of performance is of considerable significance as a connecting factor in international commercial contracts. This thesis challenges and questions the ... [more ▼]

The central theme of this thesis is that the place of performance is of considerable significance as a connecting factor in international commercial contracts. This thesis challenges and questions the approach of the European legislator, which does not explicitly give the place of performance special significance in the determination of the applicable law in the absence of choice for commercial contracts. This thesis proposes that the place of performance should be explicitly given special significance under a revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation. Second, it is argued that the absolute significance given to the place of performance in determining foreign country overriding mandatory rules is a good reason why the place of performance should be explicitly given special significance under a revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation. Third, inspired by the coherence between matters of European Union jurisdiction and choice of law in civil and commercial matters, it is argued that the place of performance which is given special significance under the European Union rules on the allocation of jurisdiction for commercial contracts is a good reason why the place of performance should be explicitly given special significance under a revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation. This thesis then concludes by proposing a model revised Article 4 of Rome I Regulation that could be used as an international solution by legislators, judges, arbitrators, and other decision makers who wish to reform their choice of law rules in determining the applicable law in the absence of choice for international commercial contracts. [less ▲]

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