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See detailState subsidies and fair competition in international air services: the European perspective
Bergamasco, Federico UL

in Issues in Aviation Law and Policy (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 UL)
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See detailState-Based Testing: Industrial Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Round-Trip Path and Sneak-Path Strategies
Holt, Nina Elisabeth; Torkar, Richard; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (2012)

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See detailA state-of the-art survey & testbed of Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) applications
Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; William, Derigent et al

in Expert Systems with Applications (2016), 65

As a practical popular methodology for dealing with fuzziness and uncertainty in Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) has been applied to a wide range of applications. As of the time ... [more ▼]

As a practical popular methodology for dealing with fuzziness and uncertainty in Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) has been applied to a wide range of applications. As of the time of writing there is no state of the art survey of FAHP, we carry out a literature review of 190 application papers (i.e., applied research papers), published between 2004 and 2016, by classifying them on the basis of the area of application, the identified theme, the year of publication, and so forth. The identified themes and application areas have been chosen based upon the latest state-of-the-art survey of AHP conducted by Vaidya and Kumar (2006). To help readers extract quick and meaningful information, the reviewed papers are summarized in various tabular formats and charts. Unlike previous literature surveys, results and findings are made available through an online (and free) testbed, which can serve as a ready reference for those who wish to apply, modify or extend FAHP in various applications areas. This online testbed makes also available one or more fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices (FPCMs) from all the reviewed papers (255 matrices in total). In terms of results and findings, this survey shows that: (i) FAHP is used primarily in the Manufacturing, Industry and Government sectors; (ii) Asia is the torchbearer in this field, where FAHP is mostly applied in the theme areas of Selection and Evaluation; (iii) a significant amount of research papers (43% of the reviewed literature) combine FAHP with other tools, particularly with TOPSIS, QFD and ANP (AHP’s variant); (iv) Chang’s extent analysis method, which is used for FPCMs’ weight derivation in FAHP, is still the most popular method in spite of a number of criticisms in recent years (considered in 57% of the reviewed literature). [less ▲]

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See detailState-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology.
Alepee, Natalie; Bahinski, Anthony; Daneshian, Mardas et al

in ALTEX (2014), 31(4), 441-77

Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk ... [more ▼]

Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk assessment; and (iii) increase our understanding of disease. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models are important building blocks of this strategy which has emerged during the last years. The majority of these models are organotypic, i.e., they aim to reproduce major functions of an organ or organ system. This implies in many cases that more than one cell type forms the 3D structure, and often matrix elements play an important role. This review summarizes the state of the art concerning commonalities of the different models. For instance, the theory of mass transport/metabolite exchange in 3D systems and the special analytical requirements for test endpoints in organotypic cultures are discussed in detail. In the next part, 3D model systems for selected organs--liver, lung, skin, brain--are presented and characterized in dedicated chapters. Also, 3D approaches to the modeling of tumors are presented and discussed. All chapters give a historical background, illustrate the large variety of approaches, and highlight up- and downsides as well as specific requirements. Moreover, they refer to the application in disease modeling, drug discovery and safety assessment. Finally, consensus recommendations indicate a roadmap for the successful implementation of 3D models in routine screening. It is expected that the use of such models will accelerate progress by reducing error rates and wrong predictions from compound testing. [less ▲]

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See detailStatelessness in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Report (2020)

Statelessness is a global phenomenon which is also present in the European Union. At the end of 2018, UNHCR estimated the total number of stateless persons in the European Union plus Norway at 399 283 ... [more ▼]

Statelessness is a global phenomenon which is also present in the European Union. At the end of 2018, UNHCR estimated the total number of stateless persons in the European Union plus Norway at 399 283 individuals. This includes both stateless individuals and persons of undetermined nationality. UNHCR and UNICEF also estimate that, in 2017, there were 2 100 children registered stateless in Europe, a fourfold increase since 2010. Article 1 of the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons defines a stateless person as ‘a person who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law’. Statelessness is a legal anomaly, which can prevent those concerned from accessing fundamental human, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. As a result, such persons often live in conditions of protracted marginalisation and discrimination, facing numerous difficulties, such as the inability to receive medical assistance, enrol in educational programmes, acquire property, obtain legal employment, marry or open a bank account. Even though statelessness can occur in various contexts, its most common causes include state succession, ill-defined or discriminatory nationality laws, and arbitrary deprivation of nationality. Statelessness can also be a consequence of forced displacement and forced migration and can result when people face difficulties accessing civil registration documents, including birth certificates, necessary to acquire or confirm nationality. [less ▲]

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See detailStatelessness the proof of a negative
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

in Journaal Vreemdelingen-recht (2020), 19(2/2020), 30-37

This article provides an overview of what the Member States of the European Union are doing in order to tackle statelessness in the European Union through the European Migration Network Platform on ... [more ▼]

This article provides an overview of what the Member States of the European Union are doing in order to tackle statelessness in the European Union through the European Migration Network Platform on Statelessness. It also provides an overview of the state of play of statelessness in the European Union based on the EMN Inform entitled ‘Statelessness in the EU’ putting emphasis on the burden and standard of proof. [less ▲]

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See detailStatement of the Board on Cultural and Ethnic Diversity towards intercultural and individual Diversity
De Ponte, Ulrike; Albert, Isabelle UL; Žegura, Iva

Scientific Conference (2019, July 03)

Cultural and individual diversity is getting more and more part of the daily work of each psychologist nowadays, but still this issue is less or insufficiently addressed in the study programmes all over ... [more ▼]

Cultural and individual diversity is getting more and more part of the daily work of each psychologist nowadays, but still this issue is less or insufficiently addressed in the study programmes all over Europe. Therefore, psychologists work repeating in situations of the quality of a cultural overlap being not or insufficient prepared for this yet. The psychologists’ core work of understanding and supporting people from a psychological point of view lacks knowledge as well as the performance of taking in account multiple and differentiated perspectives. The conclusion is: The subject Intercultural psychology needs to be mandatorily included into the curricula of study programmes of Psychology and this already on Bachelor levels. This joint-symposium is supposed to aim in working groups after the input-presentations in order to collect all kind of psychologists’ views on the needs that are seen out of the view of the divers working fields of psychologists. [less ▲]

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See detailStates and the development of International Criminal Law: Report on Greece Report on Greece
Pichou, Maria UL

Report (2016)

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The ... [more ▼]

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The purpose of the report is to provide a short and profound view of the development of international criminal law in each country. [less ▲]

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See detailStates and traits in psychological assessment.
Steyer, Rolf; Ferring, Dieter UL; Schmitt, Manfred J.

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (1992), 8(2)

Detailed reference viewed: 220 (0 UL)
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See detailStates and unknown input estimation via non-linear sliding mode high-gain observers for a glucose-insulin system
Aguilera Gonzalez, Adriana UL; Voos, Holger UL; Darouach, Mohamed

in IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2016 (2016, December 04)

A meal-estimation algorithm is developed based on an extended mathematical model of the glucose-insulin system. The proposed model describes the dynamics of glucose levels in blood and in subcutaneous ... [more ▼]

A meal-estimation algorithm is developed based on an extended mathematical model of the glucose-insulin system. The proposed model describes the dynamics of glucose levels in blood and in subcutaneous layer, as well as the meal intake which is considered an unknown input of the system. This model seeks to represent in a more realistic manner, the pancreas malfunction in patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Based on model, a non-linear high gain observer (NHGO) with a sliding mode is designed in order to estimate the unmeasured states and the external disturbances of the system. This scheme is useful to maintain frequent monitoring of glucose levels and any changes in its behaviour. The unknown input or disturbance is estimated through the sliding mode based only the estimation error. Data from a real patient is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed estimation scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailStates of Education: Reflections on the Relationship between Welfare State and Education in Finland and the Federal Republic of Germany
Gardin, Matias UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

This PhD thesis examines the impact of political ideologies on the welfare state developments of the Republic of Finland and Federal Republic of Germany. It explores the issue by asking whether different ... [more ▼]

This PhD thesis examines the impact of political ideologies on the welfare state developments of the Republic of Finland and Federal Republic of Germany. It explores the issue by asking whether different ideas of ruling parties mattered in these developments or were there other factors, such as the level of economic strength, which became more influential in explaining cross-national welfare variations. Whereas mainstream analysts of comparative social policy since the early 1990s have taken for granted that politics mattered in the immediate post-war era reflecting the more pronounced left-right, catholic-protestant and other historical cleavages, this research moves beyond the oversimplified traditional welfare regime typologies and instead considers how welfare systems became intertwined with other more control-focused aspects of state development: in effect, whether and how they became instruments of discipline through educating citizens. Drawing on the Foucauldian idea of power of normalisation – and using educational expansion of the 1960s as a case study – it is suggested that there are aspects of the development of Finnish and West German policing which had a direct bearing on the emergence of the welfare state. [less ▲]

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See detailState‐owned firms and private debt
Picard, Pierre M UL; rusli, ridwan

in Journal of Public Economic Theory (2018), 20(5), 672-702

We study the role of private debt financing in reducing government transfers and information costs in a state‐owned firm. We show that debt contracts allow the government to reduce socially costly ... [more ▼]

We study the role of private debt financing in reducing government transfers and information costs in a state‐owned firm. We show that debt contracts allow the government to reduce socially costly subsidies by letting underperforming state‐owned firms default. When the firm has private information, the government uses debt to reduce the firm's information rents. The option of default and privatization allows the government to stop subsidizing the firm. We identify the conditions under which information costs outweigh privatization costs and a positive debt level benefits governments. [less ▲]

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See detailStatic Analysis for Extracting Permission Checks of a Large Scale Framework: The Challenges And Solutions for Analyzing Android
Bartel, Alexandre; Klein, Jacques UL; Monperrus, Martin et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (TSE) (2014), 40(6), 617-632

A common security architecture is based on the protection of certain resources by permission checks (used e.g., in Android and Blackberry). It has some limitations, for instance, when applications are ... [more ▼]

A common security architecture is based on the protection of certain resources by permission checks (used e.g., in Android and Blackberry). It has some limitations, for instance, when applications are granted more permissions than they actually need, which facilitates all kinds of malicious usage (e.g., through code injection). The analysis of permission-based framework requires a precise mapping between API methods of the framework and the permissions they require. In this paper, we show that naive static analysis fails miserably when applied with off-the-shelf components on the Android framework. We then present an advanced class-hierarchy and field-sensitive set of analyses to extract this mapping. Those static analyses are capable of analyzing the Android framework. They use novel domain specific optimizations dedicated to Android. [less ▲]

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See detailStatic Analysis of Android Apps: A Systematic Literature Review
Li, Li UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

Report (2016)

Context: Static analysis approaches have been proposed to assess the security of Android apps, by searching for known vulnerabilities or actual malicious code. The literature thus has proposed a large ... [more ▼]

Context: Static analysis approaches have been proposed to assess the security of Android apps, by searching for known vulnerabilities or actual malicious code. The literature thus has proposed a large body of works, each of which attempts to tackle one or more of the several challenges that program analyzers face when dealing with Android apps. Objective: We aim to provide a clear view of the state-of-the-art works that statically analyze Android apps, from which we highlight the trends of static analysis approaches, pinpoint where the focus has been put and enumerate the key aspects where future researches are still needed. Method: We have performed a systematic literature review which involves studying around 90 research papers published in software engineering, programming languages and security venues. This review is performed mainly in five dimensions: problems targeted by the approach, fundamental techniques used by authors, static analysis sensitivities considered, android characteristics taken into account and the scale of evaluation performed. Results: Our in-depth examination have led to several key findings: 1) Static analysis is largely performed to uncover security and privacy issues; 2) The Soot framework and the Jimple intermediate representation are the most adopted basic support tool and format, respectively; 3) Taint analysis remains the most applied technique in research approaches; 4) Most approaches support several analysis sensitivities, but very few approaches consider path-sensitivity; 5) There is no single work that has been proposed to tackle all challenges of static analysis that are related to Android programming; and 6) Only a small portion of state-of-the-art works have made their artifacts publicly available. Conclusion: The research community is still facing a number of challenges for building approaches that are aware altogether of implicit-Flows, dynamic code loading features, reflective calls, native code and multi-threading, in order to implement sound and highly precise static analyzers. [less ▲]

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See detailStatic Analysis of Android Apps: A Systematic Literature Review
Li, Li UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in Information and Software Technology (2017)

Context: Static analysis exploits techniques that parse program source code or bytecode, often traversing program paths to check some program properties. Static analysis approaches have been proposed for ... [more ▼]

Context: Static analysis exploits techniques that parse program source code or bytecode, often traversing program paths to check some program properties. Static analysis approaches have been proposed for different tasks, including for assessing the security of Android apps, detecting app clones, automating test cases generation, or for uncovering non-functional issues related to performance or energy. The literature thus has proposed a large body of works, each of which attempts to tackle one or more of the several challenges that program analysers face when dealing with Android apps. Objective: We aim to provide a clear view of the state-of-the-art works that statically analyse Android apps, from which we highlight the trends of static analysis approaches, pinpoint where the focus has been put, and enumerate the key aspects where future researches are still needed. Method: We have performed a systematic literature review (SLR) which involves studying 124 research papers published in software engineering, programming languages and security venues in the last 5 years (January 2011 - December 2015). This review is performed mainly in five dimensions: problems targeted by the approach, fundamental techniques used by authors, static analysis sensitivities considered, android characteristics taken into account and the scale of evaluation performed. Results: Our in-depth examination has led to several key findings: 1) Static analysis is largely performed to uncover security and privacy issues; 2) The Soot framework and the Jimple intermediate representation are the most adopted basic support tool and format, respectively; 3) Taint analysis remains the most applied technique in research approaches; 4) Most approaches support several analysis sensitivities, but very few approaches consider path-sensitivity; 5) There is no single work that has been proposed to tackle all challenges of static analysis that are related to Android programming; and 6) Only a small portion of state-of-the-art works have made their artefacts publicly available. Conclusion: The research community is still facing a number of challenges for building approaches that are aware altogether of implicit-Flows, dynamic code loading features, reflective calls, native code and multi-threading, in order to implement sound and highly precise static analyzers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 303 (13 UL)
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See detailStatic Analysis of new wall system realized by modular concrete blocks
Agaajani, Shahriar; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in proceedings: p.177-180 (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (21 UL)
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See detailStatic and dynamic differences in fixation stability between a spacer plate and a small stature plate fixator used for high tibial osteotomies – A biomechanical bone composite study
Maas, Stefan UL; Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Dueck, Klaus et al

in ISRN Orthopedics (2013), 2013

Background: The objective of the present study was to comparemechanical strength and stability of the newly designed spacer plate with the gold standard plate for the treatment of medial knee joint ... [more ▼]

Background: The objective of the present study was to comparemechanical strength and stability of the newly designed spacer plate with the gold standard plate for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: Ten fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) according to standard techniques, using five TomoFix plates and five Contour Lock plates. Static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclical fatigue failure tests were performed. Forces and horizontal displacements were measured; plastic deformations and dynamic stiffness were determined. Results and Discussion: In all samples, rotation of the tibial head and fracture of the opposite cortex were observed. Behaviors of the specimens under static loading were comparable between groups. Cyclic testing revealed lateral significant higher stiffness untilfailure for the Contour Lock compared to the TomoFix plate. No visible implant failure was observed in any group. Conclusion: Considering the static analysis, both plates offered sufficient stability under physiologic loads of up to 3000N. The Contour Lock plate-fixated specimens showed a higher stability during the cyclic testing, supposedly due to the wider distance between the fixation screws. [less ▲]

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See detailStatic and dynamic testing on prestressed concrete slab elements with artificial bond deficiencies
Mahowald, Jean UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Proceedings of the 4th Bond in Concrete Conference, Vol. 1: General Aspects of Bond (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (22 UL)
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See detailStatic and fatigue strength of a novel anatomically contoured implant compared to five current open-wedge high tibial osteotomy plates
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Belsey, James et al

in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2017), 4(39),

Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical static and fatigue strength of the size 2 osteotomy plate “Activmotion” with the following five other common implants for ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical static and fatigue strength of the size 2 osteotomy plate “Activmotion” with the following five other common implants for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis: the TomoFix small stature, the TomoFix standard, the Contour Lock, the iBalance and the second generation PEEKPower. Methods Six fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), according to standard techniques, using size 2 Activmotion osteotomy plates. All bone-implant constructs were subjected to static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclic fatigue failure testing, according to a previously defined testing protocol. The mechanical stability was investigated by considering different criteria and parameters: maximum forces, the maximum number of loading cycles, stiffness, the permanent plastic deformation of the specimens during the cyclic fatigue tests, and the maximum displacement range in the hysteresis loops of the cyclic loading responses. Results In each test, all bone-implant constructs with the size 2 Activmotion plate failed with a fracture of the lateral cortex, like with the other five previously tested implants. For the static compression tests the failure occurred in each tested implant above the physiological loading of slow walking (> 2400 N). The load at failure for the Activmotion group was the highest (8200 N). In terms of maximum load and number of cycles performed prior to failure, the size 2 Activmotion plate showed higher results than all the other tested implants except the ContourLock plate. The iBalance implant offered the highest stiffness (3.1 kN/mm) for static loading on the lateral side, while the size 2 Activmotion showed the highest stiffness (4.8 kN/mm) in cyclic loading. Conclusions Overall, regarding all of the analysed strength parameters, the size 2 Activmotion plate provided equivalent or higher mechanical stability compared to the previously tested implant. Implants with a metaphyseal slope adapted to the tibia anatomy, and positioned more anteriorly on the proximal medial side of the tibia, should provide good mechanical stability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 155 (19 UL)