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See detailStructure, expression and chromosomal localization of Zfp-1, a murine zinc finger protein gene.
Chowdhury, K.; Dietrich, S.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (1989), 17(24), 10427-38

Zinc finger proteins (Zfp) are encoded by a large family of genes present in many organisms including yeast and human. Some of them are transcriptional activators and bind specifically to DNA by zinc ... [more ▼]

Zinc finger proteins (Zfp) are encoded by a large family of genes present in many organisms including yeast and human. Some of them are transcriptional activators and bind specifically to DNA by zinc mediated folded structures commonly known as zinc fingers. The Drosophila Kruppel (Kr) is a segmentation gene and encodes a zinc finger protein. Using a probe from the finger domain of Kr, we have isolated a structurally related gene Zfp-1 from the mouse. In this paper, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of two cDNA clones and the amino acid sequence deduced from them. The putative Zfp-1 protein contains in addition to 7 zinc fingers, two helix-turn-helix motifs. During murine embryogenesis, the Zfp-1 was found to express at a peak level in day 12 embryos. The ubiquitously expressed Zfp-1 gene is located in the 16q region on mouse chromosome 8, between the uvomorulin and the tyrosine amino transferase genes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (0 UL)
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See detailStructure, expression and chromosomal location of the Oct-4 gene.
Yeom, Y. I.; Ha, H. S.; Balling, Rudi UL et al

in Mechanisms of Development (1991), 35(3), 171-9

The map position of Oct-4 on mouse chromosome 17 is between Q and T regions in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and it is physically located within 35 kb of a class I gene. Several Oct-4 ... [more ▼]

The map position of Oct-4 on mouse chromosome 17 is between Q and T regions in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and it is physically located within 35 kb of a class I gene. Several Oct-4-related genes are present in the murine genome; one of them maps to chromosome 9. The genomic structure and sequence of Oct-4 determined in t-haplotypes reveals five exons, and shows no significant changes in the t12 mutant haplotype making it unlikely that Oct-4 and the t12 early embryonic lethal are the same gene. By in situ hybridization, detectable onset of zygotic Oct-4 expression does not occur until compaction begins at 8-cells, suggesting that there might be other regulatory factors responsible for initiating Oct-4 expression. [less ▲]

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See detailA structure-activity relationship linking non-planar PCBs to functional deficits of neural crest cells: new roles for connexins
Nyffeler, Johanna; Chovancova, Petra; Dolde, Xenia et al

in Archives of Toxicology (2018), 92(3), 12251247

Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the ... [more ▼]

Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the ‘migration-inhibition of NCC (cMINC)’ assay, a large number of toxicity mechanisms and protein targets can be covered. However, the key events that lead to the adverse effects of a given chemical or group of related compounds are hard to elucidate. To address this issue, we explored here, whether the establishment of two overlapping structure–activity relationships (SAR)—linking chemical structure on the one hand to a phenotypic test outcome, and on the other hand to a mechanistic endpoint—was useful as strategy to identify relevant toxicity mechanisms. For this purpose, we chose polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as a large group of related, but still toxicologically and physicochemically diverse structures. We obtained concentration-dependent data for 26 PCBs in the cMINC assay. Moreover, the test chemicals were evaluated by a new high-content imaging method for their effect on cellular re-distribution of connexin43 and for their capacity to inhibit gap junctions. Non-planar PCBs inhibited NCC migration. The potency (1–10 μM) correlated with the number of ortho-chlorine substituents; non-ortho-chloro (planar) PCBs were non-toxic. The toxicity to NCC partially correlated with gap junction inhibition, while it fully correlated (p < 0.0004) with connexin43 cellular re-distribution. Thus, our double-SAR strategy revealed a mechanistic step tightly linked to NCC toxicity of PCBs. Connexin43 patterns in NCC may be explored as a new endpoint relevant to developmental toxicity screening. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 130 (10 UL)
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See detailStructure-activity relationships and colorimetric properties of specific probes for the putative cancer biomarker human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1.
Egleton, James E.; Thinnes, Cyrille UL; Seden, Peter T. et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2014), 22(11), 3030-54

A naphthoquinone inhibitor of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (hNAT1), a potential cancer biomarker and therapeutic target, has been reported which undergoes a distinctive concomitant color change ... [more ▼]

A naphthoquinone inhibitor of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (hNAT1), a potential cancer biomarker and therapeutic target, has been reported which undergoes a distinctive concomitant color change from red to blue upon binding to the enzyme. Here we describe the use of in silico modeling alongside structure-activity relationship studies to advance the hit compound towards a potential probe to quantify hNAT1 levels in tissues. Derivatives with both a fifty-fold higher potency against hNAT1 and a two-fold greater absorption coefficient compared to the initial hit have been synthesized; these compounds retain specificity for hNAT1 and its murine homologue mNat2 over the isoenzyme hNAT2. A relationship between pKa, inhibitor potency and colorimetric properties has also been uncovered. The high potency of representative examples against hNAT1 in ZR-75-1 cell extracts also paves the way for the development of inhibitors with improved intrinsic sensitivity which could enable detection of hNAT1 in tissue samples and potentially act as tools for elucidating the unknown role hNAT1 plays in ER+ breast cancer; this could in turn lead to a therapeutic use for such inhibitors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (2 UL)
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See detailStructure-activity studies of bradykinin analogues on rat mast cell histamine release
Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Mousli, M.; Landry, Y. et al

in Peptides (1993), 14(4), 685-9

Bradykinin (BK), kallidin (KD), and various analogues induced histamine release from rat mast cells. The results obtained with substituted analogues of BK indicated that: 1) the presence of both Arg ... [more ▼]

Bradykinin (BK), kallidin (KD), and various analogues induced histamine release from rat mast cells. The results obtained with substituted analogues of BK indicated that: 1) the presence of both Arg residues at position 1 and 9 of kinins was favorable to confer histamine-releasing activity, 2) acetylation of the N-terminal amino acid residue led to a drastic reduction of this activity, 3) addition of a D-Arg residue at the N-terminus reduced their activity, as well as trans-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) substitutions at position 2 or 3,4) D-Arg0 addition and Hyp3 substitution were synergistic in lowering activity, and 5) D-Phe7 substitution led to enhanced histamine-releasing activity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (0 UL)
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See detailStructured Analysis of Arbitrary Island Grids
Jostock, Markus UL; Sachau, Jürgen UL; Hadji-Minaglou, Jean-Régis UL et al

Scientific Conference (2013, October 08)

This paper recapitulates an analytic control model for arbitrary island grids and presents findings on the dynamic behaviour of purely inverter driven island grids. Pole zero plots of different grid ... [more ▼]

This paper recapitulates an analytic control model for arbitrary island grids and presents findings on the dynamic behaviour of purely inverter driven island grids. Pole zero plots of different grid structures are presented and the influence of several inverter parameters on the grid stability is analysed. Findings show that for improved grid stability the inverter’s time constants should also relate to their rated power. Further it is shown how P-Q rotation in the droop control can improve the integration density of renewable power sources in the distribution grid. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 232 (22 UL)
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See detailA Structured Argumentation Framework for Modeling Debates in the Formal Sciences
Cramer, Marcos; Dauphin, Jérémie UL

in Journal for General Philosophy of Science (2019)

Scientific research in the formal sciences comes in multiple degrees of formality: fully formal work; rigorous proofs that practitioners know to be formalizable in principle; and informal work like rough ... [more ▼]

Scientific research in the formal sciences comes in multiple degrees of formality: fully formal work; rigorous proofs that practitioners know to be formalizable in principle; and informal work like rough proof sketches and considerations about the advantages and disadvantages of various formal systems. This informal work includes informal and semi-formal debates between formal scientists, e.g. about the acceptability of foundational principles and proposed axiomatizations. In this paper, we propose to use the methodology of structured argumentation theory to produce a formal model of such informal and semi-formal debates in the formal sciences. For this purpose, we propose ASPIC-END, an adaptation of the structured argumentation framework ASPIC+ which can incorporate natural deduction style arguments and explanations. We illustrate the applicability of the framework to debates in the formal sciences by presenting a simple model of some arguments about proposed solutions to the Liar paradox, and by discussing a more extensive - but still preliminary - model of parts of the debate that mathematicians had about the Axiom of Choice in the early 20th century. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (13 UL)
See detailStructured dialogue between decision-makers, practitioners and researchers as a core device in youth-policy making
Willems, Helmut UL

in Milmeister, Marianne; Williamson, Howard (Eds.) Dialogues and networks. Organising exchanges between youth field actors (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (12 UL)
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See detailStructured Diversity: A Practice Theory Approach to Post- Growth Organisations
Schmid, Benedikt UL

in Management Revue (2018), 29(3), 281-310

Innovative forms of organising are a crucial pillar of post-growth transitions. Situated within a growth-based institutional context, actually existing forms of post-growth organising are ambiguous ... [more ▼]

Innovative forms of organising are a crucial pillar of post-growth transitions. Situated within a growth-based institutional context, actually existing forms of post-growth organising are ambiguous. Divisions across legal structure, market participation and sectoral focus do not suffice to single out post-growth organizations. Instead, this paper develops a more fluid notion which is based on the “thick description” of organisations. Conceptually, the paper borrows from diverse economies and practice theory literatures, allied in their appreciation of performativity. The latter in particular illustrates transition’s irreducibility to structural or individual agency and lends itself to a notion of post-growth politics: the practice of changing the rules of practice to support parallel and mutually enforcing processes of cultural and institutional change within the diverse meanings of post-growth. Studies of diverse economies remind us that market practices are only the tip of the (economic) iceberg. In con- junction with qualitative empirical data from a study of alternative economies in Stuttgart, Germany, a framework is developed to structure organisations’ diverse forms of relatedness to larger contexts. Identifying, besides economies, also communality, narratives, experience, governance and ecology as central patterns in the relatedness of practices (logics), this paper proposes a structured notion of diversity to dis- cuss the ambiguities, contradictions and compromises of actually existing post- growth organisations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (1 UL)
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See detailStructured Sparse Recovery Algorithms for Data Decoding in Media Based Modulation
Bandi, Ashok UL; Murthy, Chandra

in International Conference on Communications, Paris 21-25 May 2017 (2017, May 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (3 UL)
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See detailStructures and Magnetism of the Rare-Earth Orthochromite Perovskite Solid Solution LaxSm1−xCrO3
Daniels, Luke M.; Weber, Mads C.; Lees, Martin R. et al

in Inorganic Chemistry (2013), 52

A new mixed rare-earth orthochromite series, LaxSm1−xCrO3, prepared through single-step hydrothermal synthesis is reported. Solid solutions (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.75, 0.875, and 1.0) were prepared by ... [more ▼]

A new mixed rare-earth orthochromite series, LaxSm1−xCrO3, prepared through single-step hydrothermal synthesis is reported. Solid solutions (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.75, 0.875, and 1.0) were prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of amorphous mixed-metal hydroxides at 370 °C for 48 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the formation of highly crystalline particles with dendritic-like morphologies. Rietveld refinements against high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data show that the distorted perovskite structures are described by the orthorhombic space group Pnma over the full composition range. Unit cell volumes and Cr−O−Cr bond angles decrease monotonically with increasing samarium content, consistent with the presence of the smaller lanthanide in the structure. Raman spectroscopy confirms the formation of solid solutions, the degree of their structural distortion. With the aid of shell-model calculations the complex mixing of Raman modes below 250 cm−1 is clarified. Magnetometry as a function of temperature reveals the onset of low-temperature antiferromagnetic ordering of Cr3+ spins with weak ferromagnetic component at Néel temperatures (TN) that scale linearly with unit cell volume and structural distortion. Coupling effects between Cr3+ and Sm3+ ions are examined with enhanced susceptibilities below TN due to polarization of Sm3+ moments. At low temperatures the Cr3+ sublattice is shown to undergo a second-order spin reorientation observed as a rapid decrease of susceptibility. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 78 (1 UL)
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See detailStructures de parenté et processus d'identification dans la Lotharingie des X et XIe siècles. Le cas du groupement familial dit "d'Ardenne"
Margue, Michel UL

in Joye, Sylvie; Lienhard, Thomas; Jégou, Laurent (Eds.) et al Splendor Reginae. Passions, genre et famille. Mélanges en l'honneur de Régine Le Jan (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 UL)
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See detailStructures mathématiques
Wiese, Gabor UL

Learning material (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 234 (46 UL)
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See detailThe structuring causes of behavior: Has Dretske saved mental causation?
Hofmann, Frank UL; Schulte, Peter

in Acta Analytica (2014), 29(3), 267-284

Detailed reference viewed: 98 (3 UL)
See detailThe Struggle in Online Copyright Enforcement - Problems and Prospects
Schmitz, Sandra Verena Ingrid UL

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The thesis analyses legal measures that aim at fighting and reducing copyright infringements on the Internet. The analysis focusses on approaches from France, UK and Germany in order to determine the most ... [more ▼]

The thesis analyses legal measures that aim at fighting and reducing copyright infringements on the Internet. The analysis focusses on approaches from France, UK and Germany in order to determine the most appropriate and effective road to take. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 196 (22 UL)
See detailThe Struggle in Online Copyright Enforcement - Problems and Prospects
Schmitz, Sandra UL

Book published by Nomos with Hart Publishing (2015)

How are copyright infringements on the Internet responded to? This study outlines the international, European as well as national legal frameworks with a particular focus on the law of the EU Member ... [more ▼]

How are copyright infringements on the Internet responded to? This study outlines the international, European as well as national legal frameworks with a particular focus on the law of the EU Member States France, the UK and Germany. As regards the analysis of national law, the study differentiates between enforcement mechanism against end-users directly and mechanisms that are directed against infringing materials as such. The study highlights that copyright enforcement on the Internet is a struggle to find the right target and an effective, yet proportionate enforcement mechanism. In addition to the outline and analysis of national approaches in terms of compatibility with fundamental rights and European law, a focus is set on questions of digital evidence and technological feasibility/efficiency of individual enforcement mechanisms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (1 UL)
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See detailStruggling for the Future, Burdened by the Past: Croatia’s Relations with the United Kingdom from Independence to Brexit
Glaurdic, Josip UL

in Croatian International Relations Review (2017), 23(79), 5-39

Apart from relations with its neighbours, Croatia’s relations with the United Kingdom (UK) were undoubtedly its greatest international challenge since it won its independence in the early 1990s. Relations ... [more ▼]

Apart from relations with its neighbours, Croatia’s relations with the United Kingdom (UK) were undoubtedly its greatest international challenge since it won its independence in the early 1990s. Relations between the two countries during this period were frequently strained partly due to Zagreb’s democratic shortcomings, but partly also due to competing visions of post-Cold War Southeast Europe and due to long-lasting biases rooted in Croatia’s and Britain’s conflicting policies during Yugoslavia’s breakup and wars. Croatia’s accession to the EU in 2013 offered an opportunity for the two countries to leave the burdens of their past behind, since Zagreb and London had similar preferences on a number of crucial EU policy fronts. However, Brexit changed everything. Croatia’s future relations with the UK are likely to be determined by the nature of Brexit negotiations and the evolution of British policy toward the pace and direction of EU integration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (5 UL)
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See detailStruggling to raise children bilingually in Luxembourgish and English: an exploration of the language ideologies and parental practices of Luxembourgish mothers.
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Arend, Béatrice; Weber, Jean-Jacques (Eds.) Penser l'education de demain. (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (3 UL)
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See detailStruggling with the languages of the 'legitimate market' and the 'islets of liberty' (Bourdieu). A case study of pupils with immigrational background in the trilingual school-system of Luxembourg
Maurer-Hetto, Marie-Paule UL

in International Journal of Multilingualism (2009), 6(1), 68-84

Two Portuguese children of immigrants were observed over a period of two years within the complex sociolinguistic context of the Luxembourgish multilingual school-system. The data allow the analysis of ... [more ▼]

Two Portuguese children of immigrants were observed over a period of two years within the complex sociolinguistic context of the Luxembourgish multilingual school-system. The data allow the analysis of their relations with the languages they learn at school: Luxembourgish, German, French and Portuguese. The observations focus on the two pupils struggling with the languages of the ‘legitimate market’ and the ‘islets of liberty’ (Bourdieu). Their different strategies lead to opposite results: one manages to cope with the system, the other borders on failure. The theoretical frame of the study is based on socio-cultural theory (Vygotsky, 1962), enhanced by the demands of a multilingual school. The study relies on a qualitative, ethnographically oriented methodology. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (5 UL)