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See detailToward systems metabolic engineering in cyanobacteria: opportunities and bottlenecks.
Nogales, Juan; Gudmundsson, Steinn; Thiele, Ines UL

in Bioengineered (2013), 4(3), 158-163

We recently assessed the metabolism of Synechocystis sp PCC6803 through a constraints-based reconstruction and analysis approach and identified its main metabolic properties. These include reduced ... [more ▼]

We recently assessed the metabolism of Synechocystis sp PCC6803 through a constraints-based reconstruction and analysis approach and identified its main metabolic properties. These include reduced metabolic robustness, in contrast to a high photosynthetic robustness driving the optimal autotrophic metabolism. Here, we address how these metabolic features affect biotechnological capabilities of this bacterium. The search for growth-coupled overproducer strains revealed that the carbon flux re-routing, but not the electron flux, is significantly more challenging under autotrophic conditions than under mixo- or heterotrophic conditions. We also found that the blocking of the light-driven metabolism was required for carbon flux re-routing under mixotrophic conditions. Overall, our analysis, which represents the first systematic evaluation of the biotechnological capabilities of a photosynthetic organism, paradoxically suggests that the light-driven metabolism itself and its unique metabolic features are the main bottlenecks in harnessing the biotechnological potential of Synechocystis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 UL)
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See detailTowards a 21st-century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: consensus report and recommendations.
Langley, Gillian R.; Adcock, Ian M.; Busquet, Francois et al

in Drug discovery today (2017), 22(2), 327-339

Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research ... [more ▼]

Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, government institutions, research funding bodies, and the corporate and non-governmental organisation (NGO) sectors, in this consensus report, we analyse, as case studies, five disease areas with major unmet needs for new treatments. In view of the scientifically driven transition towards a human pathways-based paradigm in toxicology, a similar paradigm shift appears to be justified in biomedical research. There is a pressing need for an approach that strategically implements advanced, human biology-based models and tools to understand disease pathways at multiple biological scales. We present recommendations to help achieve this. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)
See detailTowards a Closing of the Gender Pay Gap: Country Report Austria.
Egger de Campo, Marianne; Hoenig, Barbara UL; Kreimer, Margareta et al

Report (2002)

Austria shows one of the highest gender wage differentials among the European countries; in 1999, Austrian women's average earnings reached only 65 % of that of their male compatriots. This wage gap ... [more ▼]

Austria shows one of the highest gender wage differentials among the European countries; in 1999, Austrian women's average earnings reached only 65 % of that of their male compatriots. This wage gap decreased during the 1980s but again increased in the 1990s, although female employment rates had been rising ever since. In the 2010s, Austria still is among those countries with the highest gender pay gap of the enlarged EU28. This already points to the very main characteristic of the Austrian gender wage gap: Most of the increase of female labour market participation has been realized in part-time jobs, which not only decreases gross earnings but also chances to get promoted, and thus access to better paid jobs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards a common understanding of the precautionary principle?
König, Ariane UL

Article for general public (2000)

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 UL)
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See detailTowards a complexity shift: Aktuelle analytische Trends der Grenzforschung
Wille, Christian UL

in Klessmann, Maria; Gerst, Dominik; Krämer, Hannes (Eds.) Handbuch Grenzforschung (in press)

Die Auffassung, dass Grenzen aus sozialer Praxis hervorgehen und soziale Praxis hervorbringen, hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten für eine Reihe an Ansätzen und Begriffen gesorgt. Der Beitrag versucht diese ... [more ▼]

Die Auffassung, dass Grenzen aus sozialer Praxis hervorgehen und soziale Praxis hervorbringen, hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten für eine Reihe an Ansätzen und Begriffen gesorgt. Der Beitrag versucht diese zu systematisieren und stellt einen processual shift, multiplicity shift und complexitiy shift vor. Diese Trends beschreiben verschiedene analytische Schwerpunktsetzungen und eine zunehmend differenziertere Beschäftigung mit Grenzen. Abschließend wird auf die noch unzureichend bestimmte Kategorie der sozialen Praxis und auf das Potential der Praxistheorien für die Grenzforschung eingegangen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards a Cultural History of Car Sound(s)
Krebs, Stefan UL

in Norton, Peter; Mom, Gijs; Millward, Liz (Eds.) et al Mobility in History : Reviews and Reflections (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 UL)
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See detailTowards a Decision Model Based on Trust and Security Risk Management
Alcalde, Baptiste UL; Dubois, E.; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Proc. 7th Australasian Information Security Conference - AISC'09 (2009)

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See detailTowards a decision model based on trust and security risk management. In Ljiljana Brankovic and Willy Susilo
Alcalde, Baptiste UL; Dubois, Eric; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Seventh Australasian Information Security Conference (AISC 2009) (2009)

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See detailTowards a declarative modeling and execution framework for real-time systems
Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in ACM SIGBED Review (2016), 13(2), 30-33

Our work is a contribution towards addressing what Thomas Henziger called the grand challenge in embedded software design [5]: "offering high-level programming models that exposes the execution properties ... [more ▼]

Our work is a contribution towards addressing what Thomas Henziger called the grand challenge in embedded software design [5]: "offering high-level programming models that exposes the execution properties of a system in a way that permits the programmer to express desired reaction and execution requirements, permits the compiler and run-time systems to ensure that these requirements are satisfied". In the programming model we describe here, the developer states the permissible timing behavior of the system, a system synthesis step involving both analysis and optimization generates a scheduling solution which at run-time is enforced by the execution environment. With respect to the synchronous programming models, our approach implements a weaker version of time-determinism, still providing a form of timing-predictability sufficient in many applications while remaining closer to mainstay software development practices. This approach is currently being implemented and experimented in the CPAL language development tools and associated runtime environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (7 UL)
See detailTowards a EU-US free trade zone
Hofmann, Herwig UL

Presentation (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 115 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards a Formally Verified Proof Assistant
Anand, Abhishek; Rahli, Vincent UL

in Interactive Theorem Proving - 5th International Conference, ITP 2014, Held as Part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 14-17, 2014. Proceedings (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (5 UL)
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See detailTowards a Formally Verified Proof Assistant (technical report)
Anand, Abhishek; Rahli, Vincent UL

Report (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 UL)
See detailTowards a framework for application support in mobile networks
Wehling, Ulf UL

Doctoral thesis (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards a framework of choices made during the life-cycle of process models
Gericke, Kilian UL; Eckert, Claudia; Wynn, David

in Marjanovic, Dorian (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Design Conference - DESIGN'16 (2016)

A variety of process modelling approaches exist. The tools provide visualizations and enable analyses of a process. However, analyses of a process depend fundamentally on the properties of the underlying ... [more ▼]

A variety of process modelling approaches exist. The tools provide visualizations and enable analyses of a process. However, analyses of a process depend fundamentally on the properties of the underlying process model. Choices that modellers make in building process models affect the quality of the created models and have an effect on what the models can be used for and can affect the process that is modelled. This paper reflects over the choices the processes modellers need to make in the course of building processes and proposes a framework to show how the choices are related to each other. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a full support of obligations in XACML
El Kateb, Donia UL; Elrakaiby, Y.; Mouelhi, T. et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (2015), 8924

Policy-based systems rely on the separation of concerns, by implementing independently a software system and its associated security policy. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) proposes a ... [more ▼]

Policy-based systems rely on the separation of concerns, by implementing independently a software system and its associated security policy. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) proposes a conceptual architecture and a policy language to reflect this ideal design of policy-based systems.However, while rights are well-captured by authorizations, duties, also called obligations, are not well managed by XACML architecture. The current version of XACML lacks (1) well-defined syntax to express obligations and (2) an unified model to handle decision making w.r.t. obligation states and the history of obligations fulfillment/ violation. In this work, we propose an extension of XACML reference model that integrates obligation states in the decision making process.We have extended XACML language and architecture for a better obligations support and have shown how obligations are managed in our proposed extended XACML architecture: OB-XACML. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Full Support of Obligations In XACML
El Kateb, Donia UL; Elrakaiby, Yehia UL; Mouelhi, Tejeddine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (3 UL)
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See detailTowards a Generic Framework for Automating Extensive Analysis of Android Applications
Li, Li UL; Li, Daoyuan UL; Bartel, Alexandre et al

in The 31st ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2016) (2016, April)

Despite much effort in the community, the momentum of Android research has not yet produced complete tools to perform thorough analysis on Android apps, leaving users vulnerable to malicious apps. Because ... [more ▼]

Despite much effort in the community, the momentum of Android research has not yet produced complete tools to perform thorough analysis on Android apps, leaving users vulnerable to malicious apps. Because it is hard for a single tool to efficiently address all of the various challenges of Android programming which make analysis difficult, we propose to instrument the app code for reducing the analysis complexity, e.g., transforming a hard problem to a easy-resolvable one. To this end, we introduce in this paper Apkpler, a plugin-based framework for supporting such instrumentation. We evaluate Apkpler with two plugins, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach and showing that Apkpler can indeed be leveraged to reduce the analysis complexity of Android apps. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 165 (9 UL)
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See detailTowards a harmonized method for the global reconnaissance of multi-class antimicrobials and other pharmaceuticals in wastewater and receiving surface waters
Singh, Randolph UL; Angeles, Luisa; Butryn, Deena et al

in Environment International (2019), 124

Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that is both pressing and challenging due to the rate at which it is spreading, and the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that link human, animal and ... [more ▼]

Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that is both pressing and challenging due to the rate at which it is spreading, and the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that link human, animal and environmental sources contributing to its proliferation. One knowledge gap that requires immediate attention is the significance of antimicrobial residues and other pharmaceuticals that are being discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. In this work we provide an approach to develop a harmonized analytical method for 8 classes of antimicrobials and other pharmaceuticals that can be used for global monitoring in wastewater and receiving waters. Analysis of these trace organic chemicals in the influent and effluent wastewater, and in the respective upstream and downstream receiving waters from different countries across the globe is not trivial. Here, we demonstrated that sample preparation using solid-phase extraction (SPE) not only provides a convenient and cost-effective shipping of samples, but also adds stability to the analytes during international shipping. It is important that SPE cartridges are maintained at cold temperature during shipment if the duration is longer than 7 days because a significant decrease in recoveries were observed after 7 days in the cartridges stored at room temperature, especially for sulfonamides and tetracyclines. To compensate for sample degradation during shipment, and matrix effects in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, the use of stable isotope labeled compounds should be employed when available and affordable. The importance of applying a defined tolerance for the ion ratios (Q/q) that have been optimized for wastewater and surface water is discussed. The tolerance range was set to be the mean Q/q of the analyte standard at various concentrations ±40% for the influent, and ±30% for the effluent, upstream, and downstream samples; for tetracyclines and quinolones, however, the tolerance range was ±80% in order to minimize false negative and false positive detection. The optimized procedures were employed to reveal differences in antimicrobial and pharmaceutical concentrations in influent, effluent, and surface water samples from Hong Kong, India, Philippines, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States. The antimicrobials with the highest concentrations in influent and effluent samples were ciprofloxacin (48,103 ng/L, Hong Kong WWTP 1) and clarithromycin (5178 ng/L, India WWTP 2), respectively. On the other hand, diclofenac (108,000 ng/L, Sweden WWTP 2), caffeine (67,000 ng/L, India WWTP 1), and acetaminophen (28,000 ng/L, India WWTP 1) were the highest detected pharmaceuticals in the receiving surface water samples. Hong Kong showed the highest total antimicrobial concentrations that included macrolides, quinolones, and sulfonamides with concentrations reaching 60,000 ng/L levels in the influent. Antidepressants were predominant in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a high-resolution drone-based 3D mapping dataset to optimise flood hazard modelling
Backes, Dietmar UL; Schumann, Guy; Teferle, Felix Norman UL et al

in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2019, June), XLII-2/W13

The occurrence of urban flooding following strong rainfall events may increase as a result of climate change. Urban expansion, ageing infrastructure and an increasing number of impervious surfaces are ... [more ▼]

The occurrence of urban flooding following strong rainfall events may increase as a result of climate change. Urban expansion, ageing infrastructure and an increasing number of impervious surfaces are further exacerbating flooding. To increase resilience and support flood mitigation, bespoke accurate flood modelling and reliable prediction is required. However, flooding in urban areas is most challenging. State-of-the-art flood inundation modelling is still often based on relatively low-resolution 2.5 D bare earth models with 2-5m GSD. Current systems suffer from a lack of precise input data and numerical instabilities and lack of other important data, such as drainage networks. Especially, the quality and resolution of the topographic input data represents a major source of uncertainty in urban flood modelling. A benchmark study is needed that defines the accuracy requirements for highly detailed urban flood modelling and to improve our understanding of important threshold processes and limitations of current methods and 3D mapping data alike. This paper presents the first steps in establishing a new, innovative multiscale data set suitable to benchmark urban flood modelling. The final data set will consist of high-resolution 3D mapping data acquired from different airborne platforms, focusing on the use of drones (optical and LiDAR). The case study includes residential as well as rural areas in Dudelange/Luxembourg, which have been prone to localized flash flooding following strong rainfall events in recent years. The project also represents a cross-disciplinary collaboration between the geospatial and flood modelling community. In this paper, we introduce the first steps to build up a new benchmark data set together with some initial flood modelling results. More detailed investigations will follow in the next phases of this project. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (5 UL)