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See detailTrade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective
Carpantier, Jean-Francois UL; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Kriegs, Gautier

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(1), 83448

We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess ... [more ▼]

We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective
Carpantier, Jean-Francois UL; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Krings, Gautier

E-print/Working paper (2013)

We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess ... [more ▼]

We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade Protection and Market Power: Evidence from US antidumping and countervailing duties
Rovegno Malharin, Laura UL

in Review of World Economics (2013), 149(3), 443-476

Contingent protection measures were originally intended to protect domestic producers from what were considered to be “unfairly” cheap imports. However, due to the way in which these policies are designed ... [more ▼]

Contingent protection measures were originally intended to protect domestic producers from what were considered to be “unfairly” cheap imports. However, due to the way in which these policies are designed and implemented, they have been heavily criticised for their greatly disruptive effects on markets, and particularly on competition. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to the debate by studying the impact of US Antidumping (AD) and Countervailing (CV) duties on domestic producers’ price-cost margins (PCM). To this end, the study takes advantage of a long panel of 4-digit industries in the US covering 26 years of AD/CV activity, including the periods before and after the changes to AD/CV laws introduced following the Uruguay Round (UR). It finds evidence of a positive effect of AD/CV duties on PCM for the period prior to the UR, but the effect seems to disappear in the years following the UR. The analysis accounts for potential endogeneity in AD/CV duties, as well as the intensity of the protection granted. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 182 (123 UL)
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See detailTrade Union Objectives and Economic Growth
Irmen, Andreas UL; Wigger, Berthold U.

in FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis (2002), 59(1), 49-

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers ... [more ▼]

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly union which cares for wages and employment, we determine a range of trade union objectives and characterize the aggregate technology so that the union's policy spurs per capita income growth. However, the union's policy cannot lead to a Pareto-improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade Union Objectives and Economic Growth
Irmen, Andreas UL; Wigger, Berthold

Report (2001)

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers ... [more ▼]

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly union which cares for wages and employment, we determine a range of trade union objectives and characterize the aggregate technology so that the union's policy spurs per capita income growth and increases welfare of all generations that adhere to the union. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality
Picard, Pierre M UL

in Regional Science & Urban Economics (2015), 54

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We discuss a model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of differentiated ... [more ▼]

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We discuss a model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of differentiated varieties. Firms do not only develop and sell manufacturing varieties in a monopolistic competitive market but also determine the quality level of their varieties by investing in research and development. We explore the price and quality equilibrium properties when firms are immobile. We then consider a footloose capital model where capital is allocated to the manufacturing firms in the region offering the highest return. We show that the larger region produces varieties of higher quality and that the quality gap increases with larger asymmetries in region sizes and with larger trade costs. Finally, the home market effect is mitigated when firms choose their product quality. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (6 UL)
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See detailTrade, Economic Geography and the Choice of Product Quality
Picard, Pierre M. UL

E-print/Working paper (2012)

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We build a quality-augmented model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of ... [more ▼]

The present paper studies the effect of the choice of product quality on trade and location of firms. We build a quality-augmented model where consumers have preferences for the quality of a set of differentiated varieties. Firms do not only develop and sell manufacturing varieties in a monopolistic competitive market but also determine the quality level of their varieties by investing in research and de- velopment. We explore the price and quality equilibrium properties when firms are immobile. We then consider a footloose capital model where capital is allocated to the manufacturing firms in the region offering the highest return. We show that the larger region produces varieties of higher quality and that the quality gap increases with larger asymmetries in region sizes and with larger trade costs. Finally, the home market effect is mitigated when firms choose their product quality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (4 UL)
See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality”
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (8 UL)
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See detailTrade, money and employment in intertemporal optimizing models of growth
Klump, Rainer UL

in Journal of International Trade and Economic Development (2001), 10(4), 411-428

This paper unites elements of Sidrauski's (1967) monetary model of growth, Ventura's (1997) analysis of the effects of international trade on growth, and some work on the labour market implications of ... [more ▼]

This paper unites elements of Sidrauski's (1967) monetary model of growth, Ventura's (1997) analysis of the effects of international trade on growth, and some work on the labour market implications of growth by Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995). It was shown by Ventura that, for a small economy, free international trade leads to an increase of the de facto elasticity of substitution between the domestic factors of production. The first part of the paper analyses how such an increase in the elasticity of substitution influences the steady state and the speed of convergence. From the Sidrauski model we know that money is super-neutral in the long-run but that monetary policy can have real effects along the transition path as long as the intertemporal elasticity of substitution is not equal to one. In the second part of this paper, it is shown how these results also depend on the elasticity of substitution between factors of production. The results give some important insights into possible interactions between monetary and trade policy in the long and short run. The last part of the paper deals with a modified version of the monetary growth model, which includes endogenous labour supply as in Klump (1993) or Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995). In this context, international trade, by increasing the elasticity of substitution, leads to lower domestic employment in the long run whereas monetary policy may be able to increase employment at least in the short run. Thus, under certain circumstances, trade and monetary policy can be regarded as complementary with respect to their labour market effects. © 2001 Taylor & Francis Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade-offs between energy cost and health impact in a regional coupled energy–air quality model: the LEAQ model
Peters, Bernhard UL; Zachary, Dan; Drouet, L. et al

in Environmental Research Letters (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (5 UL)
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See detailTradeoff Cryptanalysis of Memory-Hard Functions
Biryukov, Alex UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

in 21st International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security (2015, December)

We explore time-memory and other tradeoffs for memory-hard functions, which are supposed to impose significant computational and time penalties if less memory is used than intended. We analyze two schemes ... [more ▼]

We explore time-memory and other tradeoffs for memory-hard functions, which are supposed to impose significant computational and time penalties if less memory is used than intended. We analyze two schemes: Catena, which has been presented at Asiacrypt 2014, and Lyra2, the fastest finalist of the Password Hashing Competition (PHC). We demonstrate that Catena's proof of tradeoff resilience is flawed, and attack it with a novel \emph{precomputation tradeoff}. We show that using $M^{2/3}$ memory instead of $M$ we may have no time penalties. We further generalize our method for a wide class of schemes with predictable memory access. For Lyra2, which addresses memory unpredictability (depending on the input), we develop a novel \emph{ranking tradeoff} and show how to decrease the time-memory and the time-area product by significant factors. We also generalize the ranking method for a wide class of schemes with unpredictable memory access [less ▲]

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See detailTradeoffs in networks with positive and negative feedback
Goncalves, Jorge UL; Yi, T.; Doyle, J.

Scientific Conference (2005)

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See detailTrading Goods or Human Capital: The Gains and Losses from Economic Integration
Burzynski, Michal UL

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2018), 120(2), 503-536

In this paper, I quantify the economic consequences of liberalizing migration in the OECD and compare them with those of a hypothetical liberalization of trade across the OECD. First, I investigate the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, I quantify the economic consequences of liberalizing migration in the OECD and compare them with those of a hypothetical liberalization of trade across the OECD. First, I investigate the bilateral migration and trade agreements between the EU and Australia, Canada, Japan, Turkey, and the US. Second, I show that the overall impact of reducing all legal restrictions on migration in the OECD is moderate (1.6 percent in real GDP), while the gains from removing tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade among all of the OECD economies are slightly lower (1.1 percent in real GDP). Finally, both the theoretical and numerical findings suggest that the direction of relationships between trade and migration (either substitutability or complementarity) depends on the type of shock imposed in the system. [less ▲]

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See detailTrading Zones of Digital History
Kemman, Max Jonathan UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

As long as there have been computers, there have been scholars pulling at historians, challenging them to use these computers for historical research. Yet what role computers can have in historical ... [more ▼]

As long as there have been computers, there have been scholars pulling at historians, challenging them to use these computers for historical research. Yet what role computers can have in historical research is a matter of continuous debate. Under the signifier of “digital history”, historians have experimented with tools, concepts, and methods from other disciplines, mostly computer science and computational linguistics, to benefit the historical discipline. The collaborations that emerge through these experiments can be characterised as a two-sided uncertainty: historians uncertain how they as historians should use digital methods, and computational experts uncertain how digital methods should work with historical data sets. The opportunity that arises from these uncertainties is that historians and computational experts need to negotiate the methods and concepts under development. In this thesis, I investigate these negotiations as trading zones, as local spaces of negotiation. These negotiations are characterised as a duality of boundary practices. First, boundary crossing, the crossing of boundaries of disciplines, discourses, and institutions to collaborate. Second, boundary construction, the establishment of boundaries of groups and communities to preserve disciplinary values and remain recognisable as part of a community of practice. How boundary crossing and construction are balanced, whether disciplinary boundaries are shifted, and to what extent historians’ practices are transformed by continued interaction with computational experts, are open questions demanding closer scrutiny. These considerations lead to the research question underlying this thesis: how are historians affected by interactions with computational experts in the context of digital history collaborations? I investigate this question through a mixed-methods, multi-sited ethnographic approach, consisting of an open online survey which received 173 responses, 4.5 years of observations at the University of Luxembourg, 37 interviews, and an LDA topic modelling analysis of 10,918 blog posts from 73 historians between 2008-2017. Through these approaches, I examine trading zones as configured by three different dimensions. First, connectedness, the extent to which collaborators connect with one another through physical proximity, communication, and the sharing of practices. Second, power asymmetry, the extent to which participants shape their own field of action as well as the fields of action of their collaborators. Third, cultural maintenance, the extent to which collaborators become more alike or stay apart by adopting new practices or displacing previous practices. On a macro level, referring to the global historical discipline, I conclude that methodological approaches developed in local trading zones have hardly diffused to macro solutions. Insofar digital infrastructures were appropriated in the macro community, these were aligned with traditional practices. Rather than transforming historical scholarship, the challenge was to provide infrastructures congruent with existing values and practices. On a meso level, referring to the historians engaged in digital history trading zones, I conclude that the effect of interactions was dependent on individual decisions and incentives. Some historians experimented with or adopted computational practices and concepts. Yet other historians detached their work from the shared objective of a collaboration in order to reduce risks, as well as to maintain disciplinary practices. The majority of participants in trading zones were scholars from the humanities, physically distant from collaborators, communicating more often with disciplinary peers than with cross-disciplinary collaborators. As such, even when participating in trading zones of digital history, a significant number of historians remained aligned with traditional practices. Changing practices were regularly not in the direction of computational practices, but to incentives of politics or funding. While historians that participated in digital history trading zones therefore did learn new practices, this did not entail a computational transformation of their scholarship. Finally, on a micro level, some historians chose to engage intensively with computational experts. I call these individuals digital history brokers, who exemplified significant shifts in practices. Brokers conducted project management; coordinated practices from archival and library domains such as data collection, transformation, and description; learned about the potential and limitations of computational technologies and where to apply these; employed inter-languages to translate between the different collaborating domains; and finally transformed historical questions into infrastructural problems. Digital history brokers thereby not only developed interactional expertise to collaborate with computational experts. They furthermore developed political proficiency to negotiate the socio- economic potential of digital history strategies with politics, university administrators, and funding agencies. I therefore describe the practices of brokers as infrastructuring, covering a duality of negotiations. First, cross-disciplinary socio-technical negotiations with computational experts how to support scholarly practices with digital technology. Second, intra-disciplinary socio-political negotiations how to diffuse those practices within the community of practice. Digital history brokers therefore transform their own practices, so that other historians do not have to on meso or macro levels, but can employ digitised sources and digital methodology through infrastructures in a fashion that naturally fits into their practices as historians. I thereby provide a critical view on digital history grounded in how it is conducted and negotiated. This thesis is therefore aimed mainly at scholars interested in digital history and its relation to the historical discipline and to digital humanities, as well as scholars interested in studying digital history as a specific case of cross-disciplinarity. [less ▲]

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See detailTrading Zones of Digital History
Kemman, Max UL

Presentation (2016)

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See detailTradition oder Zukunft? 50 Jahre Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft aus bildungshistorischer Sicht
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogik (2014), 60(1), 9-31

The author interprets the most recent secessionist movements within the GERA as the manifestation of a fundamental problem that had already been virulent at the time of the associationʼs foundation (1964 ... [more ▼]

The author interprets the most recent secessionist movements within the GERA as the manifestation of a fundamental problem that had already been virulent at the time of the associationʼs foundation (1964) and that had not been utterly new, even then. The primary thesis states that the guiding ideology of the GERA at that time was bound to a concept of future primarily nourished by the idealist tradition. Thus, the association ostracized mainly extramural actors of educational reform who were committed to an expertocratic concept of the future, developed mainly in the United States, and who, in this, relied on specific psychology models. When, after the end of the Cold War, the OECD was able to enforce its vision of school policy and educational reform, this ideology of pedagogical planning, supposedly unimpeded by any traditions, managed to establish itself within the GERA, too. This, however, created a blatant polarity with the traditional concept of education – a field of tension that can only be dissolved constructively through historical-comparative analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe tradition of Community Music in Luxembourg
Sagrillo, Damien UL

Scientific Conference (2007, July)

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See detailTraditionelle Geschlechterrollen und der geringere Schulerfolg der Jungen. Quantitative und qualitative Befunde aus einer Schulstudie im Kanton Bern (Schweiz)
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Grünewald-Huber, Elisabeth; Gysin, Stefanie et al

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Soziologie = Revue Suisse de Sociologie (2012), 38(3), 375-400

Detailed reference viewed: 150 (4 UL)