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See detailTraveling-wave photomixer with recessed interdigitated contacts on low-temperature-grown GaAs
Mikulics, M.; Michael, E. A.; Schieder, R. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2006), 88(4), 0411181-0411183

We have fabricated and characterized novel traveling-wave photomixers with recessed interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal MSM contacts based on low-temperature-grown GaAs. The new recessed MSM geometry ... [more ▼]

We have fabricated and characterized novel traveling-wave photomixers with recessed interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal MSM contacts based on low-temperature-grown GaAs. The new recessed MSM geometry led to an improved electric-field distribution inside the photomixer structure and resulted in an up-to-100% increase in the output power of continuously operated devices, compared to conventional MSM devices with standard surface electrodes fabricated on an identical material. The recessed electrode structure also resulted in lower saturation of output power at higher input powers, enabling it to take advantage of higher input powers. [less ▲]

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See detailTraveling-wave photomixers fabricated on high energy nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs
Mikulics, M.; Michael, E. A.; Marso, Michel UL et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2006), 89(7), 071103

The authors report on fabrication and measurement of traveling-wave photomixers based on high energy and low dose nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs. They used 3 MeV energy to implant N+ ions into GaAs ... [more ▼]

The authors report on fabrication and measurement of traveling-wave photomixers based on high energy and low dose nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs. They used 3 MeV energy to implant N+ ions into GaAs substrates with an ion concentration dose of 3 1012 cm−2. The N+-implanted GaAs photomixers exhibit improvements in the output power in comparison with their counterparts, photomixers fabricated on low-temperature-grown GaAs. The maximal output power was 2.64 W at 850 GHz. No saturation of the output power with increased bias voltage and optical input power was observed. These characteristics make N+-implanted GaAs the material of choice for efficient high power sources of terahertz radiation. [less ▲]

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See detailTrawling for tor hidden services: Detection, measurement, deanonymization
Biryukov, Alex UL; Pustogarov, Ivan UL; Weinmann, Ralf-Philipp UL

in 2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP) (2013, May 19)

Tor is the most popular volunteer-based anonymity network consisting of over 3000 volunteer-operated relays. Apart from making connections to servers hard to trace to their origin it can also provide ... [more ▼]

Tor is the most popular volunteer-based anonymity network consisting of over 3000 volunteer-operated relays. Apart from making connections to servers hard to trace to their origin it can also provide receiver privacy for Internet services through a feature called "hidden services". In this paper we expose flaws both in the design and implementation of Tor's hidden services that allow an attacker to measure the popularity of arbitrary hidden services, take down hidden services and deanonymize hidden services. We give a practical evaluation of our techniques by studying: (1) a recent case of a botnet using Tor hidden services for command and control channels; (2) Silk Road, a hidden service used to sell drugs and other contraband; (3) the hidden service of the DuckDuckGo search engine. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 391 (3 UL)
See detailTrayectoiria del desarrolleo de la escuela moderna. Entre lo nacional y lo global: introducción
Tröhler, Daniel UL; Lenz, Thomas UL

in Tröhler, Daniel; Lenz, Thomas (Eds.) Trayectorias del desarrollo de los sistemas educativos modernos. Entre lo nacional y lo global (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 UL)
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See detailTreatment Fidelity of a Nurse-Led Motivational Interviewing-Based Pre-Treatment in Pain Rehabilitation.
Mertens, Vera-Christina UL; Forsberg, L.; Verbunt, J.A. et al

in Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (6 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailTree Based Flooding Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
Frank, Raphaël UL; Scherer, Thomas UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Information Technology & Biomedical Applications (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (1 UL)
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See detailTree expectation propagation for ml decoding of LDPC codes over the BEC
Salamanca Mino, Luis UL; Olmos, P. M.; Murillo-Fuentes, J. J. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2013), 61(2), 465-473

We propose a decoding algorithm for LDPC codes that achieves the maximum likelihood (ML) solution over the bi- nary erasure channel (BEC). In this channel, the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP ... [more ▼]

We propose a decoding algorithm for LDPC codes that achieves the maximum likelihood (ML) solution over the bi- nary erasure channel (BEC). In this channel, the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) decoder improves the peeling decoder (PD) by processing check nodes of degree one and two. However, it does not achieve the ML solution, as the tree structure of the TEP allows only for approximate inference. In this paper, we provide the procedure to construct the structure needed for exact inference. This algorithm, denoted as generalized tree-structured expectation propagation (GTEP), modifies the code graph by recursively eliminating any check node and merging this information in the remaining graph. The GTEP decoder upon completion either provides the unique ML solution or a tree graph in which the number of parent nodes indicates the multiplicity of the ML solution. We also explain the algorithm as a Gaussian elimination method, relating the GTEP to other ML solutions. Compared to previous approaches, it presents an equivalent complexity, it exhibits a simpler graphical message-passing procedure and, most interesting, the algorithm can be generalized to other channels. [less ▲]

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See detailTree-Based computation in probalistic models
Ignac, Tomasz UL

Doctoral thesis (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailTreeDet: a web server to explore sequence space.
Carro, Angel; Tress, Michael; de Juan, David et al

in Nucleic acids research (2006), 34(Web Server issue), 110-5

The TreeDet (Tree Determinant) Server is the first release of a system designed to integrate results from methods that predict functional sites in protein families. These methods take into account the ... [more ▼]

The TreeDet (Tree Determinant) Server is the first release of a system designed to integrate results from methods that predict functional sites in protein families. These methods take into account the relation between sequence conservation and evolutionary importance. TreeDet fully analyses the space of protein sequences in either user-uploaded or automatically generated multiple sequence alignments. The methods implemented in the server represent three main classes of methods for the detection of family-dependent conserved positions, a tree-based method, a correlation based method and a method that employs a principal component analyses coupled to a cluster algorithm. An additional method is provided to highlight the reliability of the position in the alignments. The server is available at http://www.pdg.cnb.uam.es/servers/treedet. [less ▲]

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See detailTrees and asymptotic developments for fractional stochastic differential equations
Neuenkirch, Andreas; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Rössler, Andreas et al

in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (B) Probability & Statistics (2009), 45(1), 157-174

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See detailTrefftz polygonal finite element for linear elasticity: convergence, accuracy, and properties
Hirshikesh; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ratna Kumar, A. K. et al

in Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering (2017)

In this paper, the accuracy and the convergence properties of Trefftz finite element method over arbitrary polygons are studied. Within this approach, the unknown displacement field within the polygon is ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the accuracy and the convergence properties of Trefftz finite element method over arbitrary polygons are studied. Within this approach, the unknown displacement field within the polygon is represented by the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equations, also called as the T-complete set. While on the boundary of the polygon, a conforming displacement field is independently defined to enforce the continuity of the field variables across the element boundary. An optimal number of T-complete functions are chosen based on the number of nodes of the polygon and the degrees of freedom per node. The stiffness matrix is computed by the hybrid formulation with auxiliary displacement frame. Results from the numerical studies presented for a few benchmark problems in the context of linear elasticity show that the proposed method yields highly accurate results with optimal convergence rates. [less ▲]

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See detailTreg induction by a rationally selected mixture of Clostridia strains from the human microbiota
Atarshi, Koji; Tanoue, Takeshi; Oshima, Kenshiro et al

in Nature (2013), 500

Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases1, 2. Although numerous probiotic microorganisms have been identified3, there remains a ... [more ▼]

Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases1, 2. Although numerous probiotic microorganisms have been identified3, there remains a compelling need to discover organisms that elicit more robust therapeutic responses, are compatible with the host, and can affect a specific arm of the host immune system in a well-controlled, physiological manner. Here we use a rational approach to isolate CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg)-cell-inducing bacterial strains from the human indigenous microbiota. Starting with a healthy human faecal sample, a sequence of selection steps was applied to obtain mice colonized with human microbiota enriched in Treg-cell-inducing species. From these mice, we isolated and selected 17 strains of bacteria on the basis of their high potency in enhancing Treg cell abundance and inducing important anti-inflammatory molecules—including interleukin-10 (IL-) and inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS)—in Treg cells upon inoculation into germ-free mice. Genome sequencing revealed that the 17 strains fall within clusters IV, XIVa and XVIII of Clostridia, which lack prominent toxins and virulence factors. The 17 strains act as a community to provide bacterial antigens and a TGF-β-rich environment to help expansion and differentiation of Treg cells. Oral administration of the combination of 17 strains to adult mice attenuated disease in models of colitis and allergic diarrhoea. Use of the isolated strains may allow for tailored therapeutic manipulation of human immune disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailA Trellis-Based SAT Problem
Franck, Christian UL

Poster (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 UL)
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See detailTREM2 R47H variant and risk of essential tremor: a cross-sectional international multicenter study
Ortega-Cubero, S.; Lorenzo-Betancor, O.; Lorenzo, E. et al

in Parkinsonism & related disorders (2015), 21(3), 306-309

INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most frequent movement disorder in adults. Its pathophysiology is not clearly understood, however there is growing evidence showing common etiologic factors with ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most frequent movement disorder in adults. Its pathophysiology is not clearly understood, however there is growing evidence showing common etiologic factors with other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD, PD). Recently, a rare p.R47H substitution (rs75932628) in the TREM2 protein (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2; OMIM: *605086) has been proposed as a risk factor for AD, PD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of the study was to determine whether TREM2 p.R47H allele is also a risk factor for developing ET. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional multicenter international study. An initial case-control cohort from Spain (n = 456 ET, n = 2715 controls) was genotyped. In a replication phase, a case-control series (n = 897 ET, n = 1449 controls) from different populations (Italy, Germany, North-America and Taiwan) was studied. Owed to the rarity of the variant, published results on p.R47H allele frequency from 14777 healthy controls from European, North American or Chinese descent were additionally considered. The main outcome measure was p.R47H (rs75932628) allelic frequency. RESULTS: There was a significant association between TREM2 p.R47H variant and ET in the Spanish cohort (odds ratio [OR], 5.97; 95% CI, 1.203-29.626; p = 0.042), but it was not replicated in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: These results argue in favor of population-specific differences in the allelic distribution and suggest that p.R47H (rs75932628) variant may contribute to the susceptibility of ET in Spanish population. However, taking into account the very low frequency of p.R47H, further confirmatory analyses of larger ET series are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailTREM2 triggers microglial density and age‐related neuronal loss
Linnartz-Gerlach, Bettina; Bodea, Liviu-Gabriel; Klaus, Christine et al

in Glia (2018)

The microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signals via the activatory membrane adaptor molecule TYROBP. Genetic variants or mutations of TREM2 or TYROBP have been linked to ... [more ▼]

The microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signals via the activatory membrane adaptor molecule TYROBP. Genetic variants or mutations of TREM2 or TYROBP have been linked to inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. The typical aging process goes along with microglial changes and mild neuronal loss, but the exact contribution of TREM2 is still unclear. Aged TREM2 knock‐out mice showed decreased age‐related neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and the hippocampus. Transcriptomic analysis of the brains of 24 months old TREM2 knock‐out mice revealed 211 differentially expressed genes mostly downregulated and associated with complement activation and oxidative stress response pathways. Consistently, 24 months old TREM2 knock‐out mice showed lower transcription of microglial (Aif1 and Tmem119), oxidative stress markers (Inos, Cyba, and Cybb) and complement components (C1qa, C1qb, C1qc, C3, C4b, Itgam, and Itgb2), decreased microglial numbers and expression of the microglial activation marker Cd68, as well as accumulation of oxidized lipids. Cultured microglia of TREM2 knock‐out mice showed reduced phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Thus, microglial TREM2 contributes to age‐related microglial changes, phagocytic oxidative burst, and loss of neurons with possible detrimental effects during physiological aging. [less ▲]

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See detailtrend Analysis and interpretation of Luxembourg’s consumption Footprint NFA 2010 edition, data years 2000 – 2007
Hild, Paula UL; Takagi, Aya; Schmitt, Bianca

Report (2012)

The Ecological Footprint methodology by Global Footprint Network measures human consumption of products and services from different ecosystems in terms of the amount of bioproductive land and sea area ... [more ▼]

The Ecological Footprint methodology by Global Footprint Network measures human consumption of products and services from different ecosystems in terms of the amount of bioproductive land and sea area needed to supply these products and services. In other words, the Ecological Footprint calculates the land area needed to produce food, provide resources, produce energy, and absorb the CO2 emissions generated by the supply chains within one year at country level. For the calculations of Luxembourg’s Ecological Footprint, international statistical databases are used to identify the quantities of produced, imported and exported goods and services. Then, Global Footprint Network applies different factors to the quantities to assess the area needed to supply these products and services. Finally, the Consumption Footprint of a nation is divided by the number of inhabitants and compared to other countries at a per capita level (global hectares per capita). This means that the Ecological Footprint can be used as an indicator for the sustainability of a national consumption by assessing human land uses. In the following paragraph, Luxembourg’s Ecological Footprint is discussed in the framework of the environmental indicators of Luxembourg’s competitiveness scoreboard (see Table 9) [MECE, 2010]. Luxembourg’s ranking is rather low for all of the scoreboard indicators: number of ISO 9001 certifications per billion of inhabitants (21 out of 27); number of ISO 14001 certifications per billion of inhabitants (15 out of 27); total greenhouse gas emissions (15 out of 27); renewable energy ration (23 out of 27); quantity of municipal waste per capita per year (24 out of 27); energetic intensity (8 out of 27); transport by car (17 out of 27); Ecological Footprint in gha per capita per year (27 out of 27). Based on the environmental competiveness scoreboard indicators, it can be concluded that in general, Luxembourg’s environmental performance is low compared to the other countries of the European Union. With respect to Luxembourg’s Ecological Footprint, it can be said that Luxembourg’s consumption is not sustainable. The number of planets that would be needed if the world's population lived like the population of Luxembourg in 2007 is about six. However, per year, the biocapacity (bioproductive land) of the planet can only regenerate once. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailTrends and Players in Tax Policy: Greece
Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

in M. Lang et al. (Ed.) Trends and Players in Tax Policy (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (18 UL)
See detailTrends and Players in tax policy: Greece
Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL)