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It is essential for the signal transduction of interleukin-6 (IL ... [more ▼]Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is involved in a variety of biological functions. It is essential for the signal transduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and related cytokines. In response to IL-6 stimulation STAT3 becomes phosphorylated and translocates into the nucleus where it binds to enhancer sequences of target genes. We found that activated STAT3 is enriched in dot-like structures within the nucleus, which we termed STAT3 nuclear bodies. To examine the dynamics of STAT3 nuclear body formation, a fusion protein of STAT3 and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was constructed. Studies in living cells have shown that the appearance of STAT3 nuclear bodies is transient, correlating with the timecourse of tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT3. Furthermore, we show by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis that STAT3 within nuclear bodies consists of a highly mobile and an immobile fraction. Colocalization studies provided evidence that these bodies are accompanied with CREB binding protein (CBP) and acetylated histone H4, which are markers for transcriptionally active chromatin. Moreover, STAT3 nuclear bodies in HepG2 cells are not colocalized with promyelocytic leukemia oncoprotein (PML)-containing bodies; neither is a sumoylation of activated STAT3 detectable. Taken together, our data suggest that STAT3 nuclear bodies are either directly involved in active gene transcription or they serve as reservoirs of activated STAT3. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 82 (17 UL) STAT5 contributes to interferon resistance of melanoma cellsWellbrock, C.; Weisser, C.; Hassel, J. C. et alin Current Biology (2005), 15(18), 1629-39BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive neoplastic disease whose incidence is increasing rapidly. In recent years, the use of interferon alpha (IFNalpha) has become the most established ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive neoplastic disease whose incidence is increasing rapidly. In recent years, the use of interferon alpha (IFNalpha) has become the most established adjuvant immunotherapy for melanoma of advanced stage. IFNalpha is a potent inhibitor of melanoma cell proliferation, and the signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT1 is crucial for its antiproliferative action. Although advanced melanomas clinically resistant to IFNalpha are frequently characterized by inefficient STAT1 signaling, the mechanisms underlying advanced-stage interferon resistance are poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate that IFNalpha activates STAT5 in melanoma cells and that in IFNalpha-resistant cells STAT5 is overexpressed. Significantly, the knockdown of STAT5 in interferon-resistant melanoma cells restored the growth-inhibitory response to IFNalpha. When STAT5 was overexpressed in IFNalpha-sensitive cells, it counteracted interferon-induced growth inhibition. The overexpressed STAT5 diminished IFNalpha-triggered STAT1 activation, most evidently through upregulation of the inhibitor of cytokine-signaling CIS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that overexpression and activation of STAT5 enable melanoma cells to overcome cytokine-mediated antiproliferative signaling. Thus, overexpression of STAT5 can counteract IFNalpha signaling in melanoma cells, and this finally can result in cytokine-resistant and progressively growing tumor cells. These findings have significant implications for the clinical failure of IFNalpha therapy of advanced melanoma because they demonstrate that IFNalpha induces the activation of STAT5 in melanoma cells, and in STAT5-overexpressing cells, this contributes to IFNalpha resistance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (0 UL) State aid and tax lawMicheau, Claire Book published by Wolters Kluwer (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 48 (6 UL) State aid and taxation in EU lawMicheau, Claire in Szyszczak, Erika (Ed.) Research Handbook on European State Aid Law (2011)Detailed reference viewed: 83 (3 UL) State Aid Law of the European UnionHofmann, Herwig ; Micheau, ClaireBook published by Oxford University Press (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 116 (5 UL) State aid, subsidy and tax incentives under EU and WTO lawMicheau, Claire Book published by Kluwer Law International (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 162 (15 UL) State Aid, Subsidy and Tax Incentives under EU and WTO LawMicheau, Claire Doctoral thesis (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 156 (10 UL) State and output feedback control for Takagi-Sugeno systems with saturated actuatorsBezzaoucha, Souad ; Marx, Benoît; Maquin, Didier et alin International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing (2015)In the present paper, a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model is used to simultaneously represent the behaviour of a nonlinear system and its saturated actuators. With the T-S formalism and the Lyapunov approach ... [more ▼]In the present paper, a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model is used to simultaneously represent the behaviour of a nonlinear system and its saturated actuators. With the T-S formalism and the Lyapunov approach, stabilization conditions are expressed as Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) for different controller designs. Static Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) state feedback, static and dynamic PDC output feedback controllers for nonlinear saturated systems are proposed. The descriptor approach is used to obtain relaxed conditions to compute the controller gains. The nonlinear cart-pendulum system is used to illustrate the proposed control laws. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 107 (5 UL) State and Path Effectivity Models for Logics of Multi-Player GamesGoranko, Valentin; Jamroga, Wojciech in Proceedings of AAMAS 2012 (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL) State constrained tracking control for nonlinear systemsBezzaoucha, Souad ; Marx, Benoît; Maquin, Didier et alin Journal of the Franklin Institute (2015), 352(7), 2866-2886This work addresses the model reference tracking control problem. It aims to highlight the encountered difficulties and the proposed solutions to achieve the tracking objective. Based on a literature ... [more ▼]This work addresses the model reference tracking control problem. It aims to highlight the encountered difficulties and the proposed solutions to achieve the tracking objective. Based on a literature overview of linear and nonlinear reference tracking, the achievements and the limitations of the existing strategies are highlighted. This motivates the present work to propose clear control algorithms for perfect and approximate tracking controls of nonlinear systems described by Takagi-Sugeno models. First, perfect nonlinear tracking control is addressed and necessary structural conditions are stated. If these conditions do not hold, approximate tracking control is proposed and the choice of the reference model to be tracked as well as the choice of the criterion to be minimized are discussed with respect to the desired objectives. The case of constrained control input is also considered in order to anticipate and counteract the effect of the control saturation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 93 (1 UL) The State in the European Union; The Passion of a Great ActorNeframi, Eleftheria in European Politeia (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 55 (1 UL) A state machine for database non-functional testingMeira, Jorge Augusto ; Almeida, Eduardo; Le Traon, Yves Poster (2014)Over the last decade, large amounts of concurrent transactions have been generated from different sources, such as, Internet-based systems, mobile applications, smart- homes and cars. High-throughput ... [more ▼]Over the last decade, large amounts of concurrent transactions have been generated from different sources, such as, Internet-based systems, mobile applications, smart- homes and cars. High-throughput transaction processing is becoming commonplace, however there is no testing technique for validating non functional aspects of DBMS under transaction flooding workloads. In this paper we propose a database state machine to represent the states of DBMS when processing concurrent trans- actions. The state transitions are forced by increasing concurrency of the testing workload. Preliminary results show the effectiveness of our approach to drive the system among different performance states and to find related defects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 105 (2 UL) The State of Affairs in BGP Security: A Survey of Attacks and DefensesMitseva, Asya ; Panchenko, Andriy ; Engel, Thomas in Computer Communications (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 213 (7 UL) State of the Art in der Verhaltensmedizin: Keynote-Beiträge der DGVM-Jahrestagung 2013 - EditorialVögele, Claus ; Leplow, Bernd; Hillert, Andreasin Verhaltenstherapie (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 59 (1 UL) State of the Art in Lightweight Symmetric CryptographyBiryukov, Alex ; Perrin, Léo Paul E-print/Working paper (2017)Lightweight cryptography has been one of the hot topics'' in symmetric cryptography in the recent years. A huge number of lightweight algorithms have been published, standardized and/or used in ... [more ▼]Lightweight cryptography has been one of the hot topics'' in symmetric cryptography in the recent years. A huge number of lightweight algorithms have been published, standardized and/or used in commercial products. In this paper, we discuss the different implementation constraints that a lightweight'' algorithm is usually designed to satisfy. We also present an extensive survey of all lightweight symmetric primitives we are aware of. It covers designs from the academic community, from government agencies and proprietary algorithms which were reverse-engineered or leaked. Relevant national (\nist{}...) and international (\textsc{iso/iec}...) standards are listed. We then discuss some trends we identified in the design of lightweight algorithms, namely the designers' preference for \arx{}-based and bitsliced-S-Box-based designs and simple key schedules. Finally, we argue that lightweight cryptography is too large a field and that it should be split into two related but distinct areas: \emph{ultra-lightweight} and \emph{IoT} cryptography. The former deals only with the smallest of devices for which a lower security level may be justified by the very harsh design constraints. The latter corresponds to low-power embedded processors for which the \aes{} and modern hash function are costly but which have to provide a high level security due to their greater connectivity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 1080 (11 UL) State Owned Firms: Private Debt, Cost Revelation and WelfarePicard, Pierre M. ; Rusli, Ridwan E-print/Working paper (2012)In this paper we study the role of private debt financing in disciplining a state owned firm operating for a government that incurs a cost of public financing. We show that debt contracts allow the ... [more ▼]In this paper we study the role of private debt financing in disciplining a state owned firm operating for a government that incurs a cost of public financing. We show that debt contracts allow the government to avoid socially costly subsidies by letting unprofitable state- owned firms default. Debt is never used when the firm and government share the same information about the firm. By contrast, when the state-owned firm has private information, the government has an incentive to use debt to reduce the firm's information rents. We identify the conditions under which a positive debt level benefits governments. They depend on the cost of public funds, the interbank funding rate, the share of foreign investors, the level and uncertainty of the firm's cost. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (7 UL) State owned firms: private debt, cost revelation and welfarePicard, Pierre M. Presentation (2013, February)Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 UL) State owned firms: private debt, cost revelation and welfare. Journal of Public Economic Theory.Picard, Pierre; Rusli, Ridwanin Journal of Public Economic Theory (2018)We study the role of private debt financing in reducing government transfers and information costs in a state‐owned firm. We show that debt contracts allow the government to reduce socially costly ... [more ▼]We study the role of private debt financing in reducing government transfers and information costs in a state‐owned firm. We show that debt contracts allow the government to reduce socially costly subsidies by letting underperforming state‐owned firms default. When the firm has private information, the government uses debt to reduce the firm's information rents. The option of default and privatization allows the government to stop subsidizing the firm. We identify the conditions under which information costs outweigh privatization costs and a positive debt level benefits governments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 UL) State subsidies and fair competition in international air services: the European perspectiveBergamasco, Federico in Issues in Aviation Law and Policy (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 UL) State-Based Testing: Industrial Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Round-Trip Path and Sneak-Path StrategiesHolt, Nina Elisabeth; Torkar, Richard; Briand, Lionel et alin IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 131 (4 UL)