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See detailBargaining for evidence in a Hybrid Forum? The case of an indicator expert group chaired by the European Commssion
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in International Sociological Association (Ed.) THE FUTURES WE WANT: Global Sociology and the Struggles for a Better World (2016, July)

In the area of policymaking, we observe that decisions increasingly base on knowledge/evidence debated in hybrid think thanks by external experts. This knowledge is used to ideally fade uncertainties by ... [more ▼]

In the area of policymaking, we observe that decisions increasingly base on knowledge/evidence debated in hybrid think thanks by external experts. This knowledge is used to ideally fade uncertainties by calculating the risks involved in the final decision and by this to legitimize political decisions by delivering hard-facts in the argumentation (e.g. as “evidence-based-policy-making“). A consequence of this decision-making processes is the authoritative implementation of knowledge and direct application into the context of everyday-life. Such a political-decision-context often is a very specific situation, in which traditional mono-disciplinary scientific knowledge commonly is not precise enough, because usually it is produced to be universally valid and bases on certain assumptions. What is needed in such a context of real life application is socially robust knowledge. As a response to that demand, the mode of knowledge production is changing. Instead of linear-ordered knowledge-production, hybrid forums of heterogeneous actors are becoming important. These actors are debating and bargaining solutions to a problem and are co-constructing a contextualized knowledge as decision-making-base for the specific context of application. This discursive process of knowledge production is not only affected by the different forms of knowledge from the heterogeneous actors, it is also influenced by the heterogeneous world of relevancies (interests, targets, practices, experiences…). This study assesses and analyses by a multiple triangulation how an Indicator Expert Group of the European Commission develops social indicators (as an example for political evidence) within a transdisciplinary- and transnational expert-discourse. Based on multiple data sources my study is offering information on how evidence is produced in decision-making within such hybrid forums, e.g. important factors, processes and structures influencing indicator-systems. [less ▲]

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See detailBargaining in Standing Committees with an Endogenous Default
Anesi, Vincent UL; Seidmann, Daniel

in Review of Economic Studies (2015), 82

Committee voting has mostly been investigated from the perspective of the standard Baron–Ferejohn model of bargaining over the division of a pie, in which bargaining ends as soon as the committee reaches ... [more ▼]

Committee voting has mostly been investigated from the perspective of the standard Baron–Ferejohn model of bargaining over the division of a pie, in which bargaining ends as soon as the committee reaches an agreement. In standing committees, however, existing agreements can be amended. This article studies an extension of the Baron–Ferejohn framework to a model with an evolving default that reflects this important feature of policymaking in standing committees: In each of an infinite number of periods, the ongoing default can be amended to a new policy (which is, in turn, the default for the next period). The model provides a number of quite different predictions. (i) From a positive perspective, the key distinction turns on whether the quota is less than unanimity. In that case, patient enough players waste substantial shares of the pie each period and the size principle fails in some pure strategy Markov perfect equilibria. In contrast, the unique Markov perfect equilibrium payoffs in a unanimity committee coincide with those in the corresponding Baron–Ferejohn framework. (ii) If players have heterogeneous discount factors then a large class of subgame perfect equilibria (including all Markov perfect equilibria) are inefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailBargaining Norms - Arguing Standards. Negotiating Technical Standards
Fickers, Andreas UL

Book published by STT Netherlands Study Centre for Technology Trends. (2008)

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See detailBargaining over an Endogenous Agenda
Anesi, Vincent UL; Seidmann, Daniel

in Theoretical Economics (2014), 9

We present a model of bargaining in which a committee searches over the pol-icy space, successively amending the default by voting over proposals. Bargaining ends when proposers are unable or unwilling to ... [more ▼]

We present a model of bargaining in which a committee searches over the pol-icy space, successively amending the default by voting over proposals. Bargaining ends when proposers are unable or unwilling to amend the existing default,which is then implemented. Our main goal is to study the policies that can be implemented from any initial default in a pure-strategy stationary Markov perfect equilibrium for an interesting class of environments including multidimensional and infinite policy spaces. It is convenient to start by characterizing the set of immovable policies that are implemented, once reached as default. These policies form a weakly stable set and, conversely, any weakly stable set is supported by some equilibrium. Using these results, we show that minimum-winning coalitions may not form and that a player who does not propose may nevertheless earn all of the surplus from agreement. We then consider how equilibrium outcomes change as we vary the order in which players propose, the identity of proposers,and the set of winning coalitions. First, if the policy space is well ordered, then the committee implements the ideal policy of the last proposer in a subset of a weakly stable set, but this result does not generalize to other cases. We also show, surprisingly, that a player may prefer not to be given the opportunity to propose and that the set of immovable policies may shrink as the quota increases. Finally, we derive conditions under which immovable policies in semi-Markovian equilibria form a consistent choice set. [less ▲]

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See detailUn baromètre de la qualité de vie des étudiant-e-s au sein des universités européennes : une nécessité éthique.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL

in Analyse des Systèmes de Santé (2006)

Les politiques d’éducation et de formation doivent doter les étudiant-e-s d’aptitudes, de capacités et de compétences nécessaires pour affronter les transformations socioéconomiques (Conseil Européen de ... [more ▼]

Les politiques d’éducation et de formation doivent doter les étudiant-e-s d’aptitudes, de capacités et de compétences nécessaires pour affronter les transformations socioéconomiques (Conseil Européen de Lisbonne 2000). Pour augmenter la compétitivité des ressources humaines, la croissance économique et la cohésion sociale en Europe (Déclaration de Bologne 1999), la question de l'employabilité s'impose progressivement comme une des finalités des enseignements. Dans un contexte de massification des universités, les questions de politique globale suscitent plus d'intérêt que la qualité de vie et les jugements des étudiant-e-s sur leur expérience universitaire. Une attention particulière est cependant accordée dans les recherches à l'analyse des conditions de leur socialisation, de leur intégration dans l'institution (rapports avec les autres étudiant-e-s, avec leurs enseignants, épanouissement personnel, engagement civique...) et de ce qu'ils ont retiré pour leur parcours ultérieur. Des travaux sur l'évaluation de la qualité et de la satisfaction des services rendus aux étudiant-e-s sont également de plus en plus engagés par les établissements d'enseignement supérieurs pour répondre aux exigences des processus d'accréditation. Parallèlement à ces études, la problématique du bien-être des étudiant-e-s reste peu documentée. Or une bonne santé constitue un facteur positif de réussite. La qualité de vie des étudiant-e-s est pourtant une priorité de santé publique pour ces jeunes à qui on demande aujourd'hui de relever un tel défi. Dans l'enceinte de trois universités européennes, nous avons réalisé auprès d'étudiants polonais (Po), roumains (Ro) et français (Fr) de 1ère année en sciences humaines et sociales. Notre objectif est de présenter les principaux résultats de ce travail afin de susciter une discussion éthique sur la place de la qualité de vie et de la santé au sein des universités européennes. La méthode s'est appuyée sur un questionnaire auto-administré, 1602 étudiants (93 français (Fr), 190 roumains (Ro), 480 polonais (Po)) ont répondu. Des mesures sur les consommations de psychotopes, tabac, alccol, drogues, tc. ont été réalisées. La santé psychique a été évaluée à l'aide d'échelles validées (Brief Cope, Estime de soi, Général Health Qquestionnaire, etc.). Les principaux résultats. L'âge moyen est de 20 ans. Globalement, les Ro se sentent en moins bonne santé que les Fr et les Po alors qu'ils jouissent de la meilleure estime de soi. Ils sont les plus nombreux à consulter leur médecin et à vouloir rencontrer un psychiatre. Les Fr et les Po sont les plus nombreux à avoir mal au dos, mal à la tête, à se dire fatigués et à déclarer consommer des tranquillisants. Les Po consomment davantage de stimulants et de somnifères. Les Fr sont les plus nombreux à boire de l'alcool et à prendre des amphétamines et de l'ecstasy. Depuis la rentrée universitaire, les Po sont les plus nombreux à avoir modifié leur prise de drogues, et comme les Ro, ils ont augmenté leur consommation de tabac. Pour faire face à leurs problèmes, les Fr dédramatisent les situations grâce à l'humour et aux distractions, les Po recherchent un soutien social et affectif, les Ro libèrent leurs sentiments par la parole et positivent le sens qu’ils donnent aux événements. Durant les derniers mois, les Ro sont les plus nombreux à avoir entamé une action contre le stress. Discussion. L'entrée à l'universitaire exerce une influence sur l'équilibre psychique des étudiants. Les comportements à l’égard de leur qualité de vie et de leur santé méritent d’être observés, leur compréhension est une nécessité éthique: - D'abord, parce qu'il est vraisemblablement peu efficace d’agir sur ces comportements sans agir sur leurs causes. On sait aujourd’hui que des comportements considérés comme nocifs (alcool, tabac, drogues) sont produits en réponse à des carences ou à des agressions de l’environnement pour faire face à la souffrance psychique, à l’isolement, au manque de perspectives. Ce que l'on nomme "problèmes" sont plutôt « des comportements de survie ou des appels au secours » dans le contexte où ils s’expriment. - Ensuite parce qu'il paraît peu acceptable de considérer les étudiant-e-s comme responsables de ce qui leur est imposé : stress, solitude, manque de respect des droits de l’étudiant, … L'équité d'accès à la formation et à l’éducation nécessite de repenser la santé au sein des universités comme partie intégrante d’un dispositif d’accompagnement des etudiants-e-s dans leur réussite universitaire. Perspectives. Un « Baromètre européen de la qualité de vie des étudiant-e-s » permettrait d’analyser l’apparition et l’adoption des comportements bénéfiques ou délétères à l'égard de la santé et du bien-être. Ce type de recherche saisirait à la fois les représentations des jeunes et l’intrication intime, qui prédomine à l’adolescence, ente les problèmes à dominante physique et les problèmes à dominante affective ou relationnelle. Cette connaissance constituerait un support pour des programmes de prévention et de promotion de la santé qui mériterait d'être mené aussi bien du côté des étudiant-e-s que du côté des professionnels de la santé et des enseignants. [less ▲]

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See detailBaroreflex modulation of acoustic startle is lateralized
Schulz, André UL; Nottebaum, L.; Schächinger, H.

in Journal of Psychophysiology (2006), 21(2), 134-134

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See detailBaroreflex-Sensitivität
Schulz, André UL

in Wirtz, M. A. (Ed.) Dorsch - Lexikon der Psychologie (2019)

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See detailBarrier Height Enhancement of n-In0.53Ga0.47As Schottky Diodes Grown by MOCVD Technique
Kordoš, P.; Marso, Michel UL; Meyer, R. et al

in Electronics Letters (1991), 27(1991), 1759-1760

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See detailBarriers and facilitators for the use of assistive technologies for activities of daily living
Abri, Diana UL; Boll, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2018, April)

Many older people have functional impairments which increase their risk of losing the ability to live autonomously and to become dependent on care by others. However, assistive technologies (ATs) can help ... [more ▼]

Many older people have functional impairments which increase their risk of losing the ability to live autonomously and to become dependent on care by others. However, assistive technologies (ATs) can help to overcome some limitations of activities of daily living and can thus be assumed to prevent, delay or reduce the need for personal long-term care as well as the burden on caring family members (e.g., spouses, adult children). Yet, the use rate of ATs is still rather low. This paper reviews positive effects of ATs and factors that influence their use. We performed systematic literature searches in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google scholar databases. We found convergent results that the use of ATs for several kinds of activities of daily living such as self-care and mobility was associated with a reduced amount of self-reported personal (in particular informal) care hours. Regarding factors of ATs use, we found that feeling loneliness, cognitive impairments, and difficulty of use were some of barriers for the use of ATs. There is converging evidence that indicators of situation of need (in particular: disabilities in preforming self-care activities) are associated with an increased use of ATs. Slight to moderate functional limitations, chronic illnesses, and home-based training were some of the facilitators for the use of ATs. We concluded with recommendations for further improvement of studies relevant to ATs use. [less ▲]

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See detailBarriers to Inclusion: Special Education in the United States and Germany
Powell, Justin J W UL

Book published by Routledge (2016)

Barriers to Inclusion provides a comparative and historical account of the rise of special and inclusive education over the twentieth century in the United States and Germany. This institutional analysis ... [more ▼]

Barriers to Inclusion provides a comparative and historical account of the rise of special and inclusive education over the twentieth century in the United States and Germany. This institutional analysis demonstrates how categorical boundaries, professional groups, social movements, and education and social policies shaped the schooling of children and youth with disabilities. It traces the evolution of special education classification and categories, explores growing special education organizations, and examines students' learning opportunities and educational attainments. Highlighting cross-national differences over time, the author also investigates demographic and geographic variability within the federal democracies, especially in segregation and inclusion rates of disabled and disadvantaged children. Germany's elaborate system of segregated special school types contrasts with diverse American special education classrooms mainly within regular schools. Joining historical case studies with empirical indicators, this book reveals persistent barriers to school integration as well as factors that facilitate inclusive education reform in both societies. [less ▲]

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See detailBarriers to Inclusion: Special Education in the United States and Germany
Powell, Justin J W UL

Book published by Paradigm Publishers (2011)

Providing an in-depth comparative and historical account, Barriers to Inclusion charts the rise of special education over the twentieth century in the United States and Germany. This institutional ... [more ▼]

Providing an in-depth comparative and historical account, Barriers to Inclusion charts the rise of special education over the twentieth century in the United States and Germany. This institutional analysis demonstrates how professional groups, social movements, and education and social policies shaped the schooling of children and youth with disabilities. It traces continuity and change in special education classification and categorical boundaries, explores the growth of special education organizations, and examines students’ learning opportunities and educational attainments. Highlighting cross-national differences over time, this book investigates demographic and geographic variability within the federal democracies, especially in segregation and inclusion rates of disabled and disadvantaged children. Germany’s elaborate system of segregated special school types contrasts with diverse American special education classrooms mainly within regular schools. Joining historical case studies with empirical indicators, this book reveals persistent barriers to school integration as well as factors that facilitate inclusive education reform in both societies. [less ▲]

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See detailBarriers to Inclusion: The Institutionalization of Special Education in the United States and Germany
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Disability & Society (2007), 22(7), 671-672

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See detailBarycentrically associative and preassociative functions
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Teheux, Bruno UL

in Acta Mathematica Hungarica (2015), 145(2), 468-488

We investigate the barycentric associativity property for functions with indefinite arities and discuss the more general property of barycentric preassociativity, a generalization of barycentric ... [more ▼]

We investigate the barycentric associativity property for functions with indefinite arities and discuss the more general property of barycentric preassociativity, a generalization of barycentric associativity which does not involve any composition of functions. We also provide a generalization of Kolmogoroff-Nagumo's characterization of the quasi-arithmetic mean functions to barycentrically preassociative functions. [less ▲]

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See detailBAS- Exercise sheet 1 -correction
Riviere, Salim UL

Learning material (2013)

Elements of correction for exercise sheet 1 of "Basic Algebraic Structures" course.

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See detailBAS- Exercise sheet 2 -correction
Riviere, Salim UL

Learning material (2013)

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See detailBasel regulation: friend or foe of small business lending
Wolff, Christian UL

in VoxEU.org (2015)

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See detailBasensuche und Bestimmung der Motivationsdichte in historischen Textkorpora. Theoretische Überlegungen und praktische Umsetzung
Sieburg, Heinz UL; Klein, Thomas

in Munske, Horst; Habermann, Mechthild; Müller, Peter (Eds.) Historische Wortbildung des Deutschen (2002)

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See detailBasic Algebraic Structures - Lecture notes for the MICS
Schlichenmaier, Martin UL

Learning material (2017)

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