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See detailOvercoming selfishness: Reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac autonomic control in the ultimatum game
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Schmitt, Michael et al

in Frontiers in Psychology [=FPSYG] (2011), 2(173), 1-16

The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been ... [more ▼]

The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an ultimatum game, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOvercoming the Voc limitation of CZTSe solar cells
Risch, L.; Vauche, L.; Redinger, Alex UL et al

in IEEE (2016)

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See detailOvercompliance with endogenous environmental standards and quantity competition
Tampieri, Alessandro UL; Lambertini, Luca

in Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy (2015)

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See detailOverdamped stochastic thermodynamics with multiple reservoirs
Murashita, Yuto; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 94(062148),

After establishing stochastic thermodynamics for underdamped Langevin systems in contact with multiple reservoirs, we derive its overdamped limit using timescale separation techniques. The overdamped ... [more ▼]

After establishing stochastic thermodynamics for underdamped Langevin systems in contact with multiple reservoirs, we derive its overdamped limit using timescale separation techniques. The overdamped theory is different from the naive theory that one obtains when starting from overdamped Langevin or Fokker-Planck dynamics and only coincides with it in the presence of a single reservoir. The reason is that the coarse-grained fast momentum dynamics reaches a nonequilibrium state, which conducts heat in the presence of multiple reservoirs. The underdamped and overdamped theory are both shown to satisfy fundamental fluctuation theorems. Their predictions for the heat statistics are derived analytically for a Brownian particle on a ring in contact with two reservoirs and subjected to a nonconservative force and are shown to coincide in the long-time limit. [less ▲]

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See detailOvereducation and Social Generations in France: Welfare Regimes and Inter-cohort Inequalities in Returns to Education
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Attewel, P.; Newman, K.S. (Eds.) Growing Gaps: Educational Inequality Around the World (2010)

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See detailOverestimation of physical activity among young people: Does age and gender play a role?
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, June 22)

Background and purpose: Due to the continuous decrease of physical activity (PA) of people in industrialized countries (Kohl et al., 2012), PA behavior and its psychological foundations has become a key ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose: Due to the continuous decrease of physical activity (PA) of people in industrialized countries (Kohl et al., 2012), PA behavior and its psychological foundations has become a key issue in health-related research. Studies show that most people tend to overesti-mate their habitual PA (Skender et al., 2016), however, there is very little research on the role of demographic variables in this respect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether age and/or gender affect the (over)estimation of PA among children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 75 students (38 girls and 37 boys, 10 to 18 years) of various primary and sec-ondary schools were randomly included in the study. Habitual PA was assessed through an online self-report questionnaire (Schmidt et al., 2017) as well as by wearing an accelerometer (Acti-Graph GT3X-BT) over seven consecutive days. A multiple regression analysis was used to ana-lyze the impact of age and gender on the accuracy of PA estimation. Results: The students reported being active for at least 60 minutes on average on 4,0 ± 2,1 days per week, whereas the accelerometer data verify only 1,8 ± 1,6 days per week. Thus, a majority of 76% of the children and adolescents overestimated and 9% underestimated their PA. Almost 15% were correct in their PA estimation. However, results of the regression analysis indicate neither an effect of age ( = .003, p > .1) nor of gender ( = -.070, p > .1). Conclusions: Overestimation of PA is common not only among adults but also among children and adolescents. However, this misperception appears to be independent of age and gender, at least in the age group considered here. Future studies should examine further demographic and psychological variables in order to explain why most of the people significantly overestimate their habitual PA. [less ▲]

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See detailOverestimation of time as an indicator of surprise
Klapproth, Florian UL

in GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences (2012), 1

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See detailOverexpression of a Streptomyces viridochromogenes gene (glnII) encoding a glutamine synthetase similar to those of eucaryotes confers resistance against the antibiotic phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine
Behrmann, Iris UL; Hillemann, D.; Pühler, A. et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1990), 172(9), 5326-34

Phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (PTT), also known as bialaphos, contains phosphinothricin, a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS). A 2.75-kilobase NcoI fragment of the Streptomyces ... [more ▼]

Phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (PTT), also known as bialaphos, contains phosphinothricin, a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS). A 2.75-kilobase NcoI fragment of the Streptomyces viridochromogenes PTT-resistant mutant ES2 cloned on a multicopy vector mediated PTT resistance to S. lividans and to S. viridochromogenes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 2.75-kb NcoI fragment revealed the presence of three open reading frames. Open reading frame 3 was termed glnII since significant similarity was found between its deduced amino acid sequence and those from GS of eucaryotes and GSII of members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Subcloning experiments showed that PTT resistance is mediated by overexpression of glnII encoding a 37.3-kilodalton protein of 343 amino acids. A three- to fourfold increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity could be observed in S. lividans transformants carrying the glnII gene on a multicopy plasmid. For S. viridochromogenes it was shown that PTT resistance conferred by the 2.75-kb NcoI fragment was dependent on its multicopy state. GS activity encoded by glnII was found to be heat labile. Southern hybridization with seven different Streptomyces strains suggested that they all carry two types of GS genes, glnA and glnII. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of activin A in the skin of transgenic mice reveals new activities of activin in epidermal morphogenesis, dermal fibrosis and wound repair.
Munz, B.; Smola, H.; Engelhardt, F. et al

in EMBO Journal (1999), 18(19), 5205-15

Recently we demonstrated a strong induction of activin expression after skin injury, suggesting a function of this transforming growth factor-beta family member in wound repair. To test this possibility ... [more ▼]

Recently we demonstrated a strong induction of activin expression after skin injury, suggesting a function of this transforming growth factor-beta family member in wound repair. To test this possibility, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress the activin betaA chain in the epidermis under the control of a keratin 14 promoter. The transgenic mice were significantly smaller than control littermates, and they had smaller ears and shorter tails. In their skin, the fatty tissue was replaced by connective tissue and a severe thickening of the epidermis was found. The spinous cell layer was significantly increased, and the epidermal architecture was highly disorganized. These histological abnormalities seem to result from increased proliferation of the basal keratinocytes and abnormalities in the program of keratinocyte differentiation. After skin injury, a significant enhancement of granulation tissue formation was detected in the activin-overexpressing mice, possibly as a result of premature induction of fibronectin and tenascin-C expression. These data reveal novel activities of activin in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as in dermal fibrosis and cutaneous wound repair. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of sarcolemmal calcium pump attenuates induction of cardiac gene expression in response to ET-1.
Piuhola, J.; Hammes, A.; Schuh, K. et al

in American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology (2001), 281(3), 699-705

The function of the plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) in myocardium is unknown. PMCA is localized in caveolae, 50- to 100-nm membrane invaginations, which also contain receptors ... [more ▼]

The function of the plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) in myocardium is unknown. PMCA is localized in caveolae, 50- to 100-nm membrane invaginations, which also contain receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1) and various other ligands. PMCA has been suggested to play a role in regulation of caveolar signal transduction. We studied the effects of the hypertrophic agonist ET-1 and increased coronary perfusion pressure on cardiac synthesis of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in transgenic rats overexpressing the human PMCA 4CI in isolated perfused heart preparation. ET-1 infusion for 2 h increased BNP mRNA levels twofold in left ventricles (LV) of nontransgenic rats, whereas no increase was noted in PMCA rat hearts. Similar responses were seen in adrenomedullin and c-fos mRNA levels, and in immunoreactive BNP secretion. Increased mechanical load produced by elevated perfusion pressure induced similar 1.5- to 1.6-fold increases in LV BNP mRNA in both nontransgenic and PMCA rat hearts. These results show that cardiac overexpression of PMCA attenuates ET-1-stimulated early induction of cardiac gene expression, suggesting that PMCA may modulate myocardial growth responses. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of synphilin-1 promotes clearance of soluble and misfolded alpha-synuclein without restoring the motor phenotype in aged A30P transgenic mice.
Casadei, Nicolas; Pohler, Anne-Maria; Tomas-Zapico, Cristina et al

in Human molecular genetics (2014), 23(3), 767-81

Lewy bodies and neurites are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. These structures are composed of fibrillized and ubiquitinated alpha-synuclein suggesting that impaired protein clearance is ... [more ▼]

Lewy bodies and neurites are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. These structures are composed of fibrillized and ubiquitinated alpha-synuclein suggesting that impaired protein clearance is an important event in aggregate formation. The A30P mutation is known for its fast oligomerization, but slow fibrillization rate. Despite its toxicity to neurons, mechanisms involved in either clearance or conversion of A30P alpha-synuclein from its soluble state into insoluble fibrils and their effects in vivo are poorly understood. Synphilin-1 is present in Lewy bodies, interacting with alpha-synuclein in vivo and in vitro and promotes its sequestration into aggresomes, which are thought to act as cytoprotective agents facilitating protein degradation. We therefore crossed animals overexpressing A30P alpha-synuclein with synphilin-1 transgenic mice to analyze its impact on aggregation, protein clearance and phenotype progression. We observed that co-expression of synphilin-1 mildly delayed the motor phenotype caused by A30P alpha-synuclein. Additionally, the presence of N- and C-terminal truncated alpha-synuclein species and fibrils were strongly reduced in double-transgenic mice when compared with single-transgenic A30P mice. Insolubility of mutant A30P and formation of aggresomes was still detectable in aged double-transgenic mice, paralleled by an increase of ubiquitinated proteins and high autophagic activity. Hence, this study supports the notion that co-expression of synphilin-1 promotes formation of autophagic-susceptible aggresomes and consecutively the degradation of human A30P alpha-synuclein. Notably, although synphilin-1 overexpression significantly reduced formation of fibrils and astrogliosis in aged animals, a similar phenotype is present in single- and double-transgenic mice suggesting additional neurotoxic processes in disease progression. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of the partially activated alpha(IIb)beta3D723H integrin salt bridge mutant downregulates RhoA activity and induces microtubule-dependent proplatelet-like extensions in Chinese hamster ovary cells
Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth UL; Salsmann, Alexandre UL; Debili, Najet et al

in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis [=JTH] (2009), 7(7), 1207-1217

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported a novel mutation in the beta3 subunit of the platelet fibrinogen receptor (alpha(IIb)beta3D723H) identified in a patient with dominantly inherited ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported a novel mutation in the beta3 subunit of the platelet fibrinogen receptor (alpha(IIb)beta3D723H) identified in a patient with dominantly inherited macrothrombocytopenia, and we have shown that this mutation promotes a new phenotype in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, characterized by fibrinogen-dependent, microtubule-driven proplatelet-like cell extensions. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that the partially activated alpha(IIb)beta3D723H or alpha(IIb)beta3D723A salt bridge mutants, but not fully activated alpha(IIb)beta3 mutants, cause this phenotype. Time-lapse videomicroscopy clearly differentiated these stable microtubule-driven and nocodazole-sensitive extensions from common dynamic actin-driven pseudopodia. In addition, overexpression of a mitochondrial marker confirmed their functional role in organelle transport. Comparative immunofluorescence analysis of the subcellular localization of alpha(IIb)beta3, the focal adhesion proteins talin or vinculin and actin revealed a similar membrane labeling of CHO cell extensions and CD34+-derived megakaryocyte proplatelets. Mutant alpha(IIb)beta3D723H signaling was independent of Src, protein kinase C or phosphoinositide 3-kinase, but correlated with decreased RhoA activity as compared with wild-type alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling, reminiscent of integrin signaling during neurite outgrowth. Accordingly, overexpression of constitutively active RhoA in CHO alpha(IIb)beta3D723H cells prevented protrusion formation on fibrinogen. Most interestingly, RhoA/ROCK inhibition was necessary, but not sufficient, and integrin activity was additionally required to induce CHO cell extension formation. CONCLUSIONS: CHO alpha(IIb)beta3D723H cell protrusions and megakaryocyte proplatelets, like neuronal cell neurites, result from a common integrin-dependent signaling pathway, promoting strongly decreased RhoA activity and leading to microtubule-driven formation of cytoplasmic extensions. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of the sarcolemmal calcium pump in the myocardium of transgenic rats.
Hammes, A.; Oberdorf-Maass, S.; Rother, T. et al

in Circulation Research (1998), 83(9), 877-88

The plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) is a calcium-extruding enzyme controlling Ca2+ homeostasis in nonexcitable cells. However, its function in the myocardium is unclear because ... [more ▼]

The plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) is a calcium-extruding enzyme controlling Ca2+ homeostasis in nonexcitable cells. However, its function in the myocardium is unclear because of the presence of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. We approached the question of the physiological function of the calcium pump using a transgenic "gain of function" model. Transgenic rat lines carrying the human PMCA 4 cDNA under control of the ventricle-specific myosin light chain-2 promoter were established, and expression in the myocardium was ascertained at the mRNA, protein, and functional levels. In vivo hemodynamic measurements in adult homozygous animals showed no differences in baseline and increased cardiac performance recruited by volume overload compared with controls. No differences between transgenic and control cardiomyocytes were found in patch clamp voltage dependence, activation/inactivation behavior of the L-type Ca2+ current, or fast [Ca2+]i transients (assessed by the Fura-2 method). To test whether the PMCA might be involved in processes other than beat-to-beat regulation of contraction/relaxation, we compared growth processes of neonatal transgenic and control cardiomyocytes. A 1.6- and 2.3-fold higher synthesis rate of total protein was seen in cells from transgenic animals compared with controls on incubation with 2% FCS for 24 hours and 36 hours, respectively. An effect of similar magnitude was observed using 20 micromol/L phenylephrine. A 1.4-fold- and 2.0-fold-higher protein synthesis peak was seen in PMCA-overexpressing cardiomyocytes after stimulation with isoproterenol for 12 hours and 24 hours, respectively. Because pivotal parts of the alpha- and beta-adrenergic signal transduction pathways recently have been localized to caveolae, we tested the hypothesis that the PMCA might alter the amplitude of alpha- and beta-adrenergic growth signals by virtue of its localization in caveolae. Biochemical as well as immunocytochemical studies suggested that the PMCA in large part was colocalized with caveolin 3 in caveolae of cardiomyocytes. These results indicate that the sarcolemmal Ca2+-pump has little relevance for beat-to-beat regulation of contraction/relaxation in adult animals but likely plays a role in regulating myocardial growth, possibly through modulation of caveolar signal transduction. [less ▲]

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See detailOvergrown PBT's: Calculations and Measurements
Schüppen, A.; Marso, Michel UL; Lüth, H.

in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (1994), 41(1994), 751-760

The device parameters of overgrown silicon permeable base transistors (PBT’s) have been systematically investigated by two dimensional drift diffusion simulations and analytical calculations. Hence some ... [more ▼]

The device parameters of overgrown silicon permeable base transistors (PBT’s) have been systematically investigated by two dimensional drift diffusion simulations and analytical calculations. Hence some design rules arise for optimizing the high frequency performance of PBT’s. The calculations indicate the source-drain distance as the essential PBT parameter, which should be kept below 200 nm in order to expect unity current- gain frequencies fT over 50 GHz. In addition, PBT’s with buried monocrystalline CoSiz -gates have been fabricated by high dose cobalt ion implantation through a grid-like mask into MOS-compatible n -type Si(lO0). Measurements revealed a transconductance of 70 mS/mm and a fT value of 6 GHz. The comparison between measured and simulated output characteristics shows good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Overlay Approach for Optimising Small-World Properties in VANETs
Schleich, Julien UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Dorronsoro, Bernabé UL et al

in Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Applications of Evolutionary Computation (EvoApplications) (2013)

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See detailOverloaded Satellite Receiver using SIC with Hybrid Beamforming and ML detection
Abu Shaban, Zohair UL; Mehrpouyan, Hani; Grotz, Joel et al

in 14th Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC) (2013, June)

In this paper, a new receiver structure that is intended to detect the signals from multiple adjacent satellites in the presence of other interfering satellites is proposed. We tackle the worst case ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new receiver structure that is intended to detect the signals from multiple adjacent satellites in the presence of other interfering satellites is proposed. We tackle the worst case interference conditions, i.e., it is assumed that uncoded signals that fully overlap in frequency arrive at a multiple-element small-size parabolic antenna in a spatially correlated noise environment. The proposed successive interference cancellation (SIC) receiver, denoted by SIC Hy/ML, employs hybrid beamforming and disjoint maximum likelihood (ML) detection. Depending on the individual signals spatial position, the proposed SIC Hy/ML scheme takes advantage of two types of beamformers: a maximum ratio combining (MRC) beamformer and a compromised array response (CAR) beamformer. The performance of the proposed receiver is compared to an SIC receiver that uses only MRC beamforming scheme with ML detection for all signals, a joint ML detector, and a minimum mean square error detector. It is found that SIC Hy/ML outperforms the other schemes by a large margin. [less ▲]

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See detail“Overloaded!” — A Model-based Approach to Database Stress Testing
Meira, Jorge Augusto UL; Almeira, Eduardo Cunha de; Kim, Dongsun UL et al

in International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, Porto 5-8 September 2016 (2016)

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See detailOverloads Management in Active Radial Distribution Systems: an Optimization Approach Including Network Switching
Bilibin, Ilya UL; Capitanescu, Florin UL; Sachau, Jürgen UL

in 2013 IEEE PES PowerTech (2013, June)

This paper focuses on the real-time overloads management in active radial distribution systems that host a significant amount of distributed generators (DGs). In order to possibly reduce the amount of ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the real-time overloads management in active radial distribution systems that host a significant amount of distributed generators (DGs). In order to possibly reduce the amount of generation curtailed to remove congestion, and hence harvest as much renewable energy as possible, we propose a centralized optimization approach that includes the option to use remotely controlled grid switches and breakers so as to transfer distributed generation between feeders. To mitigate the computational burden posed by modeling the switching actions as binary variables we build upon a very convenient existing optimization framework that, for a radial distribution grid, transforms precisely the original mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem into a much simpler mixed integer quadratically constrained (MIQC) one. Although the approach focuses on overload removal in course of optimization it also pays attention not worsening other operational constraints such as voltage limits. We prove the interest and feasibility of our approach using a 33-bus benchmark distribution system as well as a 61-bus real-life distribution system model. [less ▲]

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See detailOverlooked links: Corporate environmental performance and urban quality of life in China's emerging megacities.
Schulz, Christian UL; Soyez, Dietrich UL; Xue, Desheng

in Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas; Kraas, Frauke (Eds.) Global change, urbanization and health. (2006)

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