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See detailThe neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist RP 67580, reduces the sensitization of primary afferents by substance P in the rat.
Pawlak, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Heppelmann, Bernd et al

in European Journal of Pain (London, England) (2001), 5

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See detailThe neurokinin-2 receptor is not involved in the sensitization of primary afferents of the rat knee joint.
Pawlak, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Nitz, Christian et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2002), 326

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See detailNeurological Diseases from a Systems Medicine Point of View.
Ostaszewski, Marek UL; Skupin, Alexander UL; Balling, Rudi UL

in Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) (2016), 1386

The difficulty to understand, diagnose, and treat neurological disorders stems from the great complexity of the central nervous system on different levels of physiological granularity. The individual ... [more ▼]

The difficulty to understand, diagnose, and treat neurological disorders stems from the great complexity of the central nervous system on different levels of physiological granularity. The individual components, their interactions, and dynamics involved in brain development and function can be represented as molecular, cellular, or functional networks, where diseases are perturbations of networks. These networks can become a useful research tool in investigating neurological disorders if they are properly tailored to reflect corresponding mechanisms. Here, we review approaches to construct networks specific for neurological disorders describing disease-related pathology on different scales: the molecular, cellular, and brain level. We also briefly discuss cross-scale network analysis as a necessary integrator of these scales. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurologists, neurosurgeons, and psychiatrists' personality traits: a comparison
Surbeck, Werner; Samuel, Robin UL; Spieler, Derek et al

in Acta Neurochirurgica (2020)

Background: Clinicians in neuroscientific disciplines may present distinct personality profiles. Despite of potential relevance to clinical practice, this has not yet been studied. We therefore aimed to ... [more ▼]

Background: Clinicians in neuroscientific disciplines may present distinct personality profiles. Despite of potential relevance to clinical practice, this has not yet been studied. We therefore aimed to compare personality profiles of physicians working in the three main disciplines of clinical neuroscience, i.e., neurologists, neurosurgeons, and psychiatrists, between each other, across levels of training and to other specialties. Methods:An online survey using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), an internationally validated measure of the five-factor model of personality dimensions, was distributed to board-certified physicians, residents, and medical students in several European countries and Canada. Differences in personality profiles were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and canonical linear discriminant analysis on age- and sex-standardized z-scores of personality traits. Single personality traits were analyzed using robust t tests. Results: Of the 5148 respondents who completed the survey, 723 indicated the specialties neurology, neurosurgery, or psychiatry. Compared to all other specialties, personality profiles of training and trained physicians in these three main clinical neuroscience disciplines (“NN&P”) significantly differed, with significantly higher scores in openness to experience. Within NN&P, there were significant differences in personality profiles, driven by lower neuroticism in neurosurgeons, higher conscientiousness in neurosurgeons and neurologists, and higher agreeableness in psychiatrists. Across levels of training, NN&P personality profiles did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The distinct clinical neuroscience personality profile is characterized by higher levels of openness to experience compared to non-neuroscience specialties. Despite high variability within each discipline, moderate, but solid differences in the personality profiles of neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists exist. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuromuscular correlates of subthalamic stimulation and upper limb freezing in Parkinson's disease.
Scholten, M.; Klotz, R.; Plewnia, C. et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2016)

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of deep brain stimulation mechanisms and resistant freezing phenomena in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) remains incompletely understood. Further studies on the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of deep brain stimulation mechanisms and resistant freezing phenomena in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) remains incompletely understood. Further studies on the neuromuscular substrates are needed. METHODS: We analyzed 16 patients with advanced iPD and bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation, and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were tested after overnight withdrawal of medication with 'stimulation off' (StimOff) and 'stimulation on' (StimOn). Subjects performed continuous tapping of the right index finger with simultaneous recordings of biomechanical registration, EMG of finger flexors and extensors, and EEG. First, we analyzed EEG and EMG spectral measures comparing StimOff with healthy controls and StimOff with StimOn (irrespective of freezing). Second, we contrasted 'regular (unimpaired) tapping' and 'freezing' resistant to subthalamic neurostimulation as obtained in StimOn. RESULTS: iPD showed increased intermuscular coherence around 8Hz in StimOff that was reduced in StimOn. This 8Hz muscular activity was not coherent to cortical activity. 'Freezing' episodes showed increased muscle activity of finger flexors and extensors at 6-9Hz, and increased cortical activity at 7-11Hz. During transition from regular tapping to 'freezing' the cortical activity first increased over the left sensorimotor area followed by a spread to the left frontal and right parietal areas. CONCLUSIONS: We identified neuromuscular motor network features of subthalamic neurostimulation therapy and resistant upper limb freezing that point to increased low-frequency muscular and cortical activity. SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our findings demonstrate several motor network abnormalities associated with upper limb freezing that may translate into future research on freezing of gait in iPD. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuronal architecture of the central complex in Drosophila melanogaster
Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Heisenberg, Martin

in Cell and Tissue Research (1989), 257

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See detailNeuronal mechanisms of perceptual learning: Changes in human brain activity with training in orientation discrimination
Schiltz, Christine UL; Bodart, M. J; Dubois, S et al

in NeuroImage (1999), 9(1), 46-62

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood flow was measured twice in six human subjects: before and after extensive training in orientation discrimination. In each session ... [more ▼]

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood flow was measured twice in six human subjects: before and after extensive training in orientation discrimination. In each session subjects performed two orientation discrimination tasks, during which they discriminated the orientation of a grating at either the trained or untrained reference orientation, and a control task, during which they detected a randomly textured pattern. By comparing the discrimination to the detection tasks, we observed a main effect of task bilaterally in the posterior occipital cortex, extending into the left posterior fusiform gyrus and the right inferior occipital gyrus, bilaterally in the intraparietal sulcus, as well as in the cerebellum, thalamus, and brainstem. When we compared the activation pattern before and after the training period, all the changes observed were activity decreases. The nonspecific changes, which were not related to the orientation used during the training, were situated in the cerebellum and bilaterally in the extrastriate visual cortex. The orientation-specific changes, on the other hand, were restricted to the striate and extrastriate visual cortex, more precisely the right calcarine sulcus, the left lingual gyrus, the left middle occipital, and the right inferior occipital gyrus. These findings confirm our hypothesis concerning the existence of learning related changes at early levels of visual processing in human adults and suggest that mechanisms resulting in neuronal activity decreases might be involved in the present kind of learning. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling in the heart is regulated by the sarcolemmal calcium pump 4b.
Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Emerson, Michael et al

in Circulation (2007), 115(4), 483-92

BACKGROUND: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been shown to be a major regulator of cardiac contractility. In a cellular system, we have previously shown that nNOS is regulated by the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been shown to be a major regulator of cardiac contractility. In a cellular system, we have previously shown that nNOS is regulated by the isoform 4b of plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA4b) through direct interaction mediated by a PDZ domain (PSD 95, Drosophilia Discs large protein and Zona occludens-1) on nNOS and a cognate ligand on PMCA4b. It remains unknown, however, whether this interaction has physiological relevance in the heart in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated 2 strains of transgenic mice overexpressing either human PMCA4b or PMCA ct120 in the heart. PMCA ct120 is a highly active mutant form of the pump that does not interact with or modulate nNOS function. Calcium was extruded normally from PMCA4b-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, but in vivo, overexpression of PMCA4b reduced the beta-adrenergic contractile response. This attenuated response was not observed in ct120 transgenic mice. Treatment with a specific nNOS inhibitor (N omega-propyl-L-arginine) reduced the beta-adrenergic response in wild-type and ct120 transgenic mice to levels comparable to those of PMCA4b transgenic animals. No differences in lusitropic response were observed in either transgenic strain compared with wild-type littermates. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the physiological relevance of the interaction between PMCA4b and nNOS and suggests its signaling role in the heart. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuropathie
De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Bougnères, P.F.; Jos, J.; Chaussain, J.L. (Eds.) Le diabète de l'enfant (1990)

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See detailNeuropeptide expression in dorsal root ganglion cells is changed in adjuvant-induced monoarthritis
Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Heppelmann, Bernd; Schaible, Hans-Georg et al

in Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 19 (1993)

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See detailNeuropeptides and inflammation: presumed mechanisms in neurogenic inflammation
Landry, Y.; Bloch, J. G.; Mousli, M. et al

in Pathologie et Biologie (1990), 38(1), 53-6

Neuropeptides, among which substance P, VIP (Vasoactive intestinal peptide), somatostatin, neurotensin, dynorphin and enkephalins, are able to modulate inflammatory processes. Increasing interest is now ... [more ▼]

Neuropeptides, among which substance P, VIP (Vasoactive intestinal peptide), somatostatin, neurotensin, dynorphin and enkephalins, are able to modulate inflammatory processes. Increasing interest is now devoted to these peptides in different inflammatory diseases, concerning skin, lung and joins. The effect of substance P can be dependent on its C-terminal moiety implicating by this way an interaction with specific neurokinin receptors or can be dependent on its N-terminal moiety which does not involve a specific membrane receptor. Such diversity of the action mechanisms of peptides should influence the evolution of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuropeptides and their receptors in the environment of nociceptors: Where and why?
Schmidt, Robert; Hanesch, Ulrike UL

in Neuropeptides (1996)

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See detailNeuropeptides in dural fine sensory nerve endings - involvement in neurogenic inflammation?
Hanesch, Ulrike UL

in Kumazawa, Takao; Kruger, L; Mizumura, Kazue (Eds.) The polymodal receptor - a gateway to pathological pain. (1996)

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See detailNeuropeptides in primary afferents from normal and inflamed joints
Heppelmann, Bernd; Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Schmidt, Robert

in Hökfelt, T; Schaible, H-G; Schmidt, RF (Eds.) Neuropeptides, Nociception and Pain (1994)

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See detailNeurophysiologische Evidenz für eine veränderte ZNS-Repräsentation afferenter Signale aus dem kardiovaskulären System bei Depersonalisations-/Derealisationsstörung
Schulz, André UL; Köster, S.; Reuchlein, B. et al

in Abstractband Tradition und Aufbruch - 32. Symposium der Fachgruppe Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie der DGPs (2014)

Patienten mit Depersonalisations-/Derealisationsstörung (DP/DR) berichten häufig von einer Distanzierung der Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers sowie Empfindun-gen, die möglicherweise eng mit Körperprozessen ... [more ▼]

Patienten mit Depersonalisations-/Derealisationsstörung (DP/DR) berichten häufig von einer Distanzierung der Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers sowie Empfindun-gen, die möglicherweise eng mit Körperprozessen zu-sammenhängen, wie Emotionen. Während es zahlreiche neurophysiologische Belege für ein verändertes Erleben bei DP/DR gibt, existieren bislang keine derartigen Be-funde für eine veränderte Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers. Bei 23 Patienten mit DP/DR und 24 gesunden Kontroll-probanden wurden Herzschlag-evozierte Hirnpotenziale (HEPs) mittels EEG und EKG während einer fünfminü-tigen Ruhephase und während einer Herzschlagzähl-aufgabe (Schandry) gemessen. HEPs gelten als elektro-physiologischer Indikator für die kortikale Verarbeitung kardial-interozeptiver Prozesse. Außerdem wurde die Genauigkeit in dieser Herzschlagzählaufgabe und einer Herzschlagdiskriminationsaufgabe (Whitehead). Die DP/DR-Patientengruppe unterschied sich erwartungsgemäß hinsichtlich ihrer DP/DR-Symptome (CDS; S-CDS), subjektiver Wahrnehmung von Körpersignalen (KEKS), Depressivität (BDI-II) und State-/Trait-Ängstlichkeit (STAI-S;-T) von der Kontrollgruppe. Es zeigten sich keine Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Genau-igkeit in beiden Herzschlagdetektionstests zwischen den Gruppen. Die Kontrollgruppe zeigte höhere HEP-Amplituden während der Herzschlagzählaufgabe als während der Ruhephase, wie bereits mehrfach gezeigt. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigte sich dieser Unterschied in der DP/DR-Patientengruppe nicht (Interaktion: p = .03). Obwohl DP/DR-Patienten vergleichbare Genauigkeit in der Herzschlagdetektion zeigten, konnte jedoch keine Erhöhung der HEPs bei DP/DR während dieser Aufgabe gemessen werden, was auf eine dysfunktionale Reprä-sentation interozeptiver Signale auf kortikaler Ebene hinweist. Dies könnte bedeuten, dass DP/DR-Patienten die gleichen interozeptiven Signale empfangen wie Gesunde, aber diese Signale nicht adäquat in ihr Selbst integrieren können. Die Gruppenunterschiede im HEP-Pattern könnten außerdem damit zusammenhängen, dass Patienten mit DP/DR die Fokussierung der Aufmerk-samkeit auf eigene Körpersignale als aversiv wahrneh-men. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuropsychiatric Complications of Efavirenz Therapy: Suggestions for a New Research Paradigm
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Gauggel, Siegfried

in Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (The) (2010), 22

This review gives an up-to-date account of the current state of research on neuropsychiatric complications associated with efavirenz therapy and critiques the methods used in previous studies. The authors ... [more ▼]

This review gives an up-to-date account of the current state of research on neuropsychiatric complications associated with efavirenz therapy and critiques the methods used in previous studies. The authors suggest an extension of current research strategies using psychophysiological concepts and including behavioral regulation models. From a practical perspective, these may contribute to better screening methods for the identification of those at risk for neuropsychiatric complications and the improvement of neuropsychiatric monitoring during efavirenz treatment. From a theoretical viewpoint, the suggested research paradigms may help to move beyond the current state of descriptive approaches and thus improve our limited understanding of underlying mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurosciences et lecture
Lochy, Aliette UL

Presentation (2018)

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See detailNeurostimulation for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications.
Schuepbach, W. M. M.; Rau, J.; Knudsen, K. et al

in The New England journal of medicine (2013), 368(7), 610-22

BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation reduces motor disability and improves quality of life in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who have severe levodopa-induced motor complications. We ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation reduces motor disability and improves quality of life in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who have severe levodopa-induced motor complications. We hypothesized that neurostimulation would be beneficial at an earlier stage of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 251 patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications (mean age, 52 years; mean duration of disease, 7.5 years) to undergo neurostimulation plus medical therapy or medical therapy alone. The primary end point was quality of life, as assessed with the use of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) summary index (with scores ranging from 0 to 100 and higher scores indicating worse function). Major secondary outcomes included parkinsonian motor disability, activities of daily living, levodopa-induced motor complications (as assessed with the use of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, parts III, II, and IV, respectively), and time with good mobility and no dyskinesia. RESULTS: For the primary outcome of quality of life, the mean score for the neurostimulation group improved by 7.8 points, and that for the medical-therapy group worsened by 0.2 points (between-group difference in mean change from baseline to 2 years, 8.0 points; P=0.002). Neurostimulation was superior to medical therapy with respect to motor disability (P<0.001), activities of daily living (P<0.001), levodopa-induced motor complications (P<0.001), and time with good mobility and no dyskinesia (P=0.01). Serious adverse events occurred in 54.8% of the patients in the neurostimulation group and in 44.1% of those in the medical-therapy group. Serious adverse events related to surgical implantation or the neurostimulation device occurred in 17.7% of patients. An expert panel confirmed that medical therapy was consistent with practice guidelines for 96.8% of the patients in the neurostimulation group and for 94.5% of those in the medical-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Subthalamic stimulation was superior to medical therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications. (Funded by the German Ministry of Research and others; EARLYSTIM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00354133.). [less ▲]

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See detailLa neutralité de l’internet, un enjeu de communication
Schafer, Valerie UL; Le Crosnier, Hervé

Book published by CNRS Editions (2011)

La Neutralité d'Internet peut apparaître comme une notion avant tout technique. Toutefois, derrière la question de l'équité du traitement des données, se jouent des rapports de force entre acteurs ... [more ▼]

La Neutralité d'Internet peut apparaître comme une notion avant tout technique. Toutefois, derrière la question de l'équité du traitement des données, se jouent des rapports de force entre acteurs économiques (fournisseurs d'accès à Internet, fournisseurs de contenus et de services .) qui ont des implications sur l'accès aux contenus, l'innovation et l'unité de l'Internet. Les gouvernements, les Autorités nationales de régulation, la justice, les instances multilatérales impliquées dans la gouvernance de l'Internet, " les pères fondateurs " et les associations sont dès lors entrés dans un débat qui livre un instantané des enjeux actuels et futurs des réseaux de communication et dévoile les relations de pouvoir à l'ouvre. Les positions des différentes parties prenantes convoquent plusieurs valeurs, visions et imaginaires de l'Internet, qui interrogent la démocratie technique. Les protocoles et architectures informatiques sont à la rencontre de la technique, de l'économie, de la culture, du social et du politique. C'est la raison pour laquelle un débat d'apparence technique occupe une réelle place politique et communicationnelle. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL)