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See detailNew Geographies 6: Grounding Metabolism
Katsikis, Nikolaos UL; Ibañez, Daniel

Book published by Harvard University Press (2014)

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See detailA New Global Vertical Land Movement Data Set from the TIGA Combined
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Abraha, Kibrom Ebuy UL

Poster (2017, April 23)

Globally averaged sea level has been estimated from the network of tide gauges installed around the world since the 19th century. These mean sea level (MSL) records provide sea level relative to a nearby ... [more ▼]

Globally averaged sea level has been estimated from the network of tide gauges installed around the world since the 19th century. These mean sea level (MSL) records provide sea level relative to a nearby tide gauge benchmark (TGBM), which allows for the continuation of the instrumental record in time. Any changes in the benchmark levels, induced by vertical land movements (VLM) affect the MSL records and hence sea level estimates. Over the last two decades sea level has also been observed using satellite altimeters. While the satellite observations are globally more homogeneous providing a picture of sea level not confined to coastlines, they require the VLM-corrected MSL records for the bias calibration of instrumental drifts. Without this calibration altimeter instruments from different missions cannot be combined. GPS has made it possible to obtain highly accurate estimates of VLM in a geocentric reference frame for stations at or close to tide gauges. Under the umbrella of the International GNSS Service (IGS), the Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has been established to apply the expertise of the GNSS community to solving issues related to the accuracy and reliability of the vertical component to provide estimates of VLM in a well-defined global reference frame. To achieve this objective, five TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) contributed re-processed global GPS network solutions to TIGA, employing the latest bias models and processing strategies in accordance with the second re-processing campaign (repro2) of the IGS. These solutions include those of the British Isles continuous GNSS Facility – University of Luxembourg consortium (BLT), the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) Potsdam, the German Geodetic Research Institute (DGF) at the Technical University of Munich, Geoscience Australia (AUT) and the University of La Rochelle (ULR). In this study we present to the sea level community an evaluation of the VLM estimates from the first combined solution from the IGS TIGA WG. The TAC solutions include more than 700 stations and span the common period 1995-2014. The combined solution was computed by the TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) at the University of Luxembourg, which used the Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial Reference Frame (CATREF) software package for this purpose. This first solution forms Release 1.0 and further releases will be made available after further reprocessing campaigns. We evaluate the combined solution internally using the TAC solutions and externally using solutions from the IGS and the ITRF2008. The derived VLM estimates have undergone an initial evaluation and should be considered as the primary TIGA product for the sea level community to correct MSL records for land level changes [less ▲]

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See detailNew Grand-Ducal Regulation on fees for audio and audiovisual media service providers
Cole, Mark UL; Metzdorf, Jenny

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailNew Grand-Ducal Regulation on Protection of Minors in Audiovisual Media Services
Cole, Mark UL; Metzdorf, Jenny

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailNew Grand-Ducal Regulation on the film fund for audiovisual production
Cole, Mark UL; Metzdorf, Jenny

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailNew hepatic fat activates PPARalpha to maintain glucose, lipid, and cholesterol homeostasis
Chakravarthy, M. V.; Pan, Z.; Zhu, Y. et al

in Cell Metabolism (2005), 1(5), 309-22

De novo lipogenesis is an energy-expensive process whose role in adult mammals is poorly understood. We generated mice with liver-specific inactivation of fatty-acid synthase (FAS), a key lipogenic enzyme ... [more ▼]

De novo lipogenesis is an energy-expensive process whose role in adult mammals is poorly understood. We generated mice with liver-specific inactivation of fatty-acid synthase (FAS), a key lipogenic enzyme. On a zero-fat diet, FASKOL (FAS knockout in liver) mice developed hypoglycemia and fatty liver, which were reversed with dietary fat. These phenotypes were also observed after prolonged fasting, similarly to fasted PPARalpha-deficiency mice. Hypoglycemia, fatty liver, and defects in expression of PPARalpha target genes in FASKOL mice were corrected with a PPARalpha agonist. On either zero-fat or chow diet, FASKOL mice had low serum and hepatic cholesterol levels with elevated SREBP-2, decreased HMG-CoA reductase expression, and decreased cholesterol biosynthesis; these were also corrected with a PPARalpha agonist. These results suggest that products of the FAS reaction regulate glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism by serving as endogenous activators of distinct physiological pools of PPARalpha in adult liver [less ▲]

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See detailA new high affinity binding site for suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 on the erythropoietin receptor.
Hortner, Michael; Nielsch, Ulrich; Mayr, Lorenz M. et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (2002), 269(10), 2516-26

Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hematopoietic cytokine that is crucial for the differentiation and proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells. Epo acts on its target cells by inducing homodimerization of the ... [more ▼]

Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hematopoietic cytokine that is crucial for the differentiation and proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells. Epo acts on its target cells by inducing homodimerization of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), thereby triggering intracellular signaling cascades. The EpoR encompasses eight tyrosine motifs on its cytoplasmic tail that have been shown to recruit a number of regulatory proteins. Recently, the feedback inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), also referred to as cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein 3 (CIS-3), has been shown to act on Epo signaling by both binding to the EpoR and the EpoR-associated Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) [Sasaki, A., Yasukawa, H., Shouda, T., Kitamura, T., Dikic, I. & Yoshimura, A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem 275, 29338-29347]. In this study tyrosine 401 was identified as a binding site for SOCS-3 on the EpoR. Here we show that human SOCS-3 binds to pY401 with a Kd of 9.5 microm while another EpoR tyrosine motif, pY429pY431, can also interact with SOCS-3 but with a ninefold higher affinity than we found for the previously reported motif pY401. In addition, SOCS-3 binds the double phosphorylated motif pY429pY431 more potently than the respective singly phosphorylated tyrosines indicating a synergistic effect of these two tyrosine residues with respect to SOCS-3 binding. Surface plasmon resonance analysis, together with peptide precipitation assays and model structures of the SH2 domain of SOCS-3 complexed with EpoR peptides, provide evidence for pY429pY431 being a new high affinity binding site for SOCS-3 on the EpoR. [less ▲]

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See detailNew identities for small hyperbolic surfaces
Hu, Hengnan UL; Tan, Ser Peow

in Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society (2014), 46(5), 10211031

Luo and Tan gave a new identity for hyperbolic surfaces with/without geodesic boundary in terms of dilogarithms of the lengths of simple closed geodesics on embedded three-holed spheres or one-holed tori ... [more ▼]

Luo and Tan gave a new identity for hyperbolic surfaces with/without geodesic boundary in terms of dilogarithms of the lengths of simple closed geodesics on embedded three-holed spheres or one-holed tori in Luo and Tan [‘A dilogarithm identity on moduli spaces of curves’, J. Differential Geom., Preprint, 2011, arXiv:1102.2133[math.GT]]. However, the identity was trivial for a hyperbolic one-holed torus with geodesic boundary. In this paper, we adapt the argument from Luo and Tan to give an identity for hyperbolic tori with one geodesic boundary or cusp in terms of dilogarithm functions on the set of lengths of simple closed geodesics on the torus. As a corollary, we are also able to express the Luo–Tan identity as a sum over all immersed three-holed spheres P which are embeddings when restricted to the interior of P [less ▲]

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See detailA new identity for SL(2,C)-characters of the once punctured torus group
Hu, Hengnan UL; Tan, Ser Peow; Zhang, Ying

in Mathematical Research Letters (2015), 22(2), 485499

We obtain new variations of the original McShane identity for those SL(2,C)–representations of the once punctured torus group which satisfy the Bowditch conditions, and also for those fixed up to ... [more ▼]

We obtain new variations of the original McShane identity for those SL(2,C)–representations of the once punctured torus group which satisfy the Bowditch conditions, and also for those fixed up to conjugacy by an Anosov mapping class of the torus and satisfying the relative Bowditch conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe New IERS Special Bureau for Loading (SBL)
van Dam, Tonie UL; Plag, Hans-Peter; Blewitt, Geoffrey et al

in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry: General Meeting Proceedings (2002)

Currently, the establishment of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) Special Bureau for Loading (SBL) is in progress as part of the IERS Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC). The main ... [more ▼]

Currently, the establishment of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) Special Bureau for Loading (SBL) is in progress as part of the IERS Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC). The main purpose of the SBL is to provide reliable, consistent model predictions of loading signals that have been thoroughly tested and validated. The products will describe at least the surface deformation, gravity signal and geo-center variations due to the various surface loading processes in reference frames relevant for direct comparison with existing geodetic observing techniques. To achieve these goals, major scientific advances are required with respect to the Earth model, the theory and algorithms used to model deformations of the Earth as well as improvements in the observational data related to surface loading. [less ▲]

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See detailNew in protein structure and function annotation: Hotspots, single nucleotide polymorphisms and the 'Deep Web'
Bromberg, Yana; Yachdav, Guy; Ofran, Yanay et al

in Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development (2009), 12(3), 408-419

The rapidly increasing quantity of protein sequence data continues to widen the gap between available sequences and annotations. Comparative modeling suggests some aspects of the 3D structures of ... [more ▼]

The rapidly increasing quantity of protein sequence data continues to widen the gap between available sequences and annotations. Comparative modeling suggests some aspects of the 3D structures of approximately half of all known proteins; homology- and network-based inferences annotate some aspect of function for a similar fraction of the proteome. For most known protein sequences, however, there is detailed knowledge about neither their function nor their structure. Comprehensive efforts towards the expert curation of sequence annotations have failed to meet the demand of the rapidly increasing number of available sequences. Only the automated prediction of protein function in the absence of homology can close the gap between available sequences and annotations in the foreseeable future. This review focuses on two novel methods for automated annotation, and briefly presents an outlook on how modern web software may revolutionize the field of protein sequence annotation. First, predictions of protein binding sites and functional hotspots, and the evolution of these into the most successful type of prediction of protein function from sequence will be discussed. Second, a new tool, comprehensive in silico mutagenesis, which contributes important novel predictions of function and at the same time prepares for the onset of the next sequencing revolution, will be described. While these two new sub-fields of protein prediction represent the breakthroughs that have been achieved methodologically, it will then be argued that a different development might further change the way biomedical researchers benefit from annotations: modern web software can connect the worldwide web in any browser with the 'Deep Web' (ie, proprietary data resources). The availability of this direct connection, and the resulting access to a wealth of data, may impact drug discovery and development more than any existing method that contributes to protein annotation. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogen production processes by combined microarray/RNA-seq transcriptomics.
Toepel, Jorg; Illmer-Kephalides, Maike; Jaenicke, Sebastian et al

in Plant Biotechnology Journal (2013)

Hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii induced by sulphur starvation is a multiphase process while the cell internal metabolism is completely remodelled. The first cellular response is ... [more ▼]

Hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii induced by sulphur starvation is a multiphase process while the cell internal metabolism is completely remodelled. The first cellular response is characterized by induction of genes with regulatory functions, followed by a total remodelling of the metabolism to provide reduction equivalents for cellular processes. We were able to characterize all major processes that provide energy and reduction equivalents during hydrogen production. Furthermore, C. reinhardtii showed a strong transcript increase for gene models responsible for stress response and detoxification of oxygen radicals. Finally, we were able to determine potential bottlenecks and target genes for manipulation to increase hydrogen production or to prolong the hydrogen production phase. The investigation of transcriptomic changes during the time course of hydrogen production in C. reinhardtii with microarrays and RNA-seq revealed new insights into the regulation and remodelling of the cell internal metabolism. Both methods showed a good correlation. The microarray platform can be used as a reliable standard tool for routine gene expression analysis. RNA-seq additionally allowed a detailed time-dependent study of gene expression and determination of new genes involved in the hydrogen production process. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the complex role of mitochondria in Parkinson's disease
Grünewald, Anne UL; Kumar, Kishore R; Sue, Carolyn M

in Progress in Neurobiology (2019), 177

New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the ... [more ▼]

New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in sporadic PD patients and there is growing evidence that links proteins encoded by PD-associated genes to disturbances in mitochondrial function. Against the backdrop of latest advances in the development of PD treatments that target mitochondria, we aim to give an overview of the literature published in the last three decades on the significance of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD. We describe the contribution of mitochondrial genome alterations and PD-associated genes to mitochondrial maintenance. We highlight mitophagy as a key mechanism in neurodegeneration. Moreover, we focus on the reciprocal interaction between alpha-synuclein aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction. We discuss a novel trafficking pathway involving mitochondrial-derived vesicles within the context of PD and provide a synopsis of the most recently emerging topics in PD research with respect to mitochondria. This includes the relationship between mitochondria and cell-mediated immunity, the ER-mitochondria axis, sirtuin-mediated mitochondrial stress response and the role of micro RNAs in the aetiology of PD. In addition, recent studies have challenged the neuro-centric view of PD pathology, moving microglia and astrocytes into the research spotlight. Greater insights into these mechanisms may hold the key for the development of novel targeted therapies, addressing the need for a disease-modifying treatment, which has remained elusive to date. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the Kawah Ijen hydrothermal system from geophysical data
Caudron, Corentin; Mauri, Guillaume; Williams-Jones, Glyn et al

in Geological Society, London, Special Publications (2016), 437

The magmatic–hydrothermal system of Kawah Ijen volcano is one of the most exotic on Earth, featuring the largest acidic lake on the planet, a hyper-acidic river and a passively degassing silicic dome ... [more ▼]

The magmatic–hydrothermal system of Kawah Ijen volcano is one of the most exotic on Earth, featuring the largest acidic lake on the planet, a hyper-acidic river and a passively degassing silicic dome. While previous studies have mostly described this unique system from a geochemical perspective, to date there has been no comprehensive geophysical investigation of the system. In our study, we surveyed the lake using a thermocouple, a thermal camera, an echo sounder and CO2 sensors. Furthermore, we gained insights into the hydrogeological structures by combining self-potential surveys with ground and water temperatures. Our results show that the hydrothermal system is self-sealed within the upper edifice and releases pressurized gas only through the active crater. We also show that the extensive hydrological system is formed by not one but three aquifers: a south aquifer that seems to be completely isolated, a west aquifer that sustains the acidic upper springs, and an east aquifer that is the main source of fresh water for the lake. In contrast with previous research, we emphasize the heterogeneity of the acidic lake, illustrated by intense subaqueous degassing. These findings provide new insights into this unique, hazardous hydrothermal system, which may eventually improve the existing monitoring system. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into the Regulation of Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase Activity in the Phagosome: A Focus on the Role of Lipid and Ca(2+) Signaling
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Antioxidants & Redox Signaling (2013), 18(6), 661-676

Significance: Reactive oxygen species, produced by the phagosomal NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, play a significant physiological role during normal defense. Their role is not only to kill invading ... [more ▼]

Significance: Reactive oxygen species, produced by the phagosomal NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, play a significant physiological role during normal defense. Their role is not only to kill invading pathogens, but also to act as modulators of global physiological functions of phagosomes. Given the importance of NADPH oxidase in the immune system, its activity has to be decisively controlled by distinctive mechanisms to ensure appropriate regulation at the phagosome. Recent Advances: Here, we describe the signal transduction pathways that regulate phagosomal NADPH oxidase in neutrophils, with an emphasis on the role of lipid metabolism and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Critical Issues: The potential involvement of Ca(2+)-binding S100A8 and S100A9 proteins, known to interact with the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, is also considered. Future Directions: Recent technical progress in advanced live imaging microscopy will permit to focus more accurately on phagosomal rather than plasma membrane NADPH oxidase regulation during neutrophil phagocytosis. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Institutional Linkages between Dual Vocational Training and Higher Education. A Comparative Analysis of Germany, Austria and Switzerland
Ebner, Christian; Graf, Lukas UL; Nikolai, Rita

in Windzio, Michael (Ed.) Integration and Inequality in Educational Institutions (2013)

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have traditionally provided a large proportion of their workforces with qualifications obtained in the dual vocational training system. However, due to the growing demand ... [more ▼]

Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have traditionally provided a large proportion of their workforces with qualifications obtained in the dual vocational training system. However, due to the growing demand for abstract and codified knowledge, all three countries aim at increasing the permeability and individual mobility between the dual training sector and the higher education system. In this chapter we analyse the ways in which Germany, Austria and Switzerland have tried to establish institutional linkages between dual vocational training and higher education. We begin by discussing options for creating such linkages: (1.) upgrading of vocational education and training courses, (2.) introducing dual courses of study, (3.) facilitating attendance of general upper secondary schools for people with vocational qualifications, (4.) enabling the parallel acquisition of a dual vocational training qualification and a higher education entrance qualification, (5.) allowing admission to higher education on the basis of prior dual vocational training qualifications and a certain amount of work experience, and (6.) recognising prior learning as an element in higher education programmes. Our analysis shows that, recently, Germany has relied strongly on the admission to higher education based on vocational training certificates in combination with work experience. Switzerland and Austria are rather pushing the comprehensive introduction of programmes that enable the parallel acquisition of a dual vocational training qualification and a higher education entrance qualification. Finally, we raise questions about the risk of institutional ambiguity and institutional task overload. [less ▲]

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See detailThe New Institutionalism in Higher Education
Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Powell, Justin J W UL

in David, M.E.; Amey, M.J. (Eds.) SAGE Encyclopedia of Higher Education (in press)

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools ... [more ▼]

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools, colleges, universities, but also home schooling, religious, and informal education) stands out as one of only a handful of key social institutions next to the family, the economy, religion, science, and government. Higher education takes its place in this nexus of institutions, as it globally expands in size and grows in strategic importance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 240 (16 UL)