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See detailMicro-reversibility and thermalization with collisional baths
Ehrich, Jannik; Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Barra, Felipe et al

in Cornell University (2019)

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See detailMicro-structured materials: inhomogeneities and imperfect interfaces in plane micropolar elasticity, a boundary element approach
Atroshchenko, Elena; Hale, Jack UL; Videla, Javier A. et al

in Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements (2017), 83

In this paper we tackle the simulation of microstructured materials modelled as heterogeneous Cosserat media with both perfect and imperfect interfaces. We formulate a boundary value problem for an ... [more ▼]

In this paper we tackle the simulation of microstructured materials modelled as heterogeneous Cosserat media with both perfect and imperfect interfaces. We formulate a boundary value problem for an inclusion of one plane strain micropolar phase into another micropolar phase and reduce the problem to a system of boundary integral equations, which is subsequently solved by the boundary element method. The inclusion interface condition is assumed to be imperfect, which permits jumps in both displacements/microrotations and tractions/couple tractions, as well as a linear dependence of jumps in displacements/microrotations on continuous across the interface tractions/couple traction (model known in elasticity as homogeneously imperfect interface). These features can be directly incorporated into the boundary element formulation. The BEM-results for a circular inclusion in an in finite plate are shown to be in excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. The BEM-results for inclusions in finite plates are compared with the FEM-results obtained with FEniCS. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroaggregation-and Permutation-Based Anonymization of Mobility Data
Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL

in Information Sciences (2012), 208

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See detailMicroaggregation-and permutation-based anonymization of movement data
Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL

in Information Sciences (2012), 208

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (1 UL)
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See detailMicroarchitectural Side-Channel Attacks
Gallais, Jean-Francois UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Cryptanalysis is the science which evaluates the security of a cryptosystem and detects its weaknesses and flaws. Initially confined to the black-box model, where only the input and output data were ... [more ▼]

Cryptanalysis is the science which evaluates the security of a cryptosystem and detects its weaknesses and flaws. Initially confined to the black-box model, where only the input and output data were considered, cryptanalysis is now broadened to the security evaluation of the physical implementation of a cryptosystem. The implementation attacks which compose physical cryptanalysis are divided into fault attacks, exploiting the effect of disruption of the normal functioning of the device, and side-channel attacks, exploiting the dependency between the instructions and data (including key bits) processed by a device and its physical characteristics (e.g. execution time, power consumption, electromagnetic (EM) radiations). In the scope of this thesis, we particularly focus on the latter attacks. “Every computation leaks information” and lowering the physical leakages of an implementation is indeed a complex task both from cryptographic and engineering viewpoints, especially when performance and cost enter the equation. The development of adequate countermeasures necessitates a thorough knowledge of the various vulnerabilities that the microcontroller induces. Although generic side-channel attacks such as Differential Power Analysis (DPA) can generally retrieve the key with weak assumptions on a cryptographic implementation, we show in this thesis that the focus on specific components and properties from the architecture of the target device may allow an adversary to yield better success in a key recovery and sometimes to thwart DPA countermeasures. First, we elaborate on attacks which deduce the cache activity of a device from single side-channel traces and algebraically exploit this information to recover the key. We propose different attacks against embedded software implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the chosen- and known-plaintext scenarios and make them tolerant to environments where high noise or a partially preloaded cache would normally introduce errors in the key recovery. Second, we discuss the failure of standard DPA against the modular addition and propose a practical and generic approach to circumvent it. Third, we show that microarchitectural leakages and fault inductions can be exploited in a constructive way when induced by hardware Trojans implemented on general-purpose microprocessors. Such Trojans can either provide an adversary with a backdoor access to the trojanized device executing an arbitrary cryptographic software or serve to protect the Intellectual Property (IP) of the chip designer through digital watermarking. The last part concerns divide and conquer side-channel attacks such as DPA. Testing different combinations of key chunk candidates turns out to be very complex when the individual chunk recoveries are bounded in measurement complexity or performed in noisy environments. We address the so-called key enumeration problem with an efficient sorting method. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroarray analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha induced gene expression in U373 human glioblastoma cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Lindecke, Antje; Elvers, Margitta et al

in BMC Genomics (2003), 4(1), 46

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been widely used as a model for inflammatory cytokine actions in the nervous system. Here we used cDNA microarrays to analyze the time course of the transcriptional response from 1 h up to 12 h post TNF treatment in comparison to untreated U373 cells. TNF activated strongly the NF-kappaB transcriptional pathway and is linked to other pathways via the NF-kappaB target genes JUNB and IRF-1. Part of the TNF-induced gene expression could be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB with pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (PDTC). NF-kappaB comprises a family of transcription factors which are involved in the inducible expression of genes regulating neuronal survival, inflammatory response, cancer and innate immunity. RESULTS: In this study we show that numerous genes responded to TNF (> 880 from 7500 tested) with a more than two-fold induction rate. Several novel TNF-responsive genes (about 60% of the genes regulated by a factor > or = 3) were detected. A comparison of our TNF-induced gene expression profiles of U373, with profiles from 3T3 and Hela cells revealed a striking cell-type specificity. SCYA2 (MCP-1, CCL2, MCAF) was induced in U373 cells in a sustained manner and at the highest level of all analyzed genes. MCP-1 protein expression, as monitored with immunofluorescence and ELISA, correlated exactly with microarray data. Based on these data and on evidence from literature we suggest a model for the potential neurodegenerative effect of NF-kappaB in astroglia: Activation of NF-kappaB via TNF results in a strongly increased production of MCP-1. This leads to a exacerbation of neurodegeneration in stoke or Multiple Sclerosis, presumably via infiltration of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of genes regulated more than 3-fold were previously not linked to tumor necrosis factor alpha as a search in published literature revealed. Striking co-regulation for several functional groups such as proteasome and ribosomal proteins were detected. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroarray expression analysis reveals genetic pathways implicated in C621 synphilin-1-mediated toxicity.
Bonin, M.; Marx, F. P.; Kautzmann, S. et al

in Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2008), 115(7), 941-58

Synphilin-1 has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) based on its role as an alpha-synuclein (PARK1) and Parkin (PARK2) interacting protein and its presence in lewy bodies in brains of PD patients. We ... [more ▼]

Synphilin-1 has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) based on its role as an alpha-synuclein (PARK1) and Parkin (PARK2) interacting protein and its presence in lewy bodies in brains of PD patients. We recently identified a R621C mutation in the synphilin-1 gene in German PD patients. Functional analyses revealed that mutant synphilin-1 increases cellular stress, however, the involved molecular signalling pathways are currently unknown. Using microarray based gene expression analysis of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild type or R621C mutant synphilin-1 we investigated differentially regulated genes and signalling networks using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis tool. We show specific effects of C621 mutant synphilin-1 on gene expression that correlate with its role as a susceptibility factor in PD. The most significantly regulated signalling network was defined by the tumor growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) suggesting an involvement of synphilin-1 in TGF-beta mediated signalling pathways modulating the cellular stress response. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial community proteomics
Wilmes, Paul UL

in de Bruijn, Frans (Ed.) Handbook of Molecular Microbial Ecology I: Metagenomics and Complementary Approaches (2011)

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See detailMicrobial community proteomics: elucidating the catalysts and metabolic mechanisms that drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles
Wilmes, Paul UL; Bond, Philip L.

in Current Opinion in Microbiology (2009), 12(3), 310-317

Molecular techniques are providing unprecedented insights into the organismal and functional make-up of natural microbial consortia. Apart from nucleic acid based approaches, community proteomics has the ... [more ▼]

Molecular techniques are providing unprecedented insights into the organismal and functional make-up of natural microbial consortia. Apart from nucleic acid based approaches, community proteomics has the potential to provide a high-resolution representation of genotypic and phenotypic traits of distinct community members. With the recent availability of extensive genomic sequences from different microbial ecosystems, community proteomics has thus far been applied to activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms, freshwater and seawater, soil, symbiotic communities, and gut microbiota. Although these studies differ considerably in the depth of coverage of their respective protein complements, they highlight the power of community proteomics in providing a conclusive link between community composition, physilogy, function, interaction, ecology, and evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial Eco-Systems Biology: from molecules to ecosystems and back
Wilmes, Paul UL

Presentation (2011, January)

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See detailMicrobial Eco-Systems Biology: from molecules to ecosystems and back
Wilmes, Paul UL

Presentation (2011, April)

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See detailMicrobial Systems Ecology for identifying key functions driving host-microbiome-diet interactions
Wilmes, Paul UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

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See detailMicrobial Systems Ecology for unravelling key functions in situ
Wilmes, Paul UL

Scientific Conference (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)
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See detailMicrobiome and type 1 diabetes
Wampach, Linda UL; Wilmes, Paul UL; De Beaufort, Carine UL

E-print/Working paper (2013)

The human microbiome (the collective of microorganisms, which inhabit the human body) and changes therein (often referred to as microbial dysbiosis) is emerging as a potential player in the development of ... [more ▼]

The human microbiome (the collective of microorganisms, which inhabit the human body) and changes therein (often referred to as microbial dysbiosis) is emerging as a potential player in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This section discusses the human microbiome and its potential involvement in type 1 diabetes through its central roles in energy metabolism and modulation of the immune system. [less ▲]

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See detailLe microbiome humain et son impact sur la santé
Wilmes, Paul UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October)

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See detailThe Microbiome Modeling Toolbox: from microbial interactions to personalized microbial communities
Baldini, Federico UL; Heinken, Almut Katrin UL; Heirendt, Laurent UL et al

in Bioinformatics (2018)

The application of constraint-based modeling to functionally analyze metagenomic data has been limited so far, partially due to the absence of suitable toolboxes. To address this gap, we created a ... [more ▼]

The application of constraint-based modeling to functionally analyze metagenomic data has been limited so far, partially due to the absence of suitable toolboxes. To address this gap, we created a comprehensive toolbox to model i) microbe-microbe and host-microbe metabolic interactions, and ii) microbial communities using microbial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions and metagenomic data. The Microbiome Modeling Toolbox extends the functionality of the COBRA Toolbox. The Microbiome Modeling Toolbox and the tutorials at https://git.io/microbiomeModelingToolbox. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiome-derived small RNA in human circulation
Wilmes, Paul UL

Scientific Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 UL)