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See detailInterference Localization On-Board the Satellite Using Drift Induced Virtual Array
Arora, Aakash UL; Maleki, Sina; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Proc. 2018 International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (SPCOM) (2018, July)

Herein, we investigate the interference received from other wireless networks into a satellite communication (SATCOM) link, and review approaches to identify the interference location using on-board ... [more ▼]

Herein, we investigate the interference received from other wireless networks into a satellite communication (SATCOM) link, and review approaches to identify the interference location using on-board satellite processing. Interference is an increasing problem for satellite communication links, and while receiving signals from gateways or user terminals, the uplink is prone to disturbance by interference due to jammers or unintentional transmissions. In this paper, our aim is to localize unknown interference sources present on the ground by estimating direction of arrival (DOA) information using onboard processing (OBP) in the satellite, and the satellite drift inducing a virtual array. In this work, the signal sampled by the drifting single antenna feed is modeled as using an arbitrary array. Building on this model, we perform the 2-D DOA (azimuth and elevation) estimation. The key challenges in such a design include single snapshot based DOA estimation with low complexity and robustness, arising out of limited on-board computational complexity as well as uncertainty in parameters like the drift speed. Employing realistic satellite drift patterns, the paper illustrates the performance of the proposed technique highlighting the accuracy in localization under adverse environments. We provide numerical simulations to show the effectiveness of our methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference Mitigating Satellite Broadcast Receiver using Reduced Complexity List-Based Detection in Correlated Noise
Abu-Shaban, Zohair; Mehrpouyan, Hani; Ottersten, Björn UL et al

in arXiv preprint arXiv:1404.6544 (2014)

The recent commercial trends towards using smaller dish antennas for satellite receivers, and the growing density of broadcasting satellites, necessitate the application of robust adjacent satellite ... [more ▼]

The recent commercial trends towards using smaller dish antennas for satellite receivers, and the growing density of broadcasting satellites, necessitate the application of robust adjacent satellite interference (ASI) cancellation schemes. This orbital density growth along with the wider beamwidth of a smaller dish have imposed an overloaded scenario at the satellite receiver, where the number of transmitting satellites exceeds the number of receiving elements at the dish antenna. To ensure successful operation in this practical scenario, we propose a satellite receiver that enhances signal detection from the desired satellite by mitigating the interference from neighboring satellites. Towards this objective, we propose a reduced complexity list-based group-wise search detection (RC-LGSD) receiver under the assumption of spatially correlated additive noise. To further enhance detection performance, the proposed satellite receiver utilizes a newly designed whitening filter to remove the spatial correlation amongst the noise parameters, while also applying a preprocessor that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Extensive simulations under practical scenarios show that the proposed receiver enhances the performance of satellite broadcast systems in the presence of ASI compared to existing methods [less ▲]

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See detailInterference Mitigation and Synchronization for Satellite Communications
Grotz, Joel UL

Book published by KTH (2008)

Within this thesis, the satellite broadcast scenario of geostationary satellites is reviewed. The densely crowded geostationary arc in the common broadcast frequencies may create significant interference ... [more ▼]

Within this thesis, the satellite broadcast scenario of geostationary satellites is reviewed. The densely crowded geostationary arc in the common broadcast frequencies may create significant interference from adjacent satellites (ASI). The possible use of multiple-input receivers and of interference processing techniques is analyzed in this specific context. In addition the synchronization problem is studied under interference limited conditions for broadcast as well as broadband satellite systems.We address fixed satellite broadcast reception with the goal of decreasing the aperture of the receiving antenna. The front-end antenna size is commonly defined by the presence of interference from adjacent satellites. A small antenna aperture leads to interference from neighboring satellites utilizing the same frequency bands. We propose a multi-input reception system with subsequent joint detection which provides reliable communication in the presence of multiple interfering signals. An iterative least square technique is adopted combining spatial and temporal processing. This approach achieves robustness against pointing errors and against changing interference scenarios. Different temporal interference processing methods are evaluated, including Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) based iterative soft-decision interference cancellation as well as Iterative Least Square with Projection (ILSP) based approaches, which include spatial and temporal iterations. Furthermore the potential of an additional convolutional channel decoding step in the interference cancellation mechanism is verified.Also, we demonstrate how to accurately synchronize the signals as part of the detection procedure. The technique is evaluated in a realistic simulation study representing the conditions encountered in typical broadcast scenarios.In a second part of the thesis the problem of synchronization is reviewed in the context of interference limited scenarios for broadband satellite return channels. Spectral efficiency is of great concern in the return channel of satellite based broadband systems. In recent work the feasibility of increased efficiency by reducing channel spacing below the Symbol Rate was demonstrated using joint detection and decoding for a synchronized system. We extend this work by addressing the critical synchronization problem in the presence of adjacent channel interference (ACI) which limits performance as carrier spacing is reduced.A pilot sequence aided joint synchronization scheme for a multi-frequency time division multiple access (MF-TDMA) system is proposed. Based on a maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, the channel parameters, including frequency, time and phase are jointly estimated for the channel of interest and the adjacent channels. The impact of ACI on the synchronization and detection performance is investigated. It is shown that joint channel parameter estimation outperforms single carrier synchronization with reasonable additional computational complexity in the receiver. Based on the proposed synchronization scheme in conjunction with an appropriate joint detection mechanism the carrier spacing can be reduced significantly compared to current systems providing a substantial increase in spectral efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference Mitigation Techniques for Clustered Multicell Joint Decoding Systems
Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications & Networking (2011), 132

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See detailThe interference of pain with task performance: Increasing ecological validity in research
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL

in Scandinavian Journal of Pain (2017), 16

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See detailInterference Robustness Aspects of Space-Time Block Code-Based Transmit Diversity
Klang, Göran; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2005), 53(4), 12991309

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See detailInterference with Processing Negative Stimuli in Problematic Internet Users: Preliminary Evidence from an Emotional Stroop Task.
Schimmenti, Adriano; Starcevic, Vladan; Gervasi, Alessia M. et al

in Journal of clinical medicine (2018), 7(7), 177

Although it has been proposed that problematic Internet use (PIU) may represent a dysfunctional coping strategy in response to negative emotional states, there is a lack of experimental studies that ... [more ▼]

Although it has been proposed that problematic Internet use (PIU) may represent a dysfunctional coping strategy in response to negative emotional states, there is a lack of experimental studies that directly test how individuals with PIU process emotional stimuli. In this study, we used an emotional Stroop task to examine the implicit bias toward positive and negative words in a sample of 100 individuals (54 females) who also completed questionnaires assessing PIU and current affect states. A significant interaction was observed between PIU and emotional Stroop effects (ESEs), with participants who displayed prominent PIU symptoms showing higher ESEs for negative words compared to other participants. No significant differences were found on the ESEs for positive words among participants. These findings suggest that PIU may be linked to a specific emotional interference with processing negative stimuli, thus supporting the view that PIU is a dysfunctional strategy to cope with negative affect. A potential treatment implication for individuals with PIU includes a need to enhance the capacity to process and regulate negative feelings. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference-Aware Scheduling Using Geometric Constraints
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Dogeas, Konstantinos; Lucarelli, Giorgio et al

in Euro-Par 2018: Parallel Processing (2018, August)

The large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various jobs allocated on different nodes of the platform ... [more ▼]

The large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various jobs allocated on different nodes of the platform. The management of this huge communication demand is crucial for the performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network. In this paper, we consider two different types of communications: the flows induced by data exchanges during computations and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, we limit the interferences of both communication types by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of jobs into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each job. We present this methodology on the case study of simple network topologies, namely the line and the ring. We propose theoretical lower and upper bounds under different assumptions with respect to the platform and jobs characteristics. The obtained results illustrate well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies. [less ▲]

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See detailInterferon-gamma-mediated growth regulation of melanoma cells: involvement of STAT1-dependent and STAT1-independent signals
Kortylewski, M.; Komyod, W.; Kauffmann, M. E. et al

in Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2004), 122(2), 414-22

Interferon-gamma, a known inhibitor of tumor cell growth, has been used in several protocols for the treatment of melanoma. We have studied the molecular events underlying interferon-gamma-induced G0/G1 ... [more ▼]

Interferon-gamma, a known inhibitor of tumor cell growth, has been used in several protocols for the treatment of melanoma. We have studied the molecular events underlying interferon-gamma-induced G0/G1 arrest in four metastatic melanoma cell lines with different responsiveness to interferon-gamma. The growth arrest did not result from enhanced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Instead, it correlated with downregulation of cyclin E and cyclin A and inhibition of their associated kinase activities. We show that interferon-gamma-induced growth inhibition could be abrogated by overexpression of dominant negative STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) in the melanoma cell line A375, suggesting that STAT1 plays a crucial part for the anti-proliferative effect. Erythropoietin stimulation of a chimeric receptor led to a concentration-dependent STAT1 activation and concomitant growth arrest when it contained the STAT recruitment motif Y440 of the interferon-gamma receptor 1. In contrast, dose-response studies for interferon-gamma revealed a discrepancy between levels of STAT1 activation and the extent of growth inhibition; whereas STAT1 was activated by low doses of interferon-gamma (10 U per mL), growth inhibitory effects were only visible with 100-fold higher concentrations. Our results suggest the presence of additional signals emanating from the interferon-gamma receptor, which may counteract the anti-proliferative function of STAT1. [less ▲]

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See detailInterferon-γ-induced activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) up-regulates the tumor suppressing microRNA-29 family in melanoma cells
Schmitt, Martina J.; Philippidou, Demetra UL; Reinsbach, Susanne UL et al

in Cell Communication and Signaling (2012), 10

Background: The type-II-cytokine IFN-γ is a pivotal player in innate immune responses but also assumes functions in controlling tumor cell growth by orchestrating cellular responses against neoplastic ... [more ▼]

Background: The type-II-cytokine IFN-γ is a pivotal player in innate immune responses but also assumes functions in controlling tumor cell growth by orchestrating cellular responses against neoplastic cells. The role of IFN-γ in melanoma is not fully understood: it is a well-known growth inhibitor of melanoma cells in vitro. On the other hand, IFN-γ may also facilitate melanoma progression. While interferon-regulated genes encoding proteins have been intensively studied since decades, the contribution of miRNAs to effects mediated by interferons is an emerging area of research.We recently described a distinct and dynamic regulation of a whole panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) after IFN-γ-stimulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional regulation of miR-29 family members in detail, identify potential interesting target genes and thus further elucidate a potential signaling pathway IFN-γ → Jak→ P-STAT1 → miR-29 → miR-29 target genes and its implication for melanoma growth. Results: Here we show that IFN-γ induces STAT1-dependently a profound up-regulation of the miR-29 primary cluster pri-29a∼b-1 in melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, expression levels of pri-29a∼b-1 and mature miR-29a and miR-29b were elevated while the pri-29b-2∼c cluster was almost undetectable. We observed an inverse correlation between miR-29a/b expression and the proliferation rate of various melanoma cell lines. This finding could be corroborated in cells transfected with either miR-29 mimics or inhibitors. The IFN-γ-induced G1-arrest of melanoma cells involves down-regulation of CDK6, which we proved to be a direct target of miR-29 in these cells. Compared to nevi and normal skin, and metastatic melanoma samples, miR-29a and miR-29b levels were found strikingly elevated in certain patient samples derived from primary melanoma. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that the miR-29a/b1 cluster is to be included in the group of IFN- and STAT-regulated genes. The up-regulated miR-29 family members may act as effectors of cytokine signalling in melanoma and other cancer cells as well as in the immune system. © 2012 Schmitt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational attitudes towards Dutch language maintenance in New Zealand
De Bres, Julia UL

in Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics (2004), 16

This paper discusses the results of an exploratory study undertaken to investigate changes in individual and societal attitudes towards Dutch language maintenance across three periods of arrival in New ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the results of an exploratory study undertaken to investigate changes in individual and societal attitudes towards Dutch language maintenance across three periods of arrival in New Zealand from the 1950s to the present. Eleven representatives of Dutch families of three different periods of arrival in New Zealand completed a written questionnaire enquiring about their level of Dutch proficiency, patterns of language use, and their attitudes and perceptions of societal attitudes towards Dutch language maintenance in New Zealand in the past and present. An analysis of the resulting data suggests that although intergenerational language shift has so far occurred at a similar rate across periods of arrival, individual and societal attitudes towards Dutch language maintenance are more positive today than in the 1950s, and these changes in attitude may impact on the degree of Dutch language maintenance in New Zealand. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational differences in social and political participation in Western Europe
Meyers, Christiane UL

Scientific Conference (2017, January 17)

The global crisis and its negative consequences on living conditions in Europe have led in some countries to massive protests, especially among young persons. Kern et al. (2015) argue that this rising and ... [more ▼]

The global crisis and its negative consequences on living conditions in Europe have led in some countries to massive protests, especially among young persons. Kern et al. (2015) argue that this rising and sudden political engagement can be explained by grievance theory: individuals whose interests are threatened react by engaging themselves politically. However, they also demonstrate that political participation in a more long-term perspective is better explained by the civic voluntarism model. Brady et al. (1995) establish that resources like time, money and civic skills are central for getting politically active. Persons with a low socioeconomic status who possess fewer resources are generally less political active. In a long-term perspective the economic crisis and the deterioration of living conditions should lead to less political participation of young people. I want to use the civic voluntarism model to analyse and describe the changing political participation forms of different generations. Generations are defined as persons having experienced similar historical conditions when growing up, thus developing similar values and beliefs (Grasso, 2014). I will look at the generation of the baby boomers born after World War II and compare them to the generation Y born before the turn of the millennium. Both generations grew up in times of social changes and challenges. I will use a broad definition of participation, which integrates political and social engagement, to look at the different participation modes of the generations (Meyers & Willems, 2016; Sloam, 2014; Dalton, 2008). The analysis is based on data of the European Values Study and uses multivariate methods (factor and cluster analysis) to determine different engagement types within the two generations in Western Europe. Are there signs that the young generation disengages from society? Do they engage themselves in other ways than the older generation? How can the civic voluntarism model help to explain the differences between older and younger generations? [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational family relations in Luxembourg: Adult children and their ageing parents in migrant and non-migrant families
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2014, July)

Most studies in the context of acculturation research have focused on family relations between first generation parents and their second generation children in adolescence, but less is known about ... [more ▼]

Most studies in the context of acculturation research have focused on family relations between first generation parents and their second generation children in adolescence, but less is known about immigrant families at later stages in the family life cycle. As first generation immigrants are currently approaching retirement age in many Western European countries, the question of how parent-child relations in adulthood are regulated, gains - however - particular importance. Older migrants and their adult children might be confronted with very special tasks compared to families without migration background. In general, first generation parents might need higher intergenerational support from their adult children due to a smaller social network in the host country or due to fewer sociocultural resources such as language competences. There might also be an acculturation gap between parents and their adult children regarding different identity constructions, value orientations, norms and expectations with regard to intergenerational solidarity and support. These differences in expectations and beliefs might affect relationship quality between the family members from different generations as well as their well-being. In the present study, a cross-cultural comparison of altogether N = 120 Portuguese and Luxembourgish triads of older parents and their adult children, both living in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, is envisaged. The aims of the study are, firstly to examine similarities and differences in family values, internalized norms and mutual expectations of older parents and their adult children in migrant and non-migrant families; secondly, to analyze in how far an acculturation gap respectively a generation gap might have an impact on the relationship quality between parents and their adult children; thirdly and related to this, to explore subjective well-being (SWB) of all involved family members. Results will be discussed in the framework of an integrative model of intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing. This model will be proposed as a heuristic to explain similarities and differences in adult child-parent relations in migrant and non-migrant families. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational Family Relations in Luxembourg: Adult Children and their Ageing Parents in Migrant and Non-Migrant Families
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

in Roland-Lévy, Christine; Denoux, P.; Voyer, B. (Eds.) et al Unity, diversity and culture: Research and Scholarship Selected from the 22nd Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (2016)

Whereas most studies in the context of acculturation research have focused so far on family relations between first generation parents and their second generation children in adolescence, the present ... [more ▼]

Whereas most studies in the context of acculturation research have focused so far on family relations between first generation parents and their second generation children in adolescence, the present study draws its attention on immigrant families at later stages in the family life cycle. This study is part of the FNR-funded project on “Intergenerational Relations in the Light of Migration and Ageing – IRMA” in which a cross-cultural comparison of altogether N = 120 Portuguese and Luxembourgish triads of older parents and their adult children, both living in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, is envisaged. The aims of this project are, firstly to examine similarities and differences in family values, internalized norms and mutual expectations of older parents and their adult children in migrant and non-migrant families; secondly, to analyze in how far an acculturation gap respectively a generation gap might have an impact on the relationship quality between parents and their adult children; thirdly and related to this, to explore subjective well-being (SWB) of all involved family members. Results are discussed in the framework of an integrative model of intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational family relations in Luxembourg: Family values and intergenerational solidarity in Portuguese immigrant and Luxembourgish families
Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Michels, Tom UL

in European Psychologist (2013), 18(1), 59-69

According to the intergenerational solidarity model, family members who share similar values about family obligations should have a closer relationship and support each other more than families with a ... [more ▼]

According to the intergenerational solidarity model, family members who share similar values about family obligations should have a closer relationship and support each other more than families with a lower value consensus. The present study first describes similarities and differences between two family generations (mothers and daughters) with respect to their adherence to family values and, second, examines patterns of relations between intergenerational consensus on family values, affectual solidarity, and functional solidarity in a sample of 51 mother-daughter dyads comprising N = 102 participants from Luxembourgish and Portuguese immigrant families living in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Results showed a small generation gap in values of hierarchical gender roles, but an acculturation gap was found in Portuguese mother-daughter dyads regarding obligations toward the family. A higher mother-daughter value consensus was related to higher affectual solidarity of daughters toward their mothers but not vice versa. Whereas affection and value consensus both predicted support provided by daughters to their mothers, affection mediated the relationship between consensual solidarity and received maternal support. With regard to mothers, only affection predicted provided support for daughters, whereas mothers’ perception of received support from their daughters was predicted by value consensus and, in the case of Luxembourgish mothers, by affection toward daughters. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational Family Relations over the Life Course
Albert, Isabelle UL

Presentation (2016, May 23)

The present course will focus on intergenerational family relations over the life-span from the perspective of developmental psychology. In the first section, we will have a closer look at central ... [more ▼]

The present course will focus on intergenerational family relations over the life-span from the perspective of developmental psychology. In the first section, we will have a closer look at central definitions, models and concepts from life-span developmental psychology–for instance, life-span models of development, structuring the life course, developmental tasks, normative and non-normative life events, and the concept of generation. In the second part, we will focus on key concepts in the study of intergenerational family relations, such as intergenerational solidarity, conflict and ambivalence. Further, specific research evidence regarding intergenerational relations over the life span (including adolescent-parent, adult child-parent as well as grandchild-grandparent relations) will be presented and discussed, also taking into account cross-cultural aspects and intergenerational relations in the context of migration. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational Family Solidarity, Well-Being and Health
Albert, Isabelle UL; Schwarz, Beate

Scientific Conference (2018, April 19)

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See detailIntergenerational mobility in Europe: Home ownership as a facet of social reproduction?
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

Scientific Conference (2019, March)

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See detailIntergenerational relations between adult children and their older parents: A comparison between host nationals and Portuguese immigrants in Luxembourg
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2014, September)

Migration and ageing have become key topics of the contemporary world. In the next years, many western countries will be confronted with specific challenges of an ageing society. Among these, the ... [more ▼]

Migration and ageing have become key topics of the contemporary world. In the next years, many western countries will be confronted with specific challenges of an ageing society. Among these, the situation of older migrants is of particular interest in many European countries. Only few studies have, however, focused the relationship quality between adult children and their ageing parents in host national compared to immigrant families. Within this context, expectations of different generations towards one another may be of specific importance. As ageing parents approach a critical period of their life span, they may in general more likely experience a need for intergenerational support and solidarity and develop specific expectations about support exchange. These expectations may be challenged when families migrate from a culture of interdependence to a culture of independence, since cultural contact might lead to core changes in value orientations. As these changes are often more pronounced in the second generation than in the first, a generation gap between ageing parents and their adult children might result out of this process. A major question in this context refers to mutual expectations and obligations between family members of different generations as far as emotional and financial support are concerned. Adult children from immigrant families might, for instance, be subject to the experience of ambivalent or conflictual feelings regarding the desire to become independent from their parents; at the same time, they may feel the urge to conform to parental expectations or to support their parents in accordance to the values of their parents’ culture of origin. However, older parents may also undergo changes in their perception of intergenerational support and lower their expectations in the process of acculturation. In the present study, a cross-cultural comparison between Luxemburgish and Portuguese triads of adult children and their older parents living in Luxembourg (N = 120) will be realized. We will focus on different key issues regarding intergenerational family relations between first and second generations of host nationals and immigrants. One of the main issues will be to examine interdependent and independent self-construals comparing both cultural groups and both generations, presuming that there might be an intergenerational or an acculturation gap. Another research question concerns the potential consequences of divergent expectations about support and solidarity between family members of different generations, such as ambivalent or conflictual feelings. Finally, we will analyse in how far changes in the ideas about intergenerational relations might have affected and be affected by the life-long goal pursuit of older parents of both cultural groups. Results will be discussed within the framework of an integrative model of intergenerational family relations in the light of migration and ageing, which will be presented as a heuristic to explain similarities and differences in adult child-parent relationships by comparing two culturally different groups. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational relations between older parents and their adult children: Effect on subjective well-being
Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Ferring, Dieter UL

Poster (2014, August)

In the near future, many western nations will be confronted with specific issues regarding ageing populations and their physical and psychological well-being. Ageing persons might experience a greater ... [more ▼]

In the near future, many western nations will be confronted with specific issues regarding ageing populations and their physical and psychological well-being. Ageing persons might experience a greater need for intergenerational support and solidarity, especially in the context of migration. The acculturation process may entail an increased intergenerational gap possibly leading to conflicts and ambivalences between family members. This might in turn cause a diminished feeling of their well-being. A cross-cultural comparison is envisaged between Luxemburgish and Portuguese triads of adult children and their older parents living in Luxembourg (N = 120). Participants will report on their mutual relationship quality and subjective well-being by using a standardized questionnaire. Similitudes and differences in mutual expectations of the participants as well as the effects of an intergenerational gap in ideas about intergenerational solidarity on relationship quality and on subjective well-being (SWB) of family members will be examined. Results will be discussed regarding the relevance of intergenerational family relations for subjective well-being in the light of migration and ageing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 191 (14 UL)