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See detailGuidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
Klionsky, D.; Krüger, Rejko UL; et al.

in Autophagy (2016), 12(1), 1-222

Detailed reference viewed: 351 (16 UL)
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See detailGuidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Klionsky, Daniel J.; Abdalla, Fabio C.; Abeliovich, Hagai et al

in Autophagy (2012), 8(4), 445-544

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field ... [more ▼]

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 596 (51 UL)
See detailGuillaume II
Majerus, Benoît UL

in Le Naour, Jean-Yves (Ed.) Dictionnaire de la Grande Guerre (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 UL)
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See detailGuilt by Association: How Scientific Misconduct Harms Prior Collaborators
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Pellens, Maikel

in Research Policy (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (3 UL)
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See detailEin günstiges Zeitfenster: Die Gründung der Universität Luxemburg und der Einfluss internationaler Entwicklungen im Hochschulbereich
Braband, Gangolf UL

in Die Hochschule : Journal für Wissenschaft und Bildung (2015), 24(1), 144-156

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (49 UL)
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See detailguoter, lieber wân. Ästhetische Spielarten der Liebe im Minnesang damals und heute
Bendheim, Amelie UL; Pavlik, Jennifer UL

in Steger, Florian; Fürholzer, Katharina (Eds.) Jahrbuch Literatur und Medizin (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 UL)
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See detailGuru: Universal Reputation Module for Distributed Consensus Protocols
Biryukov, Alex UL; Feher, Daniel UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

Report (2017)

In this paper we describe how to couple reputation systems with distributed consensus protocols to provide high-throughput highly-scalable consensus for large peer-to-peer networks of untrusted validators ... [more ▼]

In this paper we describe how to couple reputation systems with distributed consensus protocols to provide high-throughput highly-scalable consensus for large peer-to-peer networks of untrusted validators. We introduce reputation module Guru, which can be laid on top of various consensus protocols such as PBFT or HoneyBadger. It ranks nodes based on the outcomes of consensus rounds run by a small committee, and adaptively selects the committee based on the current reputation. The protocol can also take external reputation ranking as input. Guru can tolerate larger threshold of malicious nodes (up to slightly above 1/2) compared to the 1/3 limit of BFT consensus algorithms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 438 (30 UL)
See detailGut behütet - streng bewacht. Tübin­ger Dienst­mädchen nach der Jahrhundertwende
Priem, Karin UL; Rosenfeld, Edda

Book published by Kulturamt (1992)

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (0 UL)
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See detailGut microbiome in gestational diabetes: a cross-sectional study of mothers and offspring 5 years postpartum
Hasan, S.; Aho, Velma UL; Pereira, P. A. B. et al

in Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica (2018), 97(1), 38-46

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See detailGut microbiome signatures of risk and prodromal markers of Parkinson's disease
Heinzel, Sebastian; Aho, Velma UL; Suenkel, Ulrike et al

in Annals of Neurology (2020)

Objective: Alterations of the gut microbiome in Parkinson disease (PD) have been repeatedly demonstrated. However, little is known about whether such alterations precede disease onset and how they relate ... [more ▼]

Objective: Alterations of the gut microbiome in Parkinson disease (PD) have been repeatedly demonstrated. However, little is known about whether such alterations precede disease onset and how they relate to risk and prodromal markers of PD. We investigated associations of these features with gut microbiome composition. Methods: Established risk and prodromal markers of PD as well as factors related to diet/lifestyle, bowel function, and medication were studied in relation to bacterial α-/β-diversity, enterotypes, and differential abundance in stool samples of 666 elderly TREND (Tübingen Evaluation of Risk Factors for Early Detection of Neurodegeneration) study participants. Results: Among risk and prodromal markers, physical activity, occupational solvent exposure, and constipation showed associations with α-diversity. Physical activity, sex, constipation, possible rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and smoking were associated with β-diversity. Subthreshold parkinsonism and physical activity showed an interaction effect. Among other factors, age and urate-lowering medication were associated with α- and β-diversity. Physical inactivity and constipation were highest in individuals with the Firmicutes-enriched enterotype. Constipation was lowest and subthreshold parkinsonism least frequent in individuals with the Prevotella-enriched enterotype. Differentially abundant taxa were linked to constipation, physical activity, possible RBD, smoking, and subthreshold parkinsonism. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, olfactory loss, depression, orthostatic hypotension, urinary/erectile dysfunction, PD family history, and the prodromal PD probability showed no significant microbiome associations. Interpretation: Several risk and prodromal markers of PD are associated with gut microbiome composition. However, the impact of the gut microbiome on PD risk and potential microbiome-dependent subtypes in the prodrome of PD need further investigation based on prospective clinical and (multi)omics data in incident PD cases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gut Microbiota and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Challenges and Potentials.
Noor, Fozia UL; Kaysen, Anne UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in Journal of innate immunity (2018)

The human gut microbiota gained tremendous importance in the last decade as next-generation technologies of sequencing and multiomics analyses linked the role of the microbial communities to host ... [more ▼]

The human gut microbiota gained tremendous importance in the last decade as next-generation technologies of sequencing and multiomics analyses linked the role of the microbial communities to host physiology and pathophysiology. A growing number of human pathologies and diseases are linked to the gut microbiota. One of the main mechanisms by which the microbiota influences the host is through its interactions with the host immune system. These interactions with both innate and adaptive host intestinal and extraintestinal immunity, although usually commensalistic even mutualistic with the host, in some cases lead to serious health effects. In the case of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the disruption of the intestinal microbiota diversity is associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Causing inflammation of the liver, skin, lungs, and the intestine, GvHD occurs in 40-50% of patients undergoing allo-HSCT and results in significant posttransplantation mortality. In this review, we highlight the impact of the gut microbiota on the host immunity in GvHD and the potential of microbiota in alleviation or even prevention of GvHD. [less ▲]

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See detailGut microbiota are related to Parkinson's disease and clinical phenotype
Scheperjans, F.; Aho, Velma UL; Pereira, P. A. B. et al

in Movement Disorders (2015), 30(3), 350-358

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See detailGut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components
Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn; Heinken, Almut Katrin UL et al

in European Journal of Nutrition (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 275 (7 UL)
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See detailGut microbiota in Parkinson's disease: Temporal stability and relations to disease progression
Aho, Velma UL; Pereira, P. A. B.; Voutilainen, S. et al

in EBioMedicine (2019), 44

Background: Several publications have described differences in cross-sectional comparisons of gut microbiota between patients with Parkinson's disease and control subjects, with considerable variability ... [more ▼]

Background: Several publications have described differences in cross-sectional comparisons of gut microbiota between patients with Parkinson's disease and control subjects, with considerable variability of the reported dif- ferentially abundant taxa. The temporal stability of such microbiota alterations and their relationship to disease progression have not been previously studied with a high-throughput sequencing based approach. Methods: We collected clinical data and stool samples from 64 Parkinson's patients and 64 control subjects twice, on average 2·25 years apart. Disease progression was evaluated based on changes in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Levodopa Equivalent Dose, and microbiota were characterized with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Findings: We compared patients to controls, and patients with stable disease to those with faster progression. There were significant differences between microbial communities of patients and controls when corrected for confounders, but not between timepoints. Specific bacterial taxa that differed between patients and controls at both timepoints included several previously reported ones, such as Roseburia, Prevotella and Bifidobacterium. In progression comparisons, differentially abundant taxa were inconsistent across methods and timepoints, but there was some support for a different distribution of enterotypes and a decreased abundance of Prevotella in faster-progressing patients. Interpretation: The previously detected gut microbiota differences between Parkinson's patients and controls persisted after 2 years. While we found some evidence for a connection between microbiota and disease progres- sion, a longer follow-up period is required to confirm these findings. [less ▲]

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See detailGute Absicht, kein Erfolg? Intendierte und nichtintendierte Wirkungen von Warnhinweisen auf Zigarettenschachteln
Glock, Sabine UL; Ritter, Simone; Müller, Barbara

in Rossmann, Constanze; Hastall, Matthias R. (Eds.) Medien und Gesundheitskommunikation: Befunde, Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 148 (3 UL)
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See detailGute Kindheit. Wohlbefinden, Kindeswohl und Ungleichheit
Betz, Tanja; Bollig, Sabine; Joos, Magdalena et al

Book published by Beltz Juventa (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 332 (15 UL)
See detailGute Noten. Der Schüler Kleist in den Aufzeichnungen des Carl Eduard Albanus
Amann, Wilhelm UL

in Brandenburger Kleist-Blätter (1994), 7

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL)
See detailGutenberg als Medienrevolution
Sieburg, Heinz UL

in Mein, Georg; Sieburg, Heinz (Eds.) Medien des Wissens (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (0 UL)