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See detailExample-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Logistic Regression for Credit Scoring
Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro UL; Aouada, Djamila UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in 2014 13th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (2014, December 03)

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. Credit scoring is a typical example of cost ... [more ▼]

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. Credit scoring is a typical example of cost-sensitive classification. However, it is usually treated using methods that do not take into account the real financial costs associated with the lending business. In this paper, we propose a new example-dependent cost matrix for credit scoring. Furthermore, we propose an algorithm that introduces the example-dependent costs into a logistic regression. Using two publicly available datasets, we compare our proposed method against state-of-the-art example-dependent cost-sensitive algorithms. The results highlight the importance of using real financial costs. Moreover, by using the proposed cost-sensitive logistic regression, significant improvements are made in the sense of higher savings. [less ▲]

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See detailExamples violating Golyshev's canonical strip hypotheses
Belmans, Pieter UL; Galkin, Sergey; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnava

in Exp. Math. (2022), 31(1), 233--237

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See detailExcemplify: a flexible template based solution, parsing and managing data in spreadsheets for experimentalists.
Shi, Lei; Jong, Lenneke; Wittig, Ulrike et al

in Journal of integrative bioinformatics (2013), 10(2), 220

In systems biology, quantitative experimental data is the basis of building mathematical models. In most of the cases, they are stored in Excel files and hosted locally. To have a public database for ... [more ▼]

In systems biology, quantitative experimental data is the basis of building mathematical models. In most of the cases, they are stored in Excel files and hosted locally. To have a public database for collecting, retrieving and citing experimental raw data as well as experimental conditions is important for both experimentalists and modelers. However, the great effort needed in the data handling procedure and in the data submission procedure becomes the crucial limitation for experimentalists to contribute to a database, thereby impeding the database to deliver its benefit. Moreover, manual copy and paste operations which are commonly used in those procedures increase the chance of making mistakes. Excemplify, a web-based application, proposes a flexible and adaptable template-based solution to solve these problems. Comparing to the normal template based uploading approach, which is supported by some public databases, rather than predefining a format that is potentiall impractical, Excemplify allows users to create their own experiment-specific content templates in different experiment stages and to build corresponding knowledge bases for parsing. Utilizing the embedded knowledge of used templates, Excemplify is able to parse experimental data from the initial setup stage and generate following stages spreadsheets automatically. The proposed solution standardizes the flows of data traveling according to the standard procedures of applying the experiment, cuts down the amount of manual effort and reduces the chance of mistakes caused by manual data handling. In addition, it maintains the context of meta-data from the initial preparation manuscript and improves the data consistency. It interoperates and complements RightField and SEEK as well. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exception d’illégalité des actes administratifs individuels devant le juge judiciaire à l’épreuve du droit processuel
Menetrey, Séverine UL; Bolard, Vincent

in Pasicrisie Luxembourgeoise: Recueil Trimestriel de la Jurisprudence Luxembourgeoise (2021)

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See detailException tirée du défaut d'autorisation d'agir en justice
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Recueil Dalloz (2013)

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See detailExceptions à l'interdiction du recours interétatique à la force
Delhaise, Elise UL; Colette-Basecqz, Nathalie

in Penser, écrire et interpréter le droit - Liber amicorum Xavier Thunis (2022)

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See detailExcess Control Rights, Multiple Large Shareholders, and Corporate Cash Holding Behavior
Benkraiem, Ramzi; Boubaker, Sabri; Derouiche, Imen UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, October 01)

This article examines the effects of excess control rights of the controlling shareholder and the presence of multiple large shareholders on the propensity of firms to save cash out of cash flow, i.e. the ... [more ▼]

This article examines the effects of excess control rights of the controlling shareholder and the presence of multiple large shareholders on the propensity of firms to save cash out of cash flow, i.e. the sensitivity of cash to cash flow. Using a data set covering 6,430 firm–year observations of 634 French listed firms, the evidence shows that firms have high cash flow sensitivity of cash when the controlling shareholder‘s control rights exceed its cash-flow ownership. However, this sensitivity decreases with the contestability of the controlling owner‘s power. Taken together, these findings provide empirical support to the argument that firms experiencing excess control rights save more cash out of cash flow due to their considerable financial constraints that are lowered in the presence of high control contestability. [less ▲]

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See detailExcess of singleton loss-of-function variants in Parkinson's disease contributes to genetic risk.
Bobbili, Dheeraj Reddy; Banda, Peter UL; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Journal of Medical Genetics (2020)

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex genetic architecture. Besides rare mutations in high-risk genes related to monogenic familial forms of PD, multiple ... [more ▼]

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex genetic architecture. Besides rare mutations in high-risk genes related to monogenic familial forms of PD, multiple variants associated with sporadic PD were discovered via association studies. Methods We studied the whole-exome sequencing data of 340 PD cases and 146 ethnically matched controls from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and performed burden analysis for different rare variant classes. Disease prediction models were built based on clinical, non-clinical and genetic features, including both common and rare variants, and two machine learning methods. Results We observed a significant exome-wide burden of singleton loss-of-function variants (corrected p=0.037). Overall, no exome-wide burden of rare amino acid changing variants was detected. Finally, we built a disease prediction model combining singleton loss-of-function variants, a polygenic risk score based on common variants, and family history of PD as features and reached an area under the curve of 0.703 (95% CI 0.698 to 0.708). By incorporating a rare variant feature, our model increased the performance of the state-of-the-art classification model for the PPMI dataset, which reached an area under the curve of 0.639 based on common variants alone. Conclusion The main finding of this study is to highlight the contribution of singleton loss-of-function variants to the complex genetics of PD and that disease risk prediction models combining singleton and common variants can improve models built solely on common variants. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Excessive Evolution of the Margin of Appreciation
Fahner, Johannes Hendrik UL

Presentation (2016, February 05)

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See detailEXCESSIVE MICROBIAL MUCIN FORAGING INDUCED BY DIETARY FIBER DEPRIVATION MODULATES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTIOUS AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
Wolter, Mathis UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The gastrointestinal (GI) mucus layer is a protective and lubricating hydrogel of polymer-forming glycoproteins that covers our intestinal epithelium. This mucus layer serves as an interface between the ... [more ▼]

The gastrointestinal (GI) mucus layer is a protective and lubricating hydrogel of polymer-forming glycoproteins that covers our intestinal epithelium. This mucus layer serves as an interface between the intestinal epithelium and environment as well as a as first line of defense against the potentially harmful microorganisms. While the GI mucus layer closer to the gut epithelium is highly condensed and acts as a physical barrier for invading microorganisms, further away from the epithelium, proteolytic degradation makes it loose. This looser part of the mucus layer serves as an attachment site and a nutrient source for some commensal gut bacteria. The molecular mechanisms that drive the mucus–microbe interactions are emerging and are important to understand the functional role of the gut microbiome in health and disease. Previous work by my research group showed that a dietary fiber-deprived gut microbiota erodes the colonic mucus barrier and enhances susceptibility to a mucosal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, a mouse model for human Escherichia coli infections. In this PhD thesis, I studied role of the gut mucus layer in the context of various other infectious and autoimmune diseases by inducing the natural erosion of the mucus layer by dietary fiber deprivation. In order to unravel the mechanistic details in the intricate interactions between diet, mucus layer and gut microbiome, I leveraged our previously established gnotobiotic mouse model hosting a synthetic human gut microbiota of fully characterized 14 commensal bacteria (14SM). I employed three different types of infectious diseases for the following reasons: 1) attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogen (C. rodentium), to better understand which commensal bacteria aid in enhancing the pathogen susceptibility when a fiber-deprived gut microbiota erodes the mucus barrier; 2) human intracellular pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Tyhimurium) to investigate, whether like the A/E pathogen, erosion of the mucus layer could affect the infection dynamics; and 3) a mouse nematode parasite – Trichuris muris, which is a model for the human parasite Trichuris trichiura – to study how changes in the mucin–microbiome interactions drive the worm infection, as mucins play an important role in worm expulsion. In my thesis, I used various combinations of 14SM by dropping out individual or all mucin-degrading bacteria from the microbial community to show that, in the face of reduced dietary fiber, the commensal gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila is responsible for enhancing susceptibility to C. rodentium, most likely by eroding the protective gut mucus layer. For my experiments with intracellular pathogens (L. monocytogenes and S. Tyhimurium, I found that dietary fiber deprivation provided protection against the infection by both L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. This protective effect against the pathogens was driven directly by diet and not by the microbial erosion of the mucus layer, since a similar protective effect was observed in both gnotobiotic and germ-free mice. Finally, for the helminth model, I showed that that fiber deprivation-led elevated microbial mucin foraging promotes clearance of the parasitic worm by shifting the host immune response from a susceptible, Th1 type to a resistant, Th2 type. In the context of autoimmune disease, I focused on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although IBD results from genetic predisposition, the contribution of environmental triggers is thought to be crucial. Diet–gut microbiota interactions are considered to be an important environmental trigger, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. As a model for IBD, I employed IL-10-/- mice which are known to spontaneously develop IBD-like colitis in conventional mice. Using our 14SM gnotobiotic mouse model, I showed that in a genetically susceptible host, microbiota-mediated erosion of the mucus layer following dietary fiber deprivation is sufficient to induce lethal colitis. Furthermore, my results show that this effect was clearly dependent on interaction all three factors: microbiome, diet and genetic susceptibility. Leaving out only one of these factors eliminated the lethal phenotype. The novel findings arising from my PhD thesis will help the scientific community to enhance our understanding of the functional role of mucolytic bacteria and the GI mucus layer in shaping our health. Overall, given a reduced consumption of dietary fiber in industrialized countries compared to developing countries, my results have profound implications for potential treatment and prevention strategies by leveraging diet to engineer the gut microbiome, especially in the context of personalized medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailExchange rates and macroeconomic dynamics
Terraza, Virginie UL; Karadeloglou, Pavlos

Book published by Palgrave (2008)

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See detailExchange-stiffness constant in cold-worked and nanocrystalline Ni measured by elastic small-angle neutron scattering
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.; Wiedenmann, A. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2000), 87(9), 5953-5955

We present a new method for determining the exchange-stiffness constant A of a ferromagnetic bulk material by field-dependent elastic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In the limit of high applied ... [more ▼]

We present a new method for determining the exchange-stiffness constant A of a ferromagnetic bulk material by field-dependent elastic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In the limit of high applied magnetic field H, for which the scattering volume is a single magnetic domain and the magnetization is nearly aligned with the direction of the applied field, a combination of micromagnetics theory with neutron scattering formalism suggests closed-form expressions for the differential scattering cross section as a function of the scattering vector and of H. Based on these results it is suggested that the exchange-stiffness constant can be extracted from experimental SANS data recorded as a function of H. At ambient temperature we have applied this method to polycrystalline cold-worked Ni and nanocrystalline electrodeposited Ni, finding exchange-stiffness constants of (8.2±0.2)×10−12 and (7.6±0.3)×10−12  J/m, respectively. Measurement at 5 K yields a value of (9.2±0.2)×10−12 J/m for the nanocrystalline sample, a temperature dependence that agrees qualitatively with data in the literature. In addition to the value of A, the technique supplies information on the spatial structure of the magnetic anisotropy field. [less ▲]

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See detailExchange-stiffness constant of a Nd-Fe-B based nanocomposite determined by magnetic neutron scattering
Bick, Jens-Peter UL; Suzuki, Kiyonori; Gilbert, Elliot et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2013), 103

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See detailExchangeable Hoeffding decompositions over finite sets: a characterization and counterexamples
El-Dakkak, Omar; Peccati, Giovanni UL; Prünster, Igor

in Journal of Multivariate Analysis (2014), 131

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See detailExchangeable pairs on Wiener chaos
Nourdin, Ivan UL; Zheng, Guangqu UL

in High-Dimensional Probability VIII Proceedings (2017)

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See detailExchangeably weighted bootstrap schemes
van Kerm, Philippe UL

Presentation (2022, November 18)

The exchangeably weighted bootstrap is one of the many variants of bootstrap resampling schemes. Rather than directly drawing observations with replacement from the data, weighted bootstrap schemes ... [more ▼]

The exchangeably weighted bootstrap is one of the many variants of bootstrap resampling schemes. Rather than directly drawing observations with replacement from the data, weighted bootstrap schemes generate vectors of replication weights to form bootstrap replications. Various ways to generate the replication weights can be adopted, and some choices bring practical computational advantages. This presentation demonstrates how easily such schemes can be implemented and where they are particularly useful, and introduces the exbsample command, which facilitates their implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailExcitation dependence of photoluminescence transitions
Spindler, Conrad UL

Poster (2016)

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See detailExcitation energy and pair correlation function of trions near an LiF surface
Solleder, Beate; Wirtz, Ludger UL; Burgdörfer, Joachim

in Physical Review. B (2008), 78(15),

We investigate the excitation spectrum of a singly charged LiF surface using an embedded cluster approach. The spectrum is determined by multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations. We find ... [more ▼]

We investigate the excitation spectrum of a singly charged LiF surface using an embedded cluster approach. The spectrum is determined by multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations. We find stable trionic states, i.e., quasimolecular states of a three-quasiparticle complex consisting of two holes and one electron interacting through the Coulomb potential. The excitation energy of the lowest trionic state is approximately 12.1 eV. The mean hole-hole spacing is about 7.6 a.u. (or 4 A). Our results confirm the interpretation of experiments [P. Roncin , Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 043201 (2002)] where trion excitation was suggested as effective energy-loss channel during the neutralization of Ne(+) ions at an LiF surface. [less ▲]

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