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See detailGreat Expectations: The Persistent Effect of Institutions on Culture
Litina, Anastasia UL

Presentation (2014)

This research exploits the event of immigration to establish that institutions have a persistent effect on culture. It is argued that immigrants coming from corrupt countries, tend to overtrust the ... [more ▼]

This research exploits the event of immigration to establish that institutions have a persistent effect on culture. It is argued that immigrants coming from corrupt countries, tend to overtrust the institutions at the host country. This inflated trust of immigrants is documented as the Great Expectations effect. This result is interesting and intriguing for several reasons. First, it highlights the persistent effect of institutions (at the origin country) on the cultural attitudes of immigrants. Interestingly, this effect is rather persistent and can be detected even to the second generation immigrants. Second, the analysis explores whether mean attitudes at the origin country have an effect on immigrants' attitude. The findings suggest that mean attitudes do not confer a statistically significant effect, whereas a horserace between origin institutions and origin culture suggests that it is the effect of institutions that prevails. Last, the analysis establishes that the inflated trust of immigrants affects their political attitudes. Immigrants coming from corrupt countries tend to be less interested in politics, to overtrust the host governments and to be less active in the political arena. In a globalized world where international immigration is rather extensive, pinning down the cultural differences across immigrants and thus the differences in their political attitudes is of an essence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (7 UL)
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See detailGreat Expectations: The Persistent Effect of Institutions on Culture
Litina, Anastasia UL

Presentation (2014, December 04)

This research exploits the event of immigration to establish that institutions have a persistent effect on culture. It is argued that immigrants coming from corrupt countries, tend to overtrust the ... [more ▼]

This research exploits the event of immigration to establish that institutions have a persistent effect on culture. It is argued that immigrants coming from corrupt countries, tend to overtrust the institutions at the host country. This inflated trust of immigrants is documented as the Great Expectations effect. This result is interesting and intriguing for several reasons. First, it highlights the persistent effect of institutions (at the origin country) on the cultural attitudes of immigrants. Interestingly, this effect is rather persistent and can be detected even to the second generation immigrants. Second, the analysis explores whether mean attitudes at the origin country have an effect on immigrants' attitude. The findings suggest that mean attitudes do not confer a statistically significant effect, whereas a horserace between origin institutions and origin culture suggests that it is the effect of institutions that prevails. Last, the analysis establishes that the inflated trust of immigrants affects their political attitudes. Immigrants coming from corrupt countries tend to be less interested in politics, to overtrust the host governments and to be less active in the political arena. In a globalized world where international immigration is rather extensive, pinning down the cultural differences across immigrants and thus the differences in their political attitudes is of an essence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (8 UL)
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See detailGreat Expectations: The Persistent Effect of Institutions on Culture
Litina, Anastasia UL

Scientific Conference (2014, June 12)

This research establishes the persistent effect of institutions on culture exploiting the natural experiment of migration. It advances and empirically establishes the hypothesis that lower institutional ... [more ▼]

This research establishes the persistent effect of institutions on culture exploiting the natural experiment of migration. It advances and empirically establishes the hypothesis that lower institutional quality at the origin country of a migrant is associated with higher trust towards host country institutions. The inflated trust of migrants is documented as the Great Expectations effect and is intriguing in three respects. First it contradicts with the empirically observed attitude of migrants with respect to interpersonal trust, where low quality of institutions is associated with lower interpersonal trust in both the host and the home country. Second, the inflated trust persists for both first and second generation migrants. Third, the effect of home institutions is stronger than the effect of mean trust at home confirming that institutions prevail over culture. The formation of Great Expectations has profound policy implications as it generates lower demand for regulation and reduced political participation. These findings further highlight the interplay between culture and institutions and the spillover effects of institutions operating via migration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 UL)
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See detailA greedy EM algorithm for Gaussian mixture learning
Vlassis, Nikos UL; Likas, A.

in Neural Processing Letters (2002), 15(1), 77-87

Learning a Gaussian mixture with a local algorithm like EM can be difficult because (i) the true number of mixing components is usually unknown, (ii) there is no generally accepted method for parameter ... [more ▼]

Learning a Gaussian mixture with a local algorithm like EM can be difficult because (i) the true number of mixing components is usually unknown, (ii) there is no generally accepted method for parameter initialization, and (iii) the algorithm can get trapped in one of the many local maxima of the likelihood function. In this paper we propose a greedy algorithm for learning a Gaussian mixture which tries to overcome these limitations. In particular, starting with a single component and adding components sequentially until a maximum number k, the algorithm is capable of achieving solutions superior to EM with k components in terms of the likelihood of a test set. The algorithm is based on recent theoretical results on incremental mixture density estimation, and uses a combination of global and local search each time a new component is added to the mixture. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL)
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See detailThe Greek Case: The Truman Doctrine and British Manipulation of the United States
Paravantis, Spero UL

in Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora (2010), 36(1&2), 99-128

This Article analyses events in Greece from 1944 to 1947, and the way in which they were used by the British to stoke anti-communist sentiment and action in the US government.

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (5 UL)
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See detailGreen Building Transitions - Regional Trajectories of Innovation in Europe, Canada and Australia
Affolderbach, Julia; Schulz, Christian UL

Book published by Springer (2018)

This volume analyzes sustainability-related innovations in the building sector and discusses how regional contexts articulate transition trajectories toward green building. It presents ‘biographies’ of ... [more ▼]

This volume analyzes sustainability-related innovations in the building sector and discusses how regional contexts articulate transition trajectories toward green building. It presents ‘biographies’ of drivers and processes of green building innovation in four case studies: Brisbane (AUS), Freiburg (GER), Luxembourg (LU), and Vancouver (CA). Two of them are relatively well known for their initiatives to mitigate climate change – particularly in the building sector, whereas the other two have only recently become more active in promoting green building. The volume places emphasis on development paths, learning processes, and innovations. The focus of the case studies is not restricted to purely technological aspects but also integrates regulatory, procedural, institutional, and other processes and routines and their influence on the variations of the building sector. The diversity of the selected case studies offer the reader the opportunity to gain a thorough understanding of how sustainability developments have unfolded in different city regions. Case study-specific catalogues of transition paths provide insights to inform policy debates and planning processes. The catalogues identify crucial innovations (technological, regulatory, etc.) and explain the factors and circumstances that have led to their success and broader acceptance in Freiburg, Vancouver, Luxembourg, and Brisbane. With the help of a number of micro case studies within each of the four city regions, the case studies also offer ground for comparison and identification of differences. The book represents the outcome of the GreenRegio project, which stands for ‘Green building in regional strategies for sustainability: multi-actor governance and innovative building technologies in Europe, Australia, and Canada.’ GreenRegio was a 3-year CORE-INTER research project funded by the National Research Fund Luxembourg (FNR) and the German Research Foundation (DFG). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (4 UL)
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See detailGreen Consumers, Greenwashing and the Misperception of Environmental Quality
Tampieri, Alessandro UL; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Lambertini, Luca

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (5 UL)
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See detailGreen consumption and relative preferences in a vertically differentiated international oligopoly
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL; Tarola, Ornella; Ceccantoni, Giulia

in Ecological Economics (2018)

We consider an open to trade two-country model with two vertically differentiated goods and relative preferences in consumption. These preferences are such that consumers obtain satisfaction from their ... [more ▼]

We consider an open to trade two-country model with two vertically differentiated goods and relative preferences in consumption. These preferences are such that consumers obtain satisfaction from their own consumption in relation to the consumption of the others. Product differentiation is along an environmental quality dimension and countries are asymmetric in average income. Analyzing the equilibrium configuration, we find that, when relative preferences are relegated to the poorer country producing the brown good, the process of trade liberalization can favor the polluting firm, while penalizing the green rival. In these circumstances, trade liberalization can be environmentally detrimental. At the opposite, trade liberalization always favors the green producer when relative preferences are observed in both countries, with possibly positive effects on global emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen Consumption and relative preferences in an international ologopoly
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL; Tarola, Ornella; Ceccantoni, Giulia

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 UL)
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See detailThe green economy and post-growth regimes: opportunities and challenges for economic geography
Schulz, Christian UL; Bailey, Ian

in Geografiska Annaler Series B : Human Geography (2014), 96(3), 277-291

While mainstream economic geography is doing increasing research on green manufacturing and services, with a few notable exceptions, its predominant conceptual approaches to emerging modes of economic ... [more ▼]

While mainstream economic geography is doing increasing research on green manufacturing and services, with a few notable exceptions, its predominant conceptual approaches to emerging modes of economic orientation continue to examine economic transitions somewhat unreflexively within the context of traditional growth paradigms. The aim of this article is to explore and critically examine neoliberal discourses on the green economy and smart growth by exploring contributions to debates on green economics proposed by ideas linked to post-growth economies. Based on studies by scholars such as Tim Jackson and Serge Latouche, the article examines the contours of debates on post-growth, décroissance (de-growth) and prosperity without growth. We begin by examining growth debates and existing contributions by economic and other geographers to the exploration of alternatives to conventional growth-centred economics. We then identify some emergent spatial facets of post-growth transitions and utilize these to explore potential research topics and opportunities for empirical and conceptual contributions by economic geographers to academic and societal debates on economic transitions and post-growth paradigms. Particular attention is paid to approaches currently discussed in economic geography, such as socio-technical transition studies. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen exercise is associated with better cell ageing profiles
Olafsdottir, Gunnthora; Cloke, Paul; Epel, Elissa et al

in The European Journal of Public Health (2016, November 01), 26(Suppl 1), 165021

Detailed reference viewed: 163 (5 UL)
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See detailGreen financing, interrupted. Potential directions for sustainable finance in Luxembourg
Dörry, Sabine; Schulz, Christian UL

in Local Environment (2018), 23(7), 717-733

This paper has a quintessentially explorative character. It aims at identifying existing as well as potential (yet missing) links between the finance industry and local businesses that aspire to more ... [more ▼]

This paper has a quintessentially explorative character. It aims at identifying existing as well as potential (yet missing) links between the finance industry and local businesses that aspire to more sustainable economic practices. Building on the observation that green investments have been gaining weight in global investors’ strategies, we analyse how sustainable – in the most comprehensive sense of the word – green investments could ultimately be(come), when green assets are still managed according to the logic of “financialised finance”. This latter’s technologies of commodification, securitisation and derivatives-trading allegedly oppose alternative economic practices that pursue economic sustainability through social and environmental gains. In contrast, we investigate how the finance industry relates to alternative financial practices, products and organisations that offer sustainability-oriented financing services, – for example, regional banks, cooperatives and the like, – with a specific focus on green, social and solidarity businesses. Both approaches subscribe to apparently contradictory ideologies. We establish a beneficial dialogue between the opposing models of “green capitalism” and “alternative economies” so as to identify potential points of intersection. The context of Luxembourg’s local/regional economies provides a great opportunity to empirically access three levels of investigation: the private sector, the public sector and an international financial centre, a key facilitator for green finance, thus utilising insights from the concept of bricolage. Whilst supporters of Luxembourg’s emerging green finance profile recognise its positive impact on the small country’s national branding, in combination with economic stimuli, more critical commentators point to pure “green washing” effects. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen Flexible Opportunistic Computing with task consolidation and virtualization
Castro, Harold; Villamizar, Mario; Sotelo, German et al

in Cluster Computing (2012)

Energy efficiency and high computing power are basic design considerations across modern-day computing solutions due to different concerns such as system perfor- mance, operational cost, and environmental ... [more ▼]

Energy efficiency and high computing power are basic design considerations across modern-day computing solutions due to different concerns such as system perfor- mance, operational cost, and environmental issues. Desktop Grid and Volunteer Computing System (DGVCS) so called opportunistic infrastructures offer computational power at low cost focused on harvesting idle computing cycles of ex- isting commodity computing resources. Other than allow- ing to customize the end user offer, virtualization is consid- ered as one key techniques to reduce energy consumption in large-scale systems and contributes to the scalability of the system. This paper presents an energy efficient approach for opportunistic infrastructures based on task consolidation and customization of virtual machines. The experimental re- sults with single desktops and complete computer rooms show that virtualization significantly improves the energy-efficiency of opportunistic grids compared with dedicated computing systems without disturbing the end-user. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen Flexible Opportunistic Computing with Virtualization
Castro, Harold; Sotelo, German; Diaz, Cesar UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT'11 (2011)

Energy efficiency and High computing power are basic design considerations across modern-day computing solutions due to different concerns such as system performance, operational cost, and environmental ... [more ▼]

Energy efficiency and High computing power are basic design considerations across modern-day computing solutions due to different concerns such as system performance, operational cost, and environmental issues. Opportunistic grid infrastructures offer computational power at low cost focused on harvesting idle computing cycles of existing commodity computing resources. Other than allowing to customize the end user offer, virtualization is considered as one key tech- niques to reduce energy consumption in large-scale systems and contributes to the scalability of the system. This paper presents an energy efficient approach for opportunistic grids based on virtualization. The experimental results show that virtualization significantly improves the energy efficiency of opportunistic grids compared with dedicated computing sys- tems without disturbing the end-user. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged to the cytoplasmic tail of alphaIIb or beta3 allows the expression of a fully functional integrin alphaIIb(beta3): effect of beta3GFP on alphaIIb(beta3) ligand binding.
Plançon, Sébastien UL; Morel-Kopp, M. C.; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth UL et al

in The Biochemical journal (2001), 357(Pt 2), 529-36

Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an autofluorescent tag, we report the first successful visualization of a beta3 integrin in a living cell. GFP fused in frame to the cytoplasmic tail of either ... [more ▼]

Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an autofluorescent tag, we report the first successful visualization of a beta3 integrin in a living cell. GFP fused in frame to the cytoplasmic tail of either alphaIIb or beta3 allowed normal expression, heterodimerization, processing and surface exposure of alphaIIbGFPbeta3 and alphaIIb(beta3)GFP receptors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Direct microscopic observation of the autofluorescent cells in suspension following antibody-induced alphaIIb(beta3) capping revealed an intense autofluorescent cap corresponding to unlabelled immunoclustered GFP-tagged alphaIIb(beta3). GFP-tagged alphaIIbbeta3 receptors mediated fibrinogen-dependent cell adhesion, were readily detectable in focal adhesions of unstained living cells and triggered p125(FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation similar to wild-type alphaIIb(beta3) (where FAK corresponds to focal adhesion kinase). However, GFP tagged to beta3, but not to alphaIIb, induced spontaneous CHO cell aggregation in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, as well as binding of the fibrinogen mimetic monoclonal antibody PAC1 in the absence of alphaIIb(beta3) receptor activation. Time-lapse imaging of living transfectants revealed a characteristic redistribution of GFP-tagged alphaIIb(beta3) during the early stages of cell attachment and spreading, starting with alphaIIb(beta3) clustering at the rim of the cell contact area, that gradually overlapped with the boundary of the attached cell, and, with the onset of cell spreading, to a reorganization of alphaIIb(beta3) in focal adhesions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (1) fusion of GFP to the cytoplasmic tail of either alphaIIb or beta3 integrin subunits allows normal cell surface expression of a functional receptor, and (2) structural modification of the beta3 integrin cytoplasmic tail, rather than the alphaIIb subunit, plays a major role in alphaIIb(beta3) affinity modulation. With the successful direct visualization of functional alphaIIb(beta3) receptors in living cells, the generation of autofluorescent integrins in transgenic animals will become possible, allowing new approaches to study the dynamics of integrin functions. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen growth in the Benelux: Indicators of local transition to a low-carbon economy in cross-border regions
Bruyninckx, Hans; Martinez-Fernandez; Sharpe, Samantha et al

Report (2013)

This paper discusses the results of a study of measuring green growth in the Benelux countries (Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg). The study paid particular attention to the challenges of measuring ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the results of a study of measuring green growth in the Benelux countries (Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg). The study paid particular attention to the challenges of measuring the transition to a low-carbon economy in cross-border areas as they have additional levels of complexity when it comes to measuring and monitoring their low-carbon transition. In cross- regions data collection hardly ever coincide with any single data gathering ‘institution’. Moreover, Belgium (Flanders, Brussels, Wallonia), the Netherlands, and Luxembourg have different indicator systems at the national level, and even more so at the more decentralised level which creates problems of data availability, data (in)consistency, and hence comparability. Progress is already noticeable in the two crossborder areas analysed in the study. In Ghent-Terneuzen the bio-base economy is contributing to the value of turnover and growth in employment in the environmental goods and services (EGS) sectors. In Alzette-Belval the construction industry is engaging in resource-efficient building design and certification. In other aspects there is evidence of progress, but this evidence is anecdotal, or patchy in its collection, and not able to be included in the dashboard metrics developed during the study and discussed in the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen Logistics – Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Logistics
Hesse, Markus UL

in Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (2016), 60(1-2), 99-100

Detailed reference viewed: 187 (0 UL)
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See detailGreen Urban Areas
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tran, Thi Thu Huyen UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper studies the size and location of urban green areas across city spaces. Urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the size and location of urban green areas across city spaces. Urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses the socially optimal sizes and locations of urban green areas within a city and their decentralized allocation through land markets. The main result is that the share of land dedicated to urban green areas is a concave function of the distance to the city center. This result is confirmed by the empirical study of urban structures in the 305 largest EU cities. The importance of urban green areas is finally assessed by a counterfactual analysis, where 50% of urban green areas are removed in each city. [less ▲]

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See detailGreenCloud: A Packet-level Simulator of Energy-aware Cloud Computing Data Centers
Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL; Audzevich, Yury et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Miami, FL, USA, 2009 (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 481 (1 UL)