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See detailExamining Gender (In-)Equality in German Engineering: Considering the Importance of Interest, Perceptions, and Choice
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Fernandez, Frank

in Ro, Hyun Kyoung; Fernandez, Frank; House, Brittany (Eds.) Gender Equity in STEM in Higher Education: International Perspectives on Policy, Institutional Culture, and Individual Choice (2021)

Germany leads Europe in producing and publishing STEM scholarship. We consider how Germany’s higher education prepares its STEM workforce with a focus on ways gender inequality persists in undergraduate ... [more ▼]

Germany leads Europe in producing and publishing STEM scholarship. We consider how Germany’s higher education prepares its STEM workforce with a focus on ways gender inequality persists in undergraduate engineering education. In this chapter, we analyse panel data from the German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies (DZHW) to examine the interests, perceptions, and choices of women who ultimately decide not to study engineering. We identify reasons why women may choose not to pursue engineering education and offer implications for recruiting women into engineering. Finally, we highlight promising policies and practices to attract women into STEM. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining gender differentials in the association of low control work with cognitive performance in older workers
Ford, Katherine Joy UL; Batty, G. David; Leist, Anja UL

in European Journal of Public Health (2020)

Background: Limited workplace control, an important dimension of job strain, can reduce occupational opportunities for problem solving and learning. Women may have fewer professional resources to mitigate ... [more ▼]

Background: Limited workplace control, an important dimension of job strain, can reduce occupational opportunities for problem solving and learning. Women may have fewer professional resources to mitigate effects of low control, while conversely, gender-role norms may moderate the influence of occupational psychosocial risk factors. We therefore examined if the links between control and cognitive function were similarly gendered. Methods: This observational, longitudinal study included respondents of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe who were aged 50-64 years at entry, employed, and provided at least two measurements of control and cognition (n=6,697). Relationships between control and cognition, quantified with standardised scores from verbal fluency, immediate and delayed word recall tests, were explored using linear fixed-effect and random-effect models with gender interactions. Results: Consistent trends of improved verbal fluency performance with high control were evident across analyses, equal to producing around three-quarters of a word more under high control conditions, with an effect size roughly equal to 0.1 standard deviation units (fully adjusted models, range 0.077-0.104 SD), although associations with recall tests were inconsistent. We did not find evidence of clear gender differences in control–cognition relationships for any of the cognitive domains. Conclusions: The cognitive health of older European workers may benefit from improved workplace control irrespective of gender. Possible sources of bias that could explain the lack of gender differences are discussed, particularly gender differences in labour force participation, response behaviour in job control ratings, and implications of gender-role norms on the importance of occupational risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining grades, achievement test scores, and three intelligence facets within an extended I/E model
Hausen, Jennifer UL; Möller, Jens; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 10)

Domain-specific academic self-concepts (ASCs) are mental representations of one’s abilities that are specific to a particular school subject. According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E ... [more ▼]

Domain-specific academic self-concepts (ASCs) are mental representations of one’s abilities that are specific to a particular school subject. According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model, achievement influences the formation of ASCs via social and dimensional comparison processes: within one domain students not only compare their achievement with their peers (social comparison) but also with their own achievements in other domains (dimensional comparison). However, students’ intelligence as an indicator of achievement has been neglected within the I/E model framework. Yet, intelligence is known to be an important determinant of academic success and thus it can be assumed to influence the formation of academic self-concepts, too. Hence, this research examined the links between verbal, numerical, figural intelligence and domain-specific ASCs while controlling for grades and achievement test scores. We drew on N = 382 German students to analyze verbal, numerical, and figural intelligence, German and math achievement, domain-specific self-reported grades and ASCs in math, physics, German, and English. We performed structural equation modeling using Mplus 8 with grades, achievement scores and intelligence facets specified as manifest predictors and domain-specific ASCs as latent criteria. Positive within-domain relations indicating social comparison effects were found between math, physics, German, and English grade to their corresponding self-concept as well as from math achievement to math ASC. Dimensional comparison effects are implied by a positive cross-domain path between physics grade and math ASC and by negative cross-domain paths from math grade to German, physics, and English ASC. Further, a positive cross-domain relation was found between math achievement and physics ASC while a negative cross-domain path was found between German achievement and math ASC. With regard to the intelligence facets, positive paths were found between numerical intelligence and physics ASC as well as between verbal intelligence and English ASC. Our findings thus suggest numerical and verbal intelligence to be valid predictors of ASC formation in an extended I/E model beyond grades and test scores. Overall, the proposed I/E model permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-specific achievement indicators and ASCs suggesting that these variables provide incremental validity. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining Linguisic Biases with a Game Teoretic Analysis
Hoehn, Sviatlana UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL; Asher, Nicholas

in Proceedings of the 3rd Multidisciplinary International Symposium on Disinformation in Open Online Media (2021)

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See detailExamining neural reactivity to gambling cues in the age of online betting
Brevers, Damien UL; Sescousse, Guillaume; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports (2019), 6(3), 59-71

Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to provide new insights as to how and why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on gambling cue reactivity can contribute to significant ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to provide new insights as to how and why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on gambling cue reactivity can contribute to significant progress toward the understanding of gambling disorder. After having offered a detailed description of experimental paradigms and a comprehensive summary of findings related to gambling cue reactivity, the present review suggests methodological avenues for future research.Recent Findings The fMRI literature on problem gambling has identified the main neural pathways associated with reactivity to gambling cues. Yet, the current knowledge on the key factors underlying cue reactivity in gambling is still very incomplete. Here, we suggest that the recent expansion of online sports betting calls for a new line of research offering a fine-grained and up-to-date approach of neural cue reactivity in gambling disorder.Summary Experimental designs that investigate individual-specific and study-specific factors related to sports betting have the potential to foster progress toward efficient treatment and prevention of gambling disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining neural reactivity to gambling cues in the age of sports betting
Brevers, Damien UL

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2019)

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See detailExamining parental perceptions of family, child adjustment, and school risk factors during the transition to secondary school
Born, MIchel; Poncelet, Débora UL; Bernard, Séverine

in SRA 2008 Biennial Meeting (2008)

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See detailExamining Regional Competitiveness and the Pressures of Rapid Growth: An interpretive institutionalist account of policy responses in three city regions
Krueger, James Robert UL; Gibbs, David; Carr, Constance UL

in Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space (2018)

This paper is premised on the notion that actors play a central role in shaping their institutional contexts. The paper adds to scholarship in this area by bringing together three disparate cases with a ... [more ▼]

This paper is premised on the notion that actors play a central role in shaping their institutional contexts. The paper adds to scholarship in this area by bringing together three disparate cases with a common analytical entry point: the city region. Despite their multiple scales and different sites of governance, these cases are united by a common theme, exemplified in each city region: addressing the contradictions of rapid development, in particular rapid growth and competitiveness. Using the conceptual framework of interpretive institutionalism, we examine how dilemmas, in this case the pressure of rapid growth in regions, are informed by the different traditions for understanding the role of the market in delivering project outcomes. Our findings show this difference in institutional norms and the variance among the different paradigms. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining students’ mathematics attitudes across time: A test of the theory of planned behavior.
Niepel, Christoph UL; Greiff, Samuel UL; Preckel, Franzis et al

Scientific Conference (2015, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (3 UL)
See detailExamining Sustainable Spatial Development in Luxembourg
Carr, Constance UL; Krueger, Robert

Presentation (2011, May)

As founding member of several European and international institutions (EU, OECD, NATO, UN), host to several institutions of the European Union (Parliament Secretariat, Court of Justice, the European ... [more ▼]

As founding member of several European and international institutions (EU, OECD, NATO, UN), host to several institutions of the European Union (Parliament Secretariat, Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank), and ranked 16th among global financial centers (City of London 2010), Luxembourg’s smallness is enigmatic, but also offers a unique opportunity to study global processes operating within a small frame. This paper presents progress achieved in, and collaborative to, the SUSTAINLUX research project, funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg and the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Unlike its neighbouring nations, Luxembourg seems only just entering a post-flexible era (if at all). The financial ruptures since 2008 have had relatively little impact, and as such, Luxembourg grapples with spatial structural changes associated with its post-industrial and prospering tertiary economy. Its comparably young sustainable development policy is primarily challenged by recent demographic changes, and its geographical specificity. Of its 503,000 residents, roughly 200,000 are landed immigrants. On each working day, the nation’s population increases circa 50% as workers from neighbouring nations enter the country and commute to work. Each day, the City of Luxembourg’s population doubles in size – and its nodal position at the crossroads that lead to Cologne, Paris, and Brussels, is continually strengthening in importance. Concurrent pressures on the real estate market rates pose a real barrier to settlement within or near the capital city (Becker and Hesse 2010). There are thus strong impacts at the local level with high pressure on the provision of housing and transportation infrastructure, which result in conflicting trajectories in terms of sustainable land-use. The fields of housing policy and mobility are thus promising case studies towards a more thorough analysis of the significance, policy relevance, barriers, and shortcomings of sustainable spatial development strategies. The research aims at critically examining the approach of sustainable development, in the context of Luxembourg’s urban and regional transformations and corresponding governance structures (Carr, Hesse and Schulz 2010). While city planners are confronted with finding ways to manage growth, the normative of sustainable development permeates all levels of planning. The first part of this paper will map the literature and discourse on sustainable development in Luxembourg, and summarize the role and limitations of this normative discourse in its social spatial transformation. The second part of this paper will introduce the research agenda of Prof. Krueger, who will pursue research collaborative to SUSTAINLUX, adding a comparative dimension to the study. He will describe his aims to: 1) understand the institutional milieu of sustainability governance in Luxembourg and how it compares internationally; 2) develop an understanding of how actors work and how these practices reproduce certain outcomes; 3) understand how actors’ perceptions affect the form and function of sustainability governance; and 4) assemble the data from aims 1-3 to develop a triangulated analysis of institutional change that is both actor-centric and sensitive to the contextual constraints of the system. This comparative approach will be of interest to social scientists who study how actors understand and shape their policy milieus in different political and geographical contexts, in relation to sustainability. References Becker, T. and Hesse. 2010. “Internationalisierung und Steuer metropolitaner Wohnungsmärkte – Das Beispiel Luxemburg” Information zur Raumentwicklung.“ 5: 403-415. Carr, C., Hesse, M., and Schulz, C. 2010. „Sustainable Spatial Development in Luxembourg (SUSTAINLUX)” Funded by FNR (CO9/SR/01), Working Paper 1, Laboratoire de Géographie et Aménagement du Territoire City of London (2010) “Global Financial Centres 7.“ City of London. Krueger R. & D. Gibbs. 2007. (ed.), “The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the United States and Europe.” New York: The Guilford Press. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining the Interplay of Generalized and Personal Views on Aging on Physical and Mental Health Across 2.5 Years
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 588-588

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized ... [more ▼]

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized views on aging (assessed as Age Stereotypes (AS)) would influence personal views on aging (assessed as Self-Perceptions of Aging (SPA)), which in-turn would influence later physical and mental health. Data came from a longitudinal survey on VoA (N= 537, MageT1 = 64.13, age rangeT1 = 40-98). As expected, SPA mediated the effect of AS on physical (loss-SPA: β = .23, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .06, p< .001; R2 = .62) and mental health (loss-SPA: β = .13, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .03, p< .01, ; R2 = .31). Congruent with theoretical assumptions, our findings provide empirical support for a directional pathway by which generalized views on aging affect health outcomes via personal views of aging. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining the Relation Among Subjective Age and Working Memory in Old Age on a High-Frequency Basis Across 7 Days
Lücke, Anna; Siebert, Jelena; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 598-598

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make ... [more ▼]

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make use of subjective age and working memory performance data obtained six times a day over seven consecutive days as people went about their daily routines from 123 young-old (aged 66-69 years, 47.2% women) and 42 old-old (aged 86-90 years, 55.8% women) adults. Notably, multilevel models revealed considerably-sized short-term intra-individual variation of subjective age and working memory within days and these short-term within-day fluctuations in subjective age and working memory were coupled as expected. Hence, increased subjective age went along with lowered working memory confirming previous research. However, the respective between-day associations appeared reversed. Given this evidence of correlated short-term variability, we also discuss implications of different change dynamics that might explain moment-to-moment versus day-to-day associations between subjective age and working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining the role of empathy in helping and aggressive behavior
Pfetsch, Jan UL; Steffgen, Georges UL; Gollwitzer, Mario

in Zukauskiene (Ed.) Proceedings of the XIV European Conference on Developmental Psychology ECDP. Vilnius, Lithuania, August 18-22, 2009 (2010)

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See detailExamining the role of empathy in helping and aggressive behavior
Pfetsch, Jan UL; Steffgen, Georges UL; Gollwitzer, Mario

Scientific Conference (2009, August)

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See detailAn example of a weighted algebra $L_p^w(G)$ on uncountable group
Kuznetsova, Julia UL

in Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications (2009), 353(2), 660-665

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See detailExample-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Classification with Applications in Financial Risk Modeling and Marketing Analytics
Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro UL

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Several real-world binary classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples and not only within classes. However ... [more ▼]

Several real-world binary classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples and not only within classes. However, standard binary classification methods do not take these costs into account, and assume a constant cost of misclassification errors. This approach is not realistic in many real-world applications. For example in credit card fraud detection, failing to detect a fraudulent transaction may have an economical impact from a few to thousands of Euros, depending on the particular transaction and card holder. In churn modeling, a model is used for predicting which customers are more likely to abandon a service provider. In this context, failing to identify a profitable or unprofitable churner has a significant different economic result. Similarly, in direct marketing, wrongly predicting that a customer will not accept an offer when in fact he will, may have different financial impact, as not all customers generate the same profit. Lastly, in credit scoring, accepting loans from bad customers does not have the same economical loss, since customers have different credit lines, therefore, different profit. Accordingly, the goal of this thesis is to provide an in-depth analysis of example-dependent cost-sensitive classification. We analyze four real-world classification problems, namely, credit card fraud detection, credit scoring, churn modeling and direct marketing. For each problem, we propose an example-dependent cost-sensitive evaluation measure. We propose four example-dependent cost-sensitive methods; the first method is a cost-sensitive Bayes minimum risk classifier which consists in quantifying tradeoffs between various decisions using probabilities and the costs that accompany such decisions. Second, we propose a cost-sensitive logistic regression technique. This algorithm is based on a new logistic regression cost function; one that takes into account the real costs due to misclassification and correct classification. Subsequently, we propose a cost-sensitive decision trees algorithm which is based on incorporating the different example-dependent costs into a new cost-based impurity measure and a new cost-based pruning criteria. Lastly, we define an example-dependent cost-sensitive framework for ensembles of decision-trees. It is based on training example-dependent cost-sensitive decision trees using four different random inducer methods and then blending them using three different combination approaches. Moreover, we present the library CostCla developed as part of the thesis. This library is an open-source implementation of all the algorithms covered in this manuscript. Finally, the experimental results show the importance of using the real example-dependent financial costs associated with real-world applications. We found that there are significant differences in the results when evaluating a model using a traditional cost-insensitive measure such as accuracy or F1Score, than when using the financial savings. Moreover, the results show that the proposed algorithms have better results for all databases, in the sense of higher savings. [less ▲]

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See detailExample-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Decision Trees
Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro UL; Aouada, Djamila UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Expert Systems with Applications (2015), 42(19), 6609-6619

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. However, standard classification methods do not ... [more ▼]

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. However, standard classification methods do not take these costs into account, and assume a constant cost of misclassification errors. State-of-the-art example-dependent cost-sensitive techniques only introduce the cost to the algorithm, either before or after training, therefore, leaving opportunities to investigate the potential impact of algorithms that take into account the real financial example-dependent costs during an algorithm training. In this paper, we propose an example-dependent cost-sensitive decision tree algorithm, by incorporating the different example-dependent costs into a new cost-based impurity measure and a new cost-based pruning criteria. Then, using three different databases, from three real-world applications: credit card fraud detection, credit scoring and direct marketing, we evaluate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed algorithm is the best performing method for all databases. Furthermore, when compared against a standard decision tree, our method builds significantly smaller trees in only a fifth of the time, while having a superior performance measured by cost savings, leading to a method that not only has more business-oriented results, but also a method that creates simpler models that are easier to analyze. [less ▲]

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See detailExample-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Logistic Regression for Credit Scoring
Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro UL; Aouada, Djamila UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in 2014 13th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (2014, December 03)

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. Credit scoring is a typical example of cost ... [more ▼]

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. Credit scoring is a typical example of cost-sensitive classification. However, it is usually treated using methods that do not take into account the real financial costs associated with the lending business. In this paper, we propose a new example-dependent cost matrix for credit scoring. Furthermore, we propose an algorithm that introduces the example-dependent costs into a logistic regression. Using two publicly available datasets, we compare our proposed method against state-of-the-art example-dependent cost-sensitive algorithms. The results highlight the importance of using real financial costs. Moreover, by using the proposed cost-sensitive logistic regression, significant improvements are made in the sense of higher savings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 212 (8 UL)