Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
See detailÉvolution en compréhension écrite en allemand et en mathématiques entre la classe de 3e et la classe de 9e
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

Report (2018)

Avec les tests ÉpStan de l’automne 2016, une série de données qui donne une vue de l’évolution des compétences scolaires entre le grade 3 (cycle 3.1) et le grade 9 (5e ou 9e) est disponible pour la ... [more ▼]

Avec les tests ÉpStan de l’automne 2016, une série de données qui donne une vue de l’évolution des compétences scolaires entre le grade 3 (cycle 3.1) et le grade 9 (5e ou 9e) est disponible pour la première fois. Le présent chapitre donne de premiers éléments sur l’évolution longitudinale des compétences dans les domaines de la compréhension écrite en allemand et des mathématiques. Pour cela, les résultats des tests des cohortes d’élèves des ÉpStan 2010 du grade 3 (cycle 3.1) seront comparés aux performances au grade 9 (5e ou 9e) au cours de l’année 2016. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Evolution of an Architectural Paradigm - Using Blockchain to Build a Cross-Organizational Enterprise Service Bus
Amend, Julia; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, Hawaii (Virtual) (2021, April)

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational ... [more ▼]

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational workflow management systems, address these requirements through centralized process management and architectures. However, such centralization is difficult and often undesirable in federal contexts. One alternative solution that emphasizes decentralized process management and a decentralized architecture is the blockchain solution of Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we investigate the architecture of this solution and examine how it addresses the requirements of federal contexts. We find that the solution’s architecture resembles an improvement and cross-organizational adaption of an old architectural paradigm, the enterprise service bus. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (11 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolution of Conformation, Nanomechanics, and Infrared Nanospectroscopy of Single Amyloid Fibrils Converting into Microcrystals
Adamcik, Jozef; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Berryman, Josh UL et al

in Advanced Science (2020)

Abstract Nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils and nanocrystals depend on their secondary and quaternary structure, and the geometry of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Advanced imaging methods based ... [more ▼]

Abstract Nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils and nanocrystals depend on their secondary and quaternary structure, and the geometry of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Advanced imaging methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have unravelled the morphological and mechanical heterogeneity of amyloids, however a full understanding has been hampered by the limited resolution of conventional spectroscopic methods. Here, it is shown that single molecule nanomechanical mapping and infrared nanospectroscopy (AFM-IR) in combination with atomistic modelling enable unravelling at the single aggregate scale of the morphological, nanomechanical, chemical, and structural transition from amyloid fibrils to amyloid microcrystals in the hexapeptides, ILQINS, IFQINS, and TFQINS. Different morphologies have different Young's moduli, within 2?6 GPa, with amyloid fibrils exhibiting lower Young's moduli compared to amyloid microcrystals. The origins of this stiffening are unravelled and related to the increased content of intermolecular ?-sheet and the increased lengthscale of cooperativity following the transition from twisted fibril to flat nanocrystal. Increased stiffness in Young's moduli is correlated with increased density of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and parallel beta-sheet structure, which energetically stabilize crystals over the other polymorphs. These results offer additional evidence for the position of amyloid crystals in the minimum of the protein folding and aggregation landscape. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolution of defect signatures at ferroelectric domain walls in Mg-doped LiNbO3
Nataf, Guillaume F.; Guennou, Mael UL; Haussmann, Alexander et al

in PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS (2016), 10(3), 222-226

The domain structure of uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals is investigated using Raman spectroscopy mapping. The influence of doping with magnesium and poling at room temperature is ... [more ▼]

The domain structure of uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals is investigated using Raman spectroscopy mapping. The influence of doping with magnesium and poling at room temperature is studied by analysing frequency shifts at domain walls and their variations with dopant concentration and annealing conditions. It is shown that defects are stabilized at domain walls and that changes in the defect structures with Mg concentration can be probed by the shift of Raman modes. We show that the signatures of polar defects in the bulk and at the domain walls differ. (C) 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH Co. KGaA, Weinheim [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe evolution of direct taxation in the EU: A multi-variable equation
Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

in Almeida, Lucila; Cantero Gamito, Marta; Djurovic, Mateja (Eds.) et al The Transformation of Economic Law: Essays in Honour of Hans - W. Micklitz (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (5 UL)
See detailThe Evolution of EU Administrative Law
Chiti, Edoardo; Mendes, Joana UL

in Craig, Paul; de Búrca, Graínne (Eds.) The Evolution of EU Law (in press)

The chapter discusses the emergence of EU administrative law and its change over time. It maps its evolution along three main axes, concerning the internal dynamics between EU and national components, its ... [more ▼]

The chapter discusses the emergence of EU administrative law and its change over time. It maps its evolution along three main axes, concerning the internal dynamics between EU and national components, its functional objectives and legitimacy foundations. The chapter, therefore, tells a story of EU administrative law as one of advances and unresolved issues, of achievements and failures in the clarification of its regulatory project. In particular, the systemic effects of administrative convergence brought about over the years remain unstable, while the constant evolution of the forms of administrative action challenges the functions of EU administrative law of power-establishing and power-checking, and the tension between the legitimacy foundations of EU administrative law continues to cause unease. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe evolution of Internet addiction: A global perspective.
Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Addictive behaviors (2016), 53

Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the ... [more ▼]

Kimberly Young's initial work on Internet addiction (IA) was pioneering and her early writings on the topic inspired many others to carry out research in the area. Young's (2015) recent paper on the 'evolution of Internet addiction' featured very little European research, and did not consider the main international evidence that has contributed to our current knowledge about the conceptualization, epidemiology, etiology, and course of Internet-related disorders. This short commentary paper elaborates on important literature omitted by Young that the present authors believe may be of use to researchers. We also address statements made in Young's (2015) commentary that are incorrect (and therefore misleading) and not systematically substantiated by empirical evidence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 148 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Evolution of the Distribution of Plant Size: Evidence from Luxemburg
Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Cardi, Olivier; Pamukçu, Mehmet Teoman et al

in Small Business Economics (2006), 27(4), 301-311

In a recent paper, [Cabral, L. M. B. and J. Mata, 2003, American Economic Review, 93, 1075–1090] using Portuguese manufacturing data have shown for the first time that the plant size distribution is ... [more ▼]

In a recent paper, [Cabral, L. M. B. and J. Mata, 2003, American Economic Review, 93, 1075–1090] using Portuguese manufacturing data have shown for the first time that the plant size distribution is significantly right-skewed at the early part of the life cycle and then changes to become more log-normal. Using a similar proxy for plant age we compare this stylised fact for both Luxembourg manufacturing and services. Use of plants’ true age, however, reveals that the size distribution reverses back towards right-skewness for very old plants. We confirm the finding that the right-skewness is likely driven by financial constraints. Copyright Springer 2006 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 123 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detailThe Evolution of Urban Upgrading and Rehabilitation in Greater Amman
Oesch, Lucas UL

in SLUM Lab (2010), (5), 22-23

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (16 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolution semigroups and time operators on Banach spaces
Suchanecki, Zdzislaw UL; Gomez-Cubillo, Fernando

in Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications (2010), 371(2), 454-464

We present new general methods to obtain shift representation of evolution semigroups defined on Banach spaces. We introduce the notion of time operator associated with a generalized shift on a Banach ... [more ▼]

We present new general methods to obtain shift representation of evolution semigroups defined on Banach spaces. We introduce the notion of time operator associated with a generalized shift on a Banach space and give some conditions under which time operators can be defined on an arbitrary Banach space. We also tackle the problem of scaling of time operators and obtain a general result about the existence of time operators on Banach spaces satisfying some geometric conditions. The last part of the paper contains some examples of explicit constructions of time operators on function spaces. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolution systems of measures and semigroup properties on evolving manifolds
Cheng, Li Juan UL; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Electronic Journal of Probability (2018), 23(20), 1-27

An evolving Riemannian manifold (M,g_t)_{t\in I} consists of a smooth d-dimensional manifold M, equipped with a geometric flow g_t of complete Riemannian metrics, parametrized by I=(-\infty,T). Given an ... [more ▼]

An evolving Riemannian manifold (M,g_t)_{t\in I} consists of a smooth d-dimensional manifold M, equipped with a geometric flow g_t of complete Riemannian metrics, parametrized by I=(-\infty,T). Given an additional C^{1,1} family of vector fields (Z_t)_{t\in I} on M. We study the family of operators L_t=\Delta_t +Z_t where \Delta_t denotes the Laplacian with respect to the metric g_t. We first give sufficient conditions, in terms of space-time Lyapunov functions, for non-explosion of the diffusion generated by L_t, and for existence of evolution systems of probability measures associated to it. Coupling methods are used to establish uniqueness of the evolution systems under suitable curvature conditions. Adopting such a unique system of probability measures as reference measures, we characterize supercontractivity, hypercontractivity and ultraboundedness of the corresponding time-inhomogeneous semigroup. To this end, gradient estimates and a family of (super-)logarithmic Sobolev inequalities are established. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 340 (67 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn evolutionarily conserved role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the regulation of movement.
Williams, Evan UL; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Frochaux, Michael et al

in PLoS genetics (2014), 10(9), 1004673

The BXD genetic reference population is a recombinant inbred panel descended from crosses between the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) strains of mice, which segregate for about 5 million sequence variants ... [more ▼]

The BXD genetic reference population is a recombinant inbred panel descended from crosses between the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) strains of mice, which segregate for about 5 million sequence variants. Recently, some of these variants have been established with effects on general metabolic phenotypes such as glucose response and bone strength. Here we phenotype 43 BXD strains and observe they have large variation (-5-fold) in their spontaneous activity during waking hours. QTL analyses indicate that -40% of this variance is attributable to a narrow locus containing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor with well-established roles in development and xenobiotic metabolism. Strains with the D2 allele of Ahr have reduced gene expression compared to those with the B6 allele, and have significantly higher spontaneous activity. This effect was also observed in B6 mice with a congenic D2 Ahr interval, and in B6 mice with a humanized AHR allele which, like the D2 allele, is expressed much less and has less enzymatic activity than the B6 allele. Ahr is highly conserved in invertebrates, and strikingly inhibition of its orthologs in D. melanogaster and C. elegans (spineless and ahr-1) leads to marked increases in basal activity. In mammals, Ahr has numerous ligands, but most are either non-selective (e.g. resveratrol) or highly toxic (e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)). Thus, we chose to examine a major environmental influence--long term feeding with high fat diet (HFD)--to see if the effects of Ahr are dependent on major metabolic differences. Interestingly, while HFD robustly halved movement across all strains, the QTL position and effects of Ahr remained unchanged, indicating that the effects are independent. The highly consistent effects of Ahr on movement indicate that changes in its constitutive activity have a role on spontaneous movement and may influence human behavior. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolutionary Algorithm Parameter Tuning with Sensitivity Analysis
Pinel, Frédéric UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Security and Intelligent Information Systems (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 164 (15 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolutionary algorithms based on game theory and cellular automata with coalitions
Dorronsoro, Bernabe; Burguillo, J.C.; Peleteiro, A. et al

in Zelinka, I.; Snasel, V.; Abraham, A. (Eds.) Handbook of Optimization (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolutionary algorithms based on game theory and cellular automata with coalitions
Dorronsoro, Bernabé UL; Burguillo, Juan Carlos; Peleteiro, Ana et al

in Zelinka, I.; Snasel, V.; Abraham, A. (Eds.) Handbook of Optimization (2013)

Cellular genetic algorithms (cGAs) are a kind of genetic algorithms (GAs) with decentralized population in which interactions among individuals are restricted to the closest ones. The use of decentralized ... [more ▼]

Cellular genetic algorithms (cGAs) are a kind of genetic algorithms (GAs) with decentralized population in which interactions among individuals are restricted to the closest ones. The use of decentralized populations in GAs allows to keep the population diversity for longer, usually resulting in a better exploration of the search space and, therefore in a better performance of the algorithm. However, the use of decentralized populations supposes the need of several new parameters that have a major impact on the behavior of the algorithm. In the case of cGAs, these parameters are the population and neighborhood shapes. Hence, in this work we propose a new adaptive technique based in Cellular Automata, Game Theory and Coalitions that allow to manage dynamic neighborhoods. As a result, the new adaptive cGAs (EACO) with coalitions outperform the compared cGA with fixed neighborhood for the selected benchmark of combinatorial optimization problems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 203 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolutionary algorithms deceive humans and machines at image classification: An extended proof of concept on two scenarios
Chitic, Ioana Raluca UL; Leprevost, Franck UL; Bernard, Nicolas

in Journal of Information and Telecommunication (2020)

The range of applications of Neural Networks encompasses image classification. However, Neural Networks are vulnerable to attacks, and may misclassify adversarial images, leading to potentially disastrous ... [more ▼]

The range of applications of Neural Networks encompasses image classification. However, Neural Networks are vulnerable to attacks, and may misclassify adversarial images, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Pursuing some of our previous work, we provide an extended proof of concept of a black-box, targeted, non-parametric attack using evolutionary algorithms to fool both Neural Networks and humans at the task of image classification. Our feasibility study is performed on VGG-16 trained on CIFAR-10. For any category cA of CIFAR-10, one chooses an image A classified by VGG-16 as belonging to cA. From there, two scenarios are addressed. In the first scenario, a target category ct≠cA is fixed a priori. We construct an evolutionary algorithm that evolves A to a modified image that VGG-16 classifies as belonging to ct. In the second scenario, we construct another evolutionary algorithm that evolves A to a modified image that VGG-16 is unable to classify. In both scenarios, the obtained adversarial images remain so close to the original one that a human would likely classify them as still belonging to cA. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 218 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolutionary Algorithms for Convolutional Neural Network Visualisation
Bernard, Nicolas UL; Leprévost, Franck UL

in Meneses, Esteban; Castro, Harold; Barrios Hernández, Carlos Jaime (Eds.) et al High Performance Computing -- 5th Latin American Conference, CARLA 2018, Piedecuesta, Colombia (2018)

Deep Learning is based on deep neural networks trained over huge sets of examples. It enabled computers to compete with ---~or even outperform~--- humans at many tasks, from playing Go to driving ... [more ▼]

Deep Learning is based on deep neural networks trained over huge sets of examples. It enabled computers to compete with ---~or even outperform~--- humans at many tasks, from playing Go to driving vehicules. Still, it remains hard to understand how these networks actually operate. While an observer sees any individual local behaviour, he gets little insight about their global decision-making process. However, there is a class of neural networks widely used for image processing, convolutional networks, where each layer contains features working in parallel. By their structure, these features keep some spatial information across a network's layers. Visualisation of this spatial information at different locations in a network, notably on input data that maximise the activation of a given feature, can give insights on the way the model works. This paper investigates the use of Evolutionary Algorithms to evolve such input images that maximise feature activation. Compared with some pre-existing approaches, ours seems currently computationally heavier but with a wider applicability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (3 UL)
See detailEvolutionary Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Dorronsoro, Bernabé UL; Ruiz, Patricia UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

Book published by John Wiley & Sons (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 224 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn evolutionary approach to translating operational specifications into declarative specifications
Molina, Facundo; Cornejo, César; Degiovanni, Renzo Gaston UL et al

in Science of Computer Programming (2019), 181

Various tools for program analysis, including run-time assertion checkers and static analyzers such as verification and test generation tools, require formal specifications of the programs being analyzed ... [more ▼]

Various tools for program analysis, including run-time assertion checkers and static analyzers such as verification and test generation tools, require formal specifications of the programs being analyzed. Moreover, many of these tools and techniques require such specifications to be written in a particular style, or follow certain patterns, in order to obtain an acceptable performance from the corresponding analyses. Thus, having a formal specification sometimes is not enough for using a particular technique, since such specification may not be provided in the right formalism. In this paper, we deal with this problem in the increasingly common case of having an operational specification, while for analysis reasons requiring a declarative specification. We propose an evolu- tionary approach to translate an operational specification written in a sequen- tial programming language, into a declarative specification, in relational logic. We perform experiments on a benchmark of data structure implementations, for which operational invariants are available, and show that our evolutionary computation based approach to translating specifications achieves very good precision in this context, and produces declarative specifications that are more amenable to analyses that demand specifications in this style. This is assessed in two contexts: bounded verification of data structure invariant preservation, and instance enumeration using symbolic execution aided by tight bounds. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (3 UL)