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Peer Reviewed
See detailEuroregion
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Wassenberg, Birte; Reitel, Bernard (Eds.) Critical Dictionary on Cross-Border Cooperation in Europe (2020)

Euroregion (also Euregio, Euroregion, Europaregion) designates a category of territorial organisations gathering subnational public authorities along adjacent national border(s). This community of ... [more ▼]

Euroregion (also Euregio, Euroregion, Europaregion) designates a category of territorial organisations gathering subnational public authorities along adjacent national border(s). This community of interest provides a platform for cross-border exchange along with dialogue and projects between local and/or regional authorities. Its geographical coverage is defined by its members, either based on the extent of cross-border, socio-economic integration or on administrative units. A Euroregion is oriented towards the interests of the cross-border community rather than the interests of each individual member. Its activities are circumscribed to the field of competencies held by its members. A Euroregion therefore does not represent a genuine administrative level. Fields of cooperation cover mostly planning, environment, transport, education, culture. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (6 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes 'Eurorégions': l'exemple Saar-Lor-Lux.
Schulz, Christian UL

in Problèmes Economiques (2000), (2661), 16-18

Detailed reference viewed: 96 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEuroscepticisme et politique européenne
Poirier, Philippe UL

in Brack, Nathalie (Ed.) L'euroscepticisme au sein du parlement européen. Stratégies d'une opposition anti-système au coeur des institutions (2014)

À travers une étude approfondie des stratégies et pratiques des députés eurosceptiques, l’ouvrage participe à une meilleure compréhension de ce que s’opposer à l’Europe au cœur de l’UE veut dire.

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEuthanasia
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Fitzpatrick, Tony; Kwon, Huck-ju; Manning, Nick (Eds.) et al International Encyclopedia of Social Policy (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (1 UL)
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See detailEuVECA et EuSEF : aujourd'hui et demain
Riassetto, Isabelle UL

in Revue de Droit Bancaire et Financier (2018), (3), 52-55

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (0 UL)
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See detailEvalix: Classification and Prediction of Job Resource Consumption on HPC Platforms
Emeras, Joseph UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Guzek, Mateusz UL et al

in Proc. of the 19th Intl. Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing (JSSPP'15), part of the 29th IEEE/ACM Intl. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2015) (2015, May)

At the advent of a wished (or forced) convergence between High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms, stand-alone accelerators and virtualized resources from Cloud Computing (CC) systems, this ar- ticle ... [more ▼]

At the advent of a wished (or forced) convergence between High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms, stand-alone accelerators and virtualized resources from Cloud Computing (CC) systems, this ar- ticle unveils the job prediction component of the Evalix project. This framework aims at an improved efficiency of the underlying Resource and Job Management System (RJMS) within heterogeneous HPC facil- ities by the automatic evaluation and characterization of the submitted workload. The objective is not only to better adapt the scheduled jobs to the available resource capabilities, but also to reduce the energy costs. For that purpose, we collected the resource consumption of all the jobs executed on a production cluster for a period of three months. Based on the analysis then on the classification of the jobs, we computed a resource consumption model. The objective is to train a set of predictors based on the aforementioned model, that will give the estimated CPU, mem- ory and IO used by the jobs. The analysis of the resource consumption highlighted that different classes of jobs have different kinds of resource needs and the classification of the jobs enabled to characterize several application patterns of the users. We also discovered that several users whose resource usage on the cluster is considered as too low, are respon- sible for a loss of CPU time on the order of five years over the considered three month period. The predictors, trained from a supervised learning algorithm, were able to correctly classify a large set of data. We evalu- ated them with three performance indicators that gave an information retrieval rate of 71% to 89% and a probability of accurate prediction be- tween 0.7 and 0.8. The results of this work will be particularly helpful for designing an optimal partitioning of the considered heterogeneous plat- form, taking into consideration the real application needs and thus lead- ing to energy savings and performance improvements. Moreover, apart from the novelty of the contribution, the accurate classification scheme offers new insights of users behavior of interest for the design of future HPC platforms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 252 (17 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Adversarial Partitions.
Pashalidis, Andreas; Schiffner, Stefan UL

in ESORICS (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (0 UL)
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See detailEvaluating ambiguity of privacy indicators in a secure email app
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Loreti, Michele; Spalazzi, Luca (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Italian Conference on Cyber Security, Ancona Italy, February 4th to 7th, 2020 (2020)

Informing laymen of security situations is a notoriously hard problem. Users are usually not cognoscenti of all the various secure and insecure situations that may arise, and this can be further worsened ... [more ▼]

Informing laymen of security situations is a notoriously hard problem. Users are usually not cognoscenti of all the various secure and insecure situations that may arise, and this can be further worsened by certain visual indicators that instead of helping users, fail to convey clear and unambiguous messages. Even in well-established and studied applications, like email clients providing end-to-end encryption, the problem seems far from being solved. Motivated to verify this claim, we studied the communication qualities of four privacy icons (in the form of coloured shapes) in conveying specific security messages, relevant for a particular secure emailing system called p≡p. We questioned 42 users in three different sessions, where we showed them 10 privacy ratings, along with their explanations, and asked them to match the rating and explanation with the four privacy icons. We compared the participants’ associations to those made by the p≡p developers. The results, still preliminary, are not encouraging. Except for the two most extreme cases, Secure and trusted and Under attack, users almost entirely missed to get the indicators’ intended messages. In particular, they did not grasp certain concepts such as Unsecure email and Secure email, which in turn were fundamental for the engineers. Our work has certain limitations and further investigation is required, but already at this stage our research calls for a closer collaboration between app engineers and icon designers. In the context of p≡p, our work has triggered a deeper discussion on the icon design choices and a potential revamp is on the way. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (15 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Erosion Patterns in an abrasive water jet cutting nozzle using XDEM
Pozzetti, Gabriele UL; Peters, Bernhard UL

in Advances in Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials (2017)

The objective of this work is to analyze particle-induced erosion within a nozzle for abrasive water jet cutting, through a Euler-Lagrange approach. In an abrasive water jet cutting device a high-speed ... [more ▼]

The objective of this work is to analyze particle-induced erosion within a nozzle for abrasive water jet cutting, through a Euler-Lagrange approach. In an abrasive water jet cutting device a high-speed water jet is used to accelerate abrasive particles forming a turbulent mixture of water, entrained air and abrasive powders traveling at hundreds of meters per second. The focusing tube represents a key component, whose primary scope is to focus and stabilize the flow forming in the mixing chamber, in order to ensure optimal cutting performances of the device. Nevertheless, this nozzle often happens to be the first target of the erosive action of the flow. This phenomenon significantly shortens the operational life of a nozzle. The numerical approach proposed in this work aims to provide an insight to this very fast and disruptive phenomena that are difficult and expensive to be captured by purely experimental studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 333 (49 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Food Front-of-Pack Labelling: a pan-European Survey on Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Food Labelling
Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition (2014), 65(2), 177-186

Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely used as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population, to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of diet ... [more ▼]

Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely used as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population, to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of diet-related conditions. Yet, there is no convincing evidence that food labels are an effective means to achieve the desired effect at population level. Several factors have been suggested to account for this decoupling of efficacy, e.g. difficulties in understanding the information on food-labels. The present paper presents the results of a survey on Europeans’ understanding of nutritional labels and evaluation on the communication tools for their diffusion. A total of 7550 phone interviews were conducted in 16 European Countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and Hungary. Consumers were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels and their commitment to healthy behaviour. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 187 (2 UL)
See detailEvaluating How Child Allowances and Daycare Subsidies Affect Fertility
Goldstein, Joshua R.; Koulovatianos, Christos UL; Li, Jian UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

We compare the cost effectiveness of two pronatalist policies: (a) child allowances; and (b) daycare subsidies. We pay special attention to estimating how intended fertility (fertility before children are ... [more ▼]

We compare the cost effectiveness of two pronatalist policies: (a) child allowances; and (b) daycare subsidies. We pay special attention to estimating how intended fertility (fertility before children are born) responds to these policies. We use two evaluation tools: (i) a dynamic model on fertility, labor supply, outsourced childcare time, parental time, asset accumulation and consumption; and (ii) randomized vignette-survey policy experiments. We implement both tools in the United States and Germany, finding consistent evidence that daycare subsidies are more cost effective. Nevertheless, the required public expenditure to increase fertility to the replacement level might be viewed as prohibitively high. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (5 UL)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailEvaluating Macroeconomic Interventions
Mehra, Rajnish UL

in Robert Litterman. Wiley & Sons (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Model Testing and Model Checking for Finding Requirements Violations in Simulink Models
Nejati, Shiva UL; Gaaloul, Khouloud UL; Menghi, Claudio UL et al

in Proceedings of the 27th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE) (2019)

Matlab/Simulink is a development and simulation language that is widely used by the Cyber-Physical System (CPS) industry to model dynamical systems. There are two mainstream approaches to verify CPS ... [more ▼]

Matlab/Simulink is a development and simulation language that is widely used by the Cyber-Physical System (CPS) industry to model dynamical systems. There are two mainstream approaches to verify CPS Simulink models: model testing that attempts to identify failures in models by executing them for a number of sampled test inputs, and model checking that attempts to exhaustively check the correctness of models against some given formal properties. In this paper, we present an industrial Simulink model benchmark, provide a categorization of different model types in the benchmark, describe the recurring logical patterns in the model requirements, and discuss the results of applying model checking and model testing approaches to identify requirements violations in the benchmarked models. Based on the results, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of model testing and model checking. Our results further suggest that model checking and model testing are complementary and by combining them, we can significantly enhance the capabilities of each of these approaches individually. We conclude by providing guidelines as to how the two approaches can be best applied together. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 196 (59 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Option Pricing Model Performance Using Model Uncertainty
Lehnert, Thorsten UL; Blanchard, Gildas; Bams, Dennis

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Pretrained Transformer-based Models on the Task of Fine-Grained Named Entity Recognition
Lothritz, Cedric UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Veiber, Lisa UL et al

in Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (2020, December)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a fundamental Natural Language Processing (NLP) task and has remained an active research field. In recent years, transformer models and more specifically the BERT model ... [more ▼]

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a fundamental Natural Language Processing (NLP) task and has remained an active research field. In recent years, transformer models and more specifically the BERT model developed at Google revolutionised the field of NLP. While the performance of transformer-based approaches such as BERT has been studied for NER, there has not yet been a study for the fine-grained Named Entity Recognition (FG-NER) task. In this paper, we compare three transformer-based models (BERT, RoBERTa, and XLNet) to two non-transformer-based models (CRF and BiLSTM-CNN-CRF). Furthermore, we apply each model to a multitude of distinct domains. We find that transformer-based models incrementally outperform the studied non-transformer-based models in most domains with respect to the F1 score. Furthermore, we find that the choice of domains significantly influenced the performance regardless of the respective data size or the model chosen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 183 (15 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Representation Learning of Code Changes for Predicting Patch Correctness in Program Repair
Tian, Haoye UL; Liu, Kui UL; Kaboreé, Abdoul Kader et al

in Tian, Haoye (Ed.) 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, September 21-25, 2020, Melbourne, Australia (2020)

A large body of the literature of automated program repair develops approaches where patches are generated to be validated against an oracle (e.g., a test suite). Because such an oracle can be imperfect ... [more ▼]

A large body of the literature of automated program repair develops approaches where patches are generated to be validated against an oracle (e.g., a test suite). Because such an oracle can be imperfect, the generated patches, although validated by the oracle, may actually be incorrect. While the state of the art explore research directions that require dynamic information or rely on manually-crafted heuristics, we study the benefit of learning code representations to learn deep features that may encode the properties of patch correctness. Our work mainly investigates different representation learning approaches for code changes to derive embeddings that are amenable to similarity computations. We report on findings based on embeddings produced by pre-trained and re-trained neural networks. Experimental results demonstrate the potential of embeddings to empower learning algorithms in reasoning about patch correctness: a machine learning predictor with BERT transformer-based embeddings... [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (9 UL)
See detailEvaluating school violence.
Debarbieux, Eric UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Ministère de l’Education Nationale (Ed.) Les états généraux de la sécurité à l’école. Thematic articles (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (2 UL)
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See detailEvaluating Search-Based Techniques With Statistical Tests
Arcuri, Andrea UL

in The Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) Workshop (2018)

This tutorial covers the basics of how to use statistical tests to evaluate and compare search-algorithms, in particular when applied on software engineering problems. Search-algorithms like Hill Climbing ... [more ▼]

This tutorial covers the basics of how to use statistical tests to evaluate and compare search-algorithms, in particular when applied on software engineering problems. Search-algorithms like Hill Climbing and Genetic Algorithms are randomised. Running such randomised algorithms twice on the same problem can give different results. It is hence important to run such algorithms multiple times to collect average results, and avoid so publishing wrong conclusions that were based on just luck. However, there is the question of how often such runs should be repeated. Given a set of n repeated experiments, is such n large enough to draw sound conclusions? Or should had more experiments been run? Statistical tests like the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test can be used to answer these important questions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating the effects of information reliability on travellers’ route choice
Bifulco, Gennaro N.; Di Pace, Roberta; Viti, Francesco UL

in European Transport Research Review (2013)

Purpose This paper analyses travellers’ behaviour with respect to route choice in a context where an Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS) is in place. ATIS are important applications in the field ... [more ▼]

Purpose This paper analyses travellers’ behaviour with respect to route choice in a context where an Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS) is in place. ATIS are important applications in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). However, the practical impact of ATIS is still a matter for debate, and identification of expected route choice behaviour under ATIS is one of themain ways to assess their practical importance. Methods Travellers’ choices are frequently explored by means of stated preference (SP) approaches. In this paper we discuss some issues to be addressed when an SP survey is carried out, with particular reference to cases where a repeated choice approach is employed in the survey. Results Our analysis concerns an application of the SP approach in a pilot study aimed at identifying the effects of ATIS accuracy on travellers’ compliance with information. Conclusions This paper aims tomake two major contributions. First of all, empirical analyses based on proper indicators and statistical tests are suggested in order to evaluate how the collected data have to be handled in order to eliminate transient route-choice observations. These are due to the warm-up phase inherently associated with the survey method adopted, dealing with repeated choices. Secondly, we analyse (stationary) route choice in order to assess the effects of information reliability (and the kind of information) on both route choice and compliance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 146 (6 UL)
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See detailEvaluating the FITTEST Automated Testing Tools: an Industrial Case Study
Nguyen, Duy Cu UL; Mendelson, Bilha; Citron, Daniel et al

Scientific Conference (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (2 UL)