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See detailExpertise und diagnostische Urteilsbildung : ein sozial-kognitiver Ansatz
Böhmer, Matthias UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

In this thesis experts’ diagnostic judgment formation is seen as a social cognitive process: It is analyzed as a person-related judgment and is investigated according to the social cognition paradigm. The ... [more ▼]

In this thesis experts’ diagnostic judgment formation is seen as a social cognitive process: It is analyzed as a person-related judgment and is investigated according to the social cognition paradigm. The theoretical foundation is provided by dual process models (e.g. continuum model), which assume two different strategies of person-related information processing in order to form a judgment. The heuristic strategy is characterized by a categorization process and the corresponding activation of a specific person category. The information integrating strategy focuses on individual characterization of a person and the corresponding collection and integration of individual person attributes. A judge’s expertise is acknowledged to have an essential influence on the process of judgment formation. Experts, in contrast to laymen, are able to switch between the two strategies. The degree to which diagnostic judgment formation can be described by means of dual process models is investigated in a series of four quasi-experiments including psychotherapists and teachers as experts and students and staff members of Saarland University as laymen. Thus, social judgment formation is compared in two different domains. Two experiments focus on judgment itself by measuring judgmental data. The two other experiments focus on attention allocation and person memory by measuring self-paced reading time and free recall. Results show the expected pattern in both professional domains. Both psychotherapists and teachers are able to switch between the two strategies. So experts’ diagnostic judgment formation can be described by means of dual process models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 270 (9 UL)
See detailExpertise und diagnostische Urteilsbildung: Ein sozial-kognitiver Ansatz
Böhmer, Matthias UL

Book published by Kovac (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (0 UL)
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See detailExperts going transnational: education at world exhibitions during the second half of the nineteenth century
Dittrich, Klaus UL

Doctoral thesis (2010)

This thesis investigates the educational sections of the great international exhibitions of the latter half of the nineteenth century. This thesis takes into account the participation of actors from ... [more ▼]

This thesis investigates the educational sections of the great international exhibitions of the latter half of the nineteenth century. This thesis takes into account the participation of actors from France, Germany, Japan and the United States. Focusing on education experts, this thesis is a contribution to a sociocultural history of an intellectual and administrative elite in an age of early globalisation. World exhibitions were one of the major media for the transnational circulation of educational knowledge. The central question is why education experts from these four countries invested so many resources in order to prepare and visit world exhibitions. Why did they go transnational? The thesis proposes two answers. Firstly, education experts used world exhibitions in order to appropriate the most advanced pedagogical models for their own institutional contexts. The concept of cultural transfers is a useful tool to analyse these appropriations. Knowledge circulation at world exhibitions made a crucial contribution to the institutionalisation of primary education and technical education. Secondly, education experts used world exhibitions to stage their own institutions on an international stage. The proud representation of the educational achievements of one’s own context was the final phase of successful cultural transfers. Educational displays became increasingly embedded in nationalist discourses. During the 1870s pedagogical know-how circulated relatively easily. Towards the turn of the century the self-representation of institutions became predominant. This original approach aims at furthering the understanding of globalisation in the nineteenth century. Still, the thesis argues that world exhibitions were in a large measure media for transnational professional discourses in many fields, including education. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 319 (18 UL)
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See detailExplainable ASP
Dauphin, Jérémie UL; Satoh, Ken

in PRIMA 2019: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems - 22nd International Conference, Turin, Italy, October 28-31, 2019, Proceedings (2019)

Despite its proven relevance, ASP (answer set programming) suffers from a lack of transparency in its outputs. Much like other popular artificial intelligence systems such as deep learning, the results do ... [more ▼]

Despite its proven relevance, ASP (answer set programming) suffers from a lack of transparency in its outputs. Much like other popular artificial intelligence systems such as deep learning, the results do not come with any explanation to support their derivation. In this paper, we use a given answer set as guidance for a simplified top-down procedure of answer set semantics developed by Satoh and Iwayama to provide not only an explanation for the derivation (or non-derivation) of the atoms, but also an explanation for the consistency of the whole answer set itself. Additionally, we show that a full use of the Satoh-Iwayama procedure gives an explanation of why an atom is not present in any answer set. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (10 UL)
See detailExplaining Complex Problem Solving with a set of non-curricular cognitive competence tasks and task interest in low-stakes assessment
Kupiainen, Sirkku; Vainikainen, M. P.; Hautamäki, Jarkko et al

Presentation (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 UL)
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See detailExplaining dispersion in foreign exchange expectations:A heterogeneous agent approach
Wolff, Christian UL; Jongen, Ron; Verschoor, Willem et al

in Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control (2012), 1

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (1 UL)
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See detailExplaining Electoral Violence in Serbia: fsQCA analysis of contentious behaviour in the electoral arena
Mochtak, Michal UL

in Democracy and Security (2016), 12(4), 278-308

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 UL)
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See detailExplaining employers’ hiring decisions: A comparative study of employers’ risk assessment
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. We contribute to recruitment research at least in three ways: First, the multinational design allows us to run comparative analysis across countries, which are carried out along the national dimensions youth unemployment rate, employment protection regulation and type of educational system. Second, we differentiate between two different forms of early job insecurity – unemployment and work experience in deskilling jobs, and we demonstrate that the sole focus on unemployment, as it is the case in the prevalent labour market research, is not sufficient in order to fully understand labour market outcomes caused by different forms of job insecurities. Third, since our sample consists of real recruiters who were hiring for current jobs at the time when the study was carried out, we provide a unique cross-country data set of high external validity. Our findings suggest that scarring effects of early job insecurity vary across countries and across occupational fields, and while scarring caused by work experience in deskilling jobs seems to be enforced by strong employment protection regulations, unemployment scarring seems to stronger where national unemployment is low. Further, the differences in recruiter’s evaluation across occupational fields indicate that signalling value of education may vary depending on specific sectors. Not at least, we contribute to debates around active labour market policies, arguing that measures aiming at quick labour market reintegration without consideration of job quality may not be the most sustainable solution, as work experience in a deskilling job does not lead to better recruiter’s evaluation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (5 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExplaining increasing performance gaps by test-taking effort in a longitudinal large-scale assessment study in Finland
Vainikainen, M.-P.; Greiff, Samuel UL; Hautamäki, J.

Scientific Conference (2016, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExplaining increasing performance gaps by test-taking effort in a longitudinal large-scale assessment study in Finland
Vainikainen, M.-P.; Greiff, Samuel UL; Hautamäki, J.

Scientific Conference (2017, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExplaining response confidence in Complex Problem Solving perfomance
Rudolph, Julia UL; Krkovic, Katarina; Niepel, Christoph UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (1 UL)
See detailExplaining the Decline in the US Labor Share: Taxation and Automation
Irmen, Andreas UL

Presentation (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 UL)
See detailExplaining the Decline in the US Labor Share: Taxation and Automation DEM Discussion Paper 20-2020, University of Luxembourg
Irmen, Andreas UL; Heer, Burkhard; Süssmuth, Bernd

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This study provides evidence for the US that the secular decline in the labor share is not only explained by technical change or globalization, but also by the dynamics of factor taxation, automation ... [more ▼]

This study provides evidence for the US that the secular decline in the labor share is not only explained by technical change or globalization, but also by the dynamics of factor taxation, automation capital, and population growth. First, we empirically find indications of co-integration for the 1974-2008 period. Permanent effects on factor shares emanate from relative factor taxation. The latter also have a lasting effect on the use of robots. Variance decompositions reveal that taxing contributes to changes in the two income shares and in automation capital. Second, we analyse and calibrate a neoclassical growth model extended to include factor taxation, automation capital, and capital adjustment costs. The model is able to replicate the dynamics of the observed functional income distribution in the US during the 1965-2015 period. Counterfactual experiments suggest that the fall in the labor share would have been significantly smaller if labor and capital income tax rates had remained at their respective level of the 1960s. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the relationship between personality and coping with professional demands: Where and why do optimism, self-regulation, and self-efficacy matter?
Gottschling, Juliana UL; Hahn, E.; Maas, H. et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2016), 100

Detailed reference viewed: 143 (3 UL)
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See detailExplicit and implicit speaker evaluations and their differential attitudinal determinants
Lehnert, Tessa Elisabeth UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL

in Language Sciences (2018), 69

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence ... [more ▼]

Previous speaker evaluation studies have traditionally assessed the influence of attitudes toward languages with explicit self-report measures. Social-cognitive theories positing a differential influence of explicit and implicit attitudes on controlled versus automatic evaluative responses have not been addressed in this domain thus far. In addition to separating attitudes toward languages from attitudes toward nationality, the aim of this study was to test whether explicit and implicit speaker evaluations refer to distinct concepts. We expected that explicit attitudes would be stronger predictors of deliberate speaker evaluations than implicit attitudes would. By contrast, we expected that automatic evaluations examined with an evaluative priming task would primarily reflect implicit attitudes. Results showed that explicit speaker evaluations were influenced by explicit attitudes toward nationality, whereas implicit evaluations were mainly predicted by implicit attitudes toward nationality. The crucial role of speaker’s nationality in speaker evaluation processes is further discussed within the framework of implicit group processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (9 UL)
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See detailExplicit and Implicit System of Corporate Control – A Convergence Theory of Shareholder Rights
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL

E-print/Working paper (2004)

Part B. of the paper compares the basic concepts of shareholder control in Anglo-America and some states of Continental Europe. It introduces a new categorization between Implicit and Explicit Systems of ... [more ▼]

Part B. of the paper compares the basic concepts of shareholder control in Anglo-America and some states of Continental Europe. It introduces a new categorization between Implicit and Explicit Systems of Corporate Control. The first category refers to statutes that are enacted and construed with the belief that market forces influence managers. Shareholder rights to be exercised in direct contact with the corporation are thought to be relatively weak. This system is established in the Anglo-American world. In contrast, direct shareholder influence through voting and (even minority) shareholder monitoring constitute the fundaments of the Explicit System that traditionally prevailed, for example, in France and Germany. This paper provides historical, statutory and new empirical evidence from some Continental jurisdictions, and in particular Germany. It concludes that in Germany, shareholder meetings are part of Corporate Governance, while the Anglo-American corporate world traditionally understood this term to include only inter-board relationships. Part C. analyses the questions of whether, how and why Corporate Governance systems converge. This study suggests that Corporate Governance systems are likely to develop in Convergence Cycles: If a legal regime provides a particularly efficient solution to a specific problem, this solution will eventually be adopted by other Corporate Governance systems with an inferior system in respect of such problem. These Convergence Cycles will finally overcome the forces against formal convergence. The proposition of Convergence Cycles draws on historical, as well as new statutory and empirical evidence, collected by the author. Part D., finally, analyses the likely impact of convergence on ownership structures. It is likely that the answer to the question of which ownership structure is efficient depends on the stage of the business cycle that the firm is at. Firms within the same stage are likely to become more and more similar with respect to their ownership structures, until they reach an equilibrium that is set at a specific point for a particular group of firms. Thus, this paper adds a dynamic perspective to the static views that presently prevail in the debate upon the convergence of ownership structures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (2 UL)