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See detailEuropean Economic Integration through 'fiscality': A legal perspective
Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

The present thesis aims to explore the role and the evolution of tax and fiscal integration (and by implication, a central component of economic integration) from a legal perspective. “Integration through ... [more ▼]

The present thesis aims to explore the role and the evolution of tax and fiscal integration (and by implication, a central component of economic integration) from a legal perspective. “Integration through fiscality”, as perceived in this dissertation, comprises two components: direct taxation and fiscal policies (the public finance management of the Member States). The present thesis sets out by pointing to the paradox that, despite their central role in the attainment of an “economic union” without frontiers, “fiscal matters” remain without any solid constitutional framework. After demonstrating the lack of a “constitutional fiscal framework”, the thesis proceeds with a historical account, through the turning points of European Economic integration (Pre- Maastricht, Post-Maastricht and financial crisis). This narrative aims to show the inter institutional struggles among the different actors (the legislator, the Member States, the executive and the judiciary) in their bid to fill this lacuna in the European (Economic) Constitution, through distinct or sometimes parallel ways. To this end, the thesis primarily gives the institutional and constitutional background of ‘fiscality’, while it continues by analysing the different possibilities of integration through ‘fiscality’: a) positive integration through the legislator via hard or soft law means, b) spontaneous integration triggered by regulatory competition and the Member States, c) ‘coordinated’ integration prompted by the Member States, d) negative integration prompted by the CJEU, e) crisis-induced integration outside or within the EU law framework, f) integration by ‘force’, g) integration by exception. The thesis maintains that, notwithstanding the efforts of the CJEU that has risen as the key player pushing for integration in the area of the tax policy, it has been the recent financial crisis which has spurred the other actors towards more integration in the area of fiscal policies with the anticipated domino effects in the direct taxation field. The final part of the thesis attempts, by means of a normative claim, to sketch the salient features of a ‘fiscal Constitution’ for the EU, as part of the ‘new economic governance construction’, that will be both (politically) feasible and compliant with certain standards of legitimacy and the rule of law desiderata. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Educational Model and its Paradoxical Impact at the National Level
Graf, Lukas UL

in Tröhler, Daniel; Lenz, Thomas (Eds.) Trajectories in the Development of Modern School Systems: Between the National and the Global (2015)

The Bologna and Copenhagen processes promote standards for the categorization of educational programs and qualifications throughout Europe – with the goal to create greater transparency and permeability ... [more ▼]

The Bologna and Copenhagen processes promote standards for the categorization of educational programs and qualifications throughout Europe – with the goal to create greater transparency and permeability in European skill formation. However, key tools of Europeanization, like the Bachelor and Master degree cycles and the European Qualification Framework, fail to acknowledge important cultural, normative, and regulative idiosyncrasies of the educational systems in Austria and Germany. In both countries the sectors of vocational training and academic education represent distinct organizational fields divided by an "educational schism". The tensions and contradictions that accompany this traditional institutional divide have in many cases been masked by patterns of loose coupling. However, the current Europeanization processes tend to unsettle these patterns, which unleashes conflicts between the actors of the respective organizational fields, for example, with regard to the placement of the different certificates in the common qualification framework. The outcome of these struggles often is that the institutional divide between vocational training and academic education is widening rather than narrowing. The chapter shows how the Austrian and German institutional heritage has diverted the European educational model's initial goal to foster permeability and, with that, illustrates this model's paradoxical impact at the national level. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Educational Research (Re)Constructed
Zapp, Mike UL; Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL et al

Book published by Symposium Books - First Edition (2018)

This book examines contemporary educational research and its governance, addressing key questions via a multidisciplinary theoretical framework of comparative institutional analysis with original data and ... [more ▼]

This book examines contemporary educational research and its governance, addressing key questions via a multidisciplinary theoretical framework of comparative institutional analysis with original data and applying multiple methods. The authors explore and explain important changes in the governance of educational research and the contents of scholarship in education and related disciplines across Europe since the 1990s. This volume synthesizes findings from a multi-year comparative research project, including in-depth empirical case studies of three distinct educational research cultures evolving in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The authors reconstruct and compare changing conceptualizations of educational research, embedded in increasingly internationalized contexts of research, and examine shifts in its governance, including patterns of funding, publication, and evaluation. They examine the producers of European educational research and the distinct role of the European Union in constructing a European Educational Research Area, in establishing cross-border networks, and in (re)shaping educational research agendas. Through innovative empirical analysis of programs of research on various levels and education researchers’ collaborations in scientific networks, they provide insights into (supra)national dynamics in education-related scholarship. Theory-guided content analysis of research projects funded by leading national funding agencies and by the most highly developed supranational research funding instrument – the EU Framework Programme – enables the authors to embed findings on Germany, the United Kingdom, and Norway in a broader European perspective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 142 (12 UL)
See detailEuropean elections in Luxembourg
Dumont, Patrick UL; Kies, Raphaël UL; Poirier, Philippe UL

in Viola, Donatella M. (Ed.) Routledge Handbook of European Elections (2015)

This Handbook is a comprehensive reference guide to the European Parliamentary Elections. The opening section analyzes the European Parliament’s evolution, profile and political dynamics while the rest of ... [more ▼]

This Handbook is a comprehensive reference guide to the European Parliamentary Elections. The opening section analyzes the European Parliament’s evolution, profile and political dynamics while the rest of the Handbook focuses on an analysis of Euro-elections in all EU member states. Each of the country case studies is written to a common template making for an easy comparison of data, methodology and outcomes. Each of the country case studies includes: country profile: area, population size and density, ethnic structure an overview of the political landscape with a brief account of the political parties and electoral systems in EP elections and general national elections public opinion survey on the European Union parties’ lists and programmes level of party-cohesion over the EU media coverage of Euro-elections an outline of key international, European and domestic issues raised in the campaign table of voters’ turnout and election results. The Handbook is an invaluable resource for all scholars of the European Union, European Parliament, Elections and Parties. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Exceptionalism in International Law
Lickova, Magdalena UL

Speeches/Talks (2008)

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See detailEuropean Exceptionalism in International Law
Lickova, Magdalena UL

in European Journal of International Law (2008), 19(3), 463-490

For Member States of the European Union, participation in this supranational organization has increased the number of diffi culties in the international arena. Occasionally, the expanding legislative ... [more ▼]

For Member States of the European Union, participation in this supranational organization has increased the number of diffi culties in the international arena. Occasionally, the expanding legislative activity of the European institutions reaches out beyond the borders of the European legal system and incidentally affects the EU Member States ’ autonomous relations with third parties. Consequently the EU and its members, often with success, seek third parties ’ consent to exceptional treatment. Because of their number and significance, such derogations have inspired this article to inquire into their expansion and legal status under international law. Even though the EU-related exceptions have not created an international customary rule, the article observes that European integration shapes international rules in diverse fi elds and adjusts them to its needs. Since European integration is designed to administerand regulate an increasing number of issues, the autonomous international obligations of the EU Member States may become an obstacle. Because the European Union is likely to continue using special treatment in the future, it is important to assess how far the supranational exception can go in order to accommodate all interests at stake. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 157 (3 UL)
See detailEuropean External Action Service - Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination
Gatti, Mauro UL

Book published by Brill (2016)

In European External Action Service, Mauro Gatti provides a legal analysis of the EU’s ‘foreign ministry’. The European External Action Service (EEAS) was created to coordinate the supranational and ... [more ▼]

In European External Action Service, Mauro Gatti provides a legal analysis of the EU’s ‘foreign ministry’. The European External Action Service (EEAS) was created to coordinate the supranational and intergovernmental areas of EU external relations, but it is unclear whether and how it may attain this objective. Through an analysis of law and practice, Gatti demonstrates that the EEAS is capable of effectively promoting coherence in EU external relations. Although working independently from EU institutions and Member States, the EEAS can coordinate their activities at an administrative level. The EEAS is thus ideally placed to bring together EU external action instruments, including diplomatic efforts, development cooperation, and security policies. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Family Care Project. National Background Report on Luxembourg
Ferring, Dieter UL; Weber, G.

Report (2004)

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See detailEuropean funded pensions and their governance in times of uncertainty
Ebbinghaus, Bernhard UL; Orenstein, Mitchell A; Whiteside, Noel

in Global Social Policy (2013)

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See detailThe European General Practice Research Network presents a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine and long term care, following a systematic review of relevant literature.
Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Manceau, Benedicte et al

in Journal of the American Medical Directors Association (2013), 14(5), 319-25

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a new concept encompassing all the medical conditions of an individual patient. The concept links into the European definition of family medicine and its core competencies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a new concept encompassing all the medical conditions of an individual patient. The concept links into the European definition of family medicine and its core competencies. However, the definition of multimorbidity and its subsequent operationalization are still unclear. The European General Practice Research Network wanted to produce a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. METHOD: Systematic review of literature involving eight European General Practice Research Network national teams. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane (1990-2010). Only articles containing descriptions of multimorbidity criteria were selected for inclusion. The multinational team undertook a methodic data extraction, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: The team identified 416 documents, selected 68 abstracts, included 54 articles, and found 132 definitions with 1631 different criteria. These criteria were aggregated into 11 themes that led to the following definition: Multimorbidity is defined as any combination of chronic disease with at least one other disease (acute or chronic) or biopsychosocial factor (associated or not) or somatic risk factor. Any biopsychosocial factor, any risk factor, the social network, the burden of diseases, the health care consumption, and the patient's coping strategies may function as modifiers (of the effects of multimorbidity). Multimorbidity may modify the health outcomes and lead to an increased disability or a decreased quality of life or frailty. CONCLUSION: This study has produced a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. The resulting improvements in the management of multimorbidity, and its usefulness in long term care and in family medicine, will have to be assessed in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European general practice research network presents the translations of its comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine in ten European languages.
Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(1), 0115796

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. OBJECTIVE: To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. METHOD: Forward translation of the EGPRN's definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached. RESULTS: 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): Towards a Supraregional Scale of Governance in the Greater Region SaarLorLux?
Evrard, Estelle UL

in Geopolitics (2016)

All over Europe, EGTCs (European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation) are mushrooming. Between 2006, when the EU regulation entered into force, and 2014, 51 EGTCs have been established. Conceived as a ... [more ▼]

All over Europe, EGTCs (European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation) are mushrooming. Between 2006, when the EU regulation entered into force, and 2014, 51 EGTCs have been established. Conceived as a legal tool to facilitate cross-border, interregional or transnational cooperation, the EGTC was established after years of lobbying from cross-border organisations. Apart from practical guidelines mostly dedicated to the legal possibilities and limitations of this tool, few academic studies examine the significance of this tool for cross-border governance as such. This paper develops such a perspective, using the case study of the Greater Region SaarLorLux, (Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland and Wallonia), where two existing EGTCs are operating. The EGTC INTERREG IV A Greater Region is the only EGTC managing an EU programme; the EGTC Secretariat of the Summit supports the main political organisation in this area. This contribution argues that the EGTC tool can facilitate the emergence of a supraregional scale of governance. This paper examines how this instrument allows the institutionalisation of a cross border entity in terms of its capacity to embody and perpetuate the cross-border region, and to implement its strategy. It then applies this conceptualisation to the specific context of the Greater Region. The empirical analysis shows that although the two EGTCs institutionalise the cooperation, they are rather conceived as administrative and operational tools. The paper concludes with possible explanations of such a mismatch between the potential of this tool and the effective use of it. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Higher Education Area – going the ‘whole nine yards’ with the Bologna Process or charting new territories?
Deca, Ligia UL

in Journal of the European Higher Education Area (2013), 1

The official launch of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in 2010, by ministers responsible for higher education in 47 European countries, raised public expectations and prompted a series of ... [more ▼]

The official launch of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in 2010, by ministers responsible for higher education in 47 European countries, raised public expectations and prompted a series of questions, especially from the wider public and the specialised press, regarding the impacts and future relevance of the Bologna Process. This article starts with an overview of how the process is seen from a variety of disciplinary views. It then provides a critical reflection on the evolution of the Bologna Process, from the point of view of what is largely deemed by the EHEA policy and practice community as achievements and challenges. The final aim of the article is to provide a possible answer to the question of whether the launch of the European Higher Education Area and the political call for its consolidation are mainly about realising the existing Bologna Process objectives or whether the newly established EHEA is increasingly seen as a political forum for European policy cooperation in higher education, which would impose some minimum requirements on the members, but also increasingly include ‘non-traditional’ topics for the Bologna Process, such as governance, funding etc. The political discourse in the latest EHEA Bucharest Communiqué is finally analysed in order to support this main question. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 247 (76 UL)
See detailEuropean institutions and european enterprises
Paravantis, Spero UL

Presentation (2018, May 30)

Seminar on "European institutions and European enterprises" (Seminar at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy, May 30 2018. From 01:00 to 24:00. I explain the Origins of the Rules ... [more ▼]

Seminar on "European institutions and European enterprises" (Seminar at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy, May 30 2018. From 01:00 to 24:00. I explain the Origins of the Rules surrounding the freedom of establishment in the EU. NOTE: the computer crashed before the seminar, so I had to look to the large screen to my left to read the notes. This is why I am looking left throughout the video.) [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Integration and Consensus Politics in the Low Countries
Vollaard, Hans; Beyers, Jan; Dumont, Patrick UL

Book published by Routledge (2015)

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See detailEuropean integration and consensus politics in the Low Countries Observations on an under-researched relationship
Beyers, Jan; Vollaard, Hans; Dumont, Patrick UL

E-print/Working paper (2014)

The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are well-known cases of consensus politics. Traditionally, decision-making in the Low Countries has been characterized by broad involvement, power sharing and ... [more ▼]

The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are well-known cases of consensus politics. Traditionally, decision-making in the Low Countries has been characterized by broad involvement, power sharing and making compromises. These countries were also founding member states of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors. However, the relationship between European integration and the tradition of domestic consensus politics remains unclear. In order to explore this relationship this paper presents the conceptual framework and a short summary of the recently published book European Integration and Consensus Politics in the Low Countries (edited by Hans Vollaard, Jan Beyers and Patrick Dumont; Routledge). The authors discuss how consensus politics would shape the impact of European integration. They also analyse whether European integration may undermine the fundamental characteristics of consensus politics in the Low Countries. Drawing on consociationalism and Europeanization research, they provide a comprehensive overview of Europeanization in the three Low Countries as well as a better understanding of the varieties of consensus politics across and within these countries. In doing this they refer to a wide range of in-depth studies on a variety of political actors such as governments, parliaments, political parties, courts, ministries and interest groups as well as key policy issues such as the ratification of EU treaties and migration policy. Their most important observation is that European integration has changed the substance of consensus politics in some policy-areas, but barely the domestic political practice itself. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Integration and Consensus Politics in the Low Countries. Observations on an Under-Researched Relationship
BEYERS, Jan; VOLLAARD, Hans; Dumont, Patrick UL

in EUI Working Paper SPS (2014)

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See detailEuropean Integration and Peripheral Disparities in Greece. The way ahead
Kavvadia, Helen UL

in Review of decentralization, local government and regional development (2009), 56

As the main initiatives in economic and regional policy in Greece focuses on creating favourable conditions for general economic growth and innovation rather than regional redistribution and cohesion, the ... [more ▼]

As the main initiatives in economic and regional policy in Greece focuses on creating favourable conditions for general economic growth and innovation rather than regional redistribution and cohesion, the future of the peripheral areas is largely a local concern and to an increasingly degree depending upon European co-operation and initiatives. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Investment Bank as Policy Entrepreneur and the Promotion of Public-Private Partnerships
Howarth, David UL; Liebe, Moritz

in New Political Economy (2019), Early View

This paper focuses on the important role of the European Investment Bank (EIB) in the European Union’s promotion of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). We first demonstrate the relative importance of the ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the important role of the European Investment Bank (EIB) in the European Union’s promotion of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). We first demonstrate the relative importance of the EIB in relation to the European Commission on the promotion of PPPs. We then argue that the activism of the EIB on PPPs can be explained in terms of the bank’s operation as a policy entrepreneur. The paper further explains that the entrepreneurial role of the EIB with regard to PPPs relied massively on the presence of a small number of, principally British, ‘norm entrepreneurs’ who actively promoted the PPP concept and the specific norms that supported it within the EIB. While there are indications that the EIB operated as a rational actor in its promotion of PPPs, we argue that ideas ultimately drove the pro-PPP activism of both individual EIB officials and the institution collectively. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (7 UL)