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Peer Reviewed
See detailExtinction of particles due to unstable combustion modes
Peters, Bernhard UL

in Fuel (2002), 81

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (4 UL)
See detailExtra Muros. Vorstädtische Räume in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit / Espaces suburbains au bas Moyen Âge et à l’époque moderne
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Thewes, Guy

Book published by Böhlau Verlag (2019)

Stadt und Umland sind auf vielfältige Weise miteinander vernetzt. Die durch den „Spatial Turn“ entstandenen Impulse, Geschichte wieder verstärkt in räumlichen Bedingungen zu denken und Veränderungen der ... [more ▼]

Stadt und Umland sind auf vielfältige Weise miteinander vernetzt. Die durch den „Spatial Turn“ entstandenen Impulse, Geschichte wieder verstärkt in räumlichen Bedingungen zu denken und Veränderungen der Raumwahrnehmung intensiver in den Blick zu nehmen, sind das Anliegen des vorliegenden Bandes. Im Fokus stehen u.a. Fragen zur kartographischen Repräsentation, zur Sozialtopographie, zu Inklusions- und Exklusionsprozessen, sowie zur unterschiedlich starken Ausprägung von Zonen städtischen Einflusses. In den Beiträgen werden ausgewählte Städte aus Mittel-, Süd- und Osteuropa beleuchtet, darunter auch Festungsstädte und die in diesem Kontext oft wenig beachteten "kleinen Städte“. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (7 UL)
See detailL’extra-territorialité de la saisie attribution
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL)
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See detailThe extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli
Ghosal, Anubrata UL; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu UL; Fritz, Joëlle UL et al

in MicrobiologyOpen (2015)

he secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but ... [more ▼]

he secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacte- ria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA comple- ment. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA com- plement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV- free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA- fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed char- acterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacte- rium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting chemical energy by growing disorder: efficiency at maximum power
Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian

in Journal of Statistical Mechanics : Theory and Experiment (2010)

We consider the efficiency of chemical energy extraction from the environment by the growth of a copolymer made of two constituent units in the entropy-driven regime. We show that the thermodynamic ... [more ▼]

We consider the efficiency of chemical energy extraction from the environment by the growth of a copolymer made of two constituent units in the entropy-driven regime. We show that the thermodynamic nonlinearity associated with the information processing aspect is responsible for a branching of the system properties such as power, speed of growth, entropy production, and efficiency, with varying affinity. The standard linear thermodynamics argument which predicts an efficiency of 1/2 at maximum power is inappropriate because the regime of maximum power is located either outside of the linear regime or on a separate bifurcated branch, and because the usual thermodynamic force is not the natural variable for this optimization. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting Domain Models from Natural-Language Requirements: Approach and Industrial Evaluation
Arora, Chetan UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 19th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, Saint-Malo 2-7 October 2016 (2016, October)

Domain modeling is an important step in the transition from natural-language requirements to precise specifications. For large systems, building a domain model manually is laborious. Several approaches ... [more ▼]

Domain modeling is an important step in the transition from natural-language requirements to precise specifications. For large systems, building a domain model manually is laborious. Several approaches exist to assist engineers with this task, where Natural Language Processing is employed for automated extraction of domain model elements. Despite the existing approaches, important facets remain under-explored. Notably, there is limited empirical evidence about the usefulness of existing extraction rules in industry. Furthermore, important opportunities for enhancing the extraction rules are yet to be exploited. We develop a domain model extractor by bringing together existing extraction rules and proposing important enhancements. We apply our model extractor to four industrial requirements documents, reporting on the frequency of different extraction rules being applied. We conduct an expert study over one of these documents, investigating the accuracy and overall effectiveness of our domain model extractor. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting Statistical Graph Features for Accurate and Efficient Time Series Classification
Li, Daoyuan UL; Lin, Jessica; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 21st International Conference on Extending Database Technology (2018, March)

This paper presents a multiscale visibility graph representation for time series as well as feature extraction methods for time series classification (TSC). Unlike traditional TSC approaches that seek to ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a multiscale visibility graph representation for time series as well as feature extraction methods for time series classification (TSC). Unlike traditional TSC approaches that seek to find global similarities in time series databases (eg., Nearest Neighbor with Dynamic Time Warping distance) or methods specializing in locating local patterns/subsequences (eg., shapelets), we extract solely statistical features from graphs that are generated from time series. Specifically, we augment time series by means of their multiscale approximations, which are further transformed into a set of visibility graphs. After extracting probability distributions of small motifs, density, assortativity, etc., these features are used for building highly accurate classification models using generic classifiers (eg., Support Vector Machine and eXtreme Gradient Boosting). Thanks to the way how we transform time series into graphs and extract features from them, we are able to capture both global and local features from time series. Based on extensive experiments on a large number of open datasets and comparison with five state-of-the-art TSC algorithms, our approach is shown to be both accurate and efficient: it is more accurate than Learning Shapelets and at the same time faster than Fast Shapelets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 373 (12 UL)
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See detailExtraction and Analysis of RNA Isolated from Pure Bacteria-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles
Habier, Janine UL; May, Patrick UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna et al

in Arluison, Véronique; Valverde, Claudio Valverde (Eds.) Bacterial Regulatory RNA (2018)

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released by commensal as well as pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. These vesicles contain numerous bacterial components, such as proteins, peptidoglycans ... [more ▼]

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released by commensal as well as pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. These vesicles contain numerous bacterial components, such as proteins, peptidoglycans, lipopolysaccharides, DNA, and RNA. To examine if OMV-associated RNA molecules are bacterial degradation products and/or are functionally active, it is necessary to extract RNA from pure OMVs for subsequent analysis. Therefore, we describe here an isolation method of ultrapure OMVs and the subsequent extraction of RNA and basic steps of RNA-Seq analysis. Bacterial culture, extracellular supernatant concentration, OMV purification, and the subsequent RNA extraction out of OMVs are described. Specific pitfalls within the protocol and RNA contamination sources are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracurricular sports in European schools: A descriptive study
Marques, Adilson; Holzweg, Martin; Scheuer, Claude UL et al

in International Sports Studies (2014), 36(1), 63-70

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (2 UL)
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See detailExtragradient methods and linesearch algorithms for solving Ky Fan inequalities and fixed point problems
Phan, Vuong UL; Jean Jacques, Strodiot; Nguyen, Van Hien

in Journal of Optimization Theory & Applications (2012)

In this paper, we introduce some new iterative methods for finding a common element of the set of points satisfying a Ky Fan inequality, and the set of fixed points of a contraction mapping in a Hilbert ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce some new iterative methods for finding a common element of the set of points satisfying a Ky Fan inequality, and the set of fixed points of a contraction mapping in a Hilbert space. The strong convergence of the iterates generated by each method is obtained thanks to a hybrid projection method, under the assumptions that the fixed-point mapping is a ξ-strict pseudocontraction, and the function associated with the Ky Fan inequality is pseudomonotone and weakly continuous. A Lipschitz-type condition is assumed to hold on this function when the basic iteration comes from the extragradient method. This assumption is unnecessary when an Armijo backtracking linesearch is incorporated in the extragradient method. The particular case of variational inequality problems is examined in a last section. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (4 UL)
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See detailExtraposition of gerundial and infinitival subject: Factors and figures
Deroey, Katrien UL

in Studia Germanica Gandensia (1998), 44

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 UL)
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See detailExtrapyramidal motor signs in degenerative ataxias.
Schols, L.; Peters, S.; Szymanski, S. et al

in Archives of neurology (2000), 57(10), 1495-500

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized 311 patients with ataxia clinically and genetically. Course of the disease and EPS were investigated according to a standardized protocol. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of EPS in subtypes of ataxia was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Extrapyramidal motor signs occurred in all forms of ataxia, but frequency and type of EPS varied between genetically and clinically defined subtypes. Postural tremor in hereditary ataxias was typical for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Dystonia was generally rare in ataxias, but, if present, suggested SCA3. We observed a parkinsonian variant of SCA3 in which parkinsonism was present in the beginning of the disease and responded well to levodopa therapy, leading to diagnostic confusion. Parkinsonism in SCA3 was independent of CAG repeat length but ran in families, suggesting modifying genes. In idiopathic sporadic cerebellar ataxia (ISCA), EPS are more frequent in late-onset than in early-onset forms. In 50% of ISCA patients with parkinsonism, the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy remained questionable because of normal autonomic function. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapyramidal motor signs can help to predict the genetic subtype of ataxia. Extrapyramidal motor signs were more frequent in genetic subtypes in which basal ganglia affection has been demonstrated by postmortem studies. However, no type of EPS was specific for an underlying mutation. In ISCA, EPS are an adverse prognostic factor. Parkinsonism is especially associated with a more rapid course of the disease. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1495-1500 [less ▲]

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See detailExtreme response style and faking: Two sides of the same coin?
Ziegler, M.; Kemper, Christoph UL

in Winker, P.; Menold, N.; Porst, R. (Eds.) Interviewers deviations in surveys – Impact, reasons, detection and prevention (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (0 UL)
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See detailExtreme Returns in the European Financial Crisis
Chouliaras, Andreas UL; Grammatikos, Theoharry UL

Scientific Conference (2014, September 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (3 UL)
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See detailExtreme Returns in the European Financial Crisis
Chouliaras, Andreas UL; Grammatikos, Theoharry UL

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We examine the transmission of extreme stock market returns among three groups of countries: the Euro-periphery countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain), the Euro-core countries (Germany ... [more ▼]

We examine the transmission of extreme stock market returns among three groups of countries: the Euro-periphery countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain), the Euro-core countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Finland, Belgium), and the major European Union -but not euro- countries (Sweden, UK, Poland, Czech Republic, Denmark). Using extreme returns on daily stock market data from January 2004 till March 2013, we nd that transmission e ects are present for the tails of the returns distributions for the Pre-crisis, the US-crisis and the Euro-crisis periods from the Euro-periphery group to the Non-Euro and the Euro-core groups. Within group e ects are stronger in the crisis periods. We nd that the transmission channel does not seem to have intensi ed during the crisis periods, but it transmitted larger shocks (in some cases, extreme bottom returns doubled during the crisis periods). Thus, as extreme returns have become much more "extreme" during the nancial crisis periods, the expected losses on extreme return days have increased signi cantly. Given the fact that stock market capitalisations in these country groups are trillions of Euros, a 1% or 2% increase in extreme bottom returns (in crisis periods) can lead to aggregate losses of tens of billions Euros in one single trading day. [less ▲]

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See detailExtreme U.S. Stock Market Fluctuations in the Wake of 9/11
Wolff, Christian UL; Jongen, Ron; Verschoor, Willem

in Journal of Applied Econometrics (2008), 23

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (2 UL)
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See detailExtremely conserved ATP- or ADP-dependent enzymatic system for nicotinamide nucleotide repair
Marbaix, Alexandre Y.; Noël, Gaëtane; Detroux, Aline M. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286(48), 41246-52

The reduced forms of NAD and NADP, two major nucleotides playing a central role in metabolism, are continuously damaged by enzymatic or heat-dependent hydration. We report the molecular identification of ... [more ▼]

The reduced forms of NAD and NADP, two major nucleotides playing a central role in metabolism, are continuously damaged by enzymatic or heat-dependent hydration. We report the molecular identification of the eukaryotic dehydratase that repairs these nucleotides and show that this enzyme (Carkd in mammals, YKL151C in yeast) catalyzes the dehydration of the S form of NADHX and NADPHX, at the expense of ATP, which is converted to ADP. Surprisingly, the Escherichia coli homolog, YjeF, a bidomain protein, catalyzes a similar reaction, but using ADP instead of ATP. The latter reaction is ascribable to the C-terminal domain of YjeF. This represents an unprecedented example of orthologous enzymes using either ADP or ATP as phosphoryl donor. We also show that eukaryotic proteins homologous to the N-terminal domain of YjeF (apolipoprotein A-1-binding protein (AIBP) in mammals, YNL200C in yeast) catalyze the epimerization of the S and R forms of NAD(P)HX, thereby allowing, in conjunction with the energy-dependent dehydratase, the repair of both epimers of NAD(P)HX. Both enzymes are very widespread in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, which together with the ADP dependence of the dehydratase in some species indicates the ancient origin of this repair system. [less ▲]

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See detailExzess der wissenschaftlichen Persona. Nation und Pädagogik bei Eduard Spranger (1882-1963)
Priem, Karin UL

in Bühler, Patrick; Bühler, Thomas; Osterwalder, Fritz (Eds.) Zur Inszenierungsgeschichte pädagogischer Erlöserfiguren (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 UL)
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See detailEye contact, clientele alignment & laissez-faire: the production of public space and neighbourhood in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Kolnberger, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2011)

The struggle to belong Dealing with diversity in 21st century urban settings. Amsterdam, 7-9 July 2011 Eye contact, clientele alignment & laissez-faire: the production of public space and neighbourhood in ... [more ▼]

The struggle to belong Dealing with diversity in 21st century urban settings. Amsterdam, 7-9 July 2011 Eye contact, clientele alignment & laissez-faire: the production of public space and neighbourhood in Phnom Penh, Cambodia Thomas Kolnberger(*) Paper presented at the International RC21 conference 2011 Session: Nr. 12 – Belonging, exclusion, public and quasi-public space (*) Université du Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Research Unit IPSE (Identité, Politiques, Sociètes, Espace) Universität Passau, BR Deutschland Southeast Asian Studies thomas.kolnberger@uni.lu Overview Private, public or quasi-public spaces are terms that seem particularly difficult to apply to non-Western societies: as in the ‘West’, their boundaries are fluid and routinely transgressed, but in ways that are distinctive to the local situation and history. This paper is arguing that these concepts retain practical descriptive power, particularly for the city of Phnom Penh, a case study of demographic extremes, as nearly all her inhabitants could be classified as immigrants. In deed, the Khmer Rouge had forcefully evicted the ca. two million people-strong population of the capital in 1975, virtually erasing all ‘bourgeois urbanity’ during Pol Pot’s Cambodian ‘auto-genocide’. After the fall of the regime, the new socialist government slowly repopulated the deserted metropolis with new urban dwellers. Their social and spatial belonging needed to be set up from scratch. “Who belongs to whom” (in terms of political clientelism and patronage), “who is doing what” (regarding face-to-face control and eye contact investigation), and “who owns what” (concerning redistribution and also new original accumulation of capital) were the essential questions in this ‘struggle to belong’. In this urban setting, people have been employing a mixed set of strategies for implementing ‘belonging’ ever since. Based on empirical surveys (mapping & interviews) and research in Cambodian and French colonial archives, this paper presents the constant negotiations of private and public space in a changing economic environment from three angles: - streets, squares, and parks as spaces of interaction: the spatial inheritance of the French colonialism in a new context - the emergence of different types of gated communities since 1975: at first by spatial inclusion strategies generating patronage networks, then by urban planning separating rich from poor - the economy of espionage and imitation of Phnom Penh’s retail trade: the neighbours’ curious gaze Methodology - The city of Phnom Penh in Cambodia is a case study for a `rush economic evolution´ - This paper aims in one part to highlight the role and influence of place and space for a specific process: the spatial location of business sites in a unique window of opportunity as a self-organizing process `from below´. By applying spatial analysis (GPS mapping), a specific pattern of retail agglomeration and dispersion of this `atomistic´ metropolis could be identified. The analysis is based on fieldwork investigating the use of the city’s space for economic ends. 1,000 kilometres of built frontage (`streetscapes´) with 14,647 cases of land use features (e.g. shops, `pavement economy´ etc.) have been surveyed and mapped. Subsequent to this quantitative part, 100 semi-structured interviews and numerous ad hoc conversations were conducted including a dozen of expert interviews (city administration, NGO, city planners). Results and Thesis - The city of Phnom Penh in Cambodia is a case study for a `subsistence urbanization´ - Much economic geography research has focused on the importance of the social context for various transactions. ‘Face-to-face contact remains central to coordination of the economy, despite the remarkable reductions in transport costs and the astonishing rise in the complexity and variety of information – verbal, visual and symbolic – which can be communicated near instantly’ (Storper and Venables, 2003, p. 43 ). Visual proximity and eye-contact are particularly important in environments of imperfect information, like in Cambodia after Pol Pot. Information was scarce at this time and communication hardware rare. Thus, in Phnom Penh’s initial retail business formation, an ‘economy of espionage and imitation’ provided the necessary information for deal-making, decisions concerning the assortments of goods, prize, and trends. The first merchants and producers were heavily dependent on visual contact ‘around the corner’ and close contact also proved to be beneficial to customers. This specific knowledge and information externality (an externality or transaction spillover is a cost or benefit, not transmitted through prices) could only be reaped by spatial agglomerations. While screening and socialization of network members and potential partners were essential for the build-up of Cambodia’s original clientele-system during the gradual resettlement, visual contact became the decisive steering mechanism for the original distribution of business agglomeration or its dispersion. For a `subsistence urbanization´, the public and quasi-public space are the most important `common-pool resource´. The influx of the population into the city produced a `non-rivalrous´ and `non-excludable´ economic good by the neighbours’ curious gaze. - The city of Phnom Penh in Cambodia is a case study for a `spatial club´ - From a New Institutionalism’s point of view ‘City’s neighbourhoods – residential, industrial and commercial clusters – are like firms, nexuses of agreements and understandings about entitlements to share and pooled resources. They differ from firms in that they are spatial clusterings and in that they cluster around resources that remain to varying extents in the public domain. They are like spatial clubs. Members co-operate by various forms of informal and formal rules and agreements in order to ensure the continued supply and enhancement of shared public domain goods. Municipal government is itself a type of club, delivering collectively consumed infrastructure and regulations from a tax on its citizens, firms and visitors. Communities, in the social sense, are also clubs – delivering collectively consumed benefits such as a sense of belonging, security and culture’ (Webster and Lai 2003, p. 58). This spontaneous `neighbouring´ as ‘rational herding’ (Banerjee 1992; Hung and Plott 2001) helped to reduce transaction costs during the initial resettlement process (and beyond). It can be described as a continuous act of self agglomeration of business, creating bazaar-type streets over the whole of the city, which specialise in specific goods and services forming thus, from a bird’s view perspective, a `mental retail map´ for the inhabitants. This is one side of building neighbourhoods in Phnom Penh. The base for this laissez-faire et laissez passer behaviorism of the government in (micro)economy was the redistribution of Phnom Penh’s real estate amongst trustworthy followers. A `New property Deal´ of first in, first served allocated the built environment piecemeal. In this political economy, two steps are discernable. First, a community-building process regarding the public administration. Each ministry was assigned to a certain area of the city and in a top-down process, starting from the top echelons to the simple civil servants and officials, distributed land and housing. Initially, each responsible could pick `his´ followers and could reward him/her with the allocation of living space, a social structure, which represents a spatially bond replica of the traditional clientelism and patronage-network in Cambodia. These ’strings’ (ksae) formed the first neighbourhoods as a kind of `original´ gated community because each administrative unit was planned to be self-sufficient. Each ‘cité’ (Carrier 2007) was thus clearly demarcated. Its decisions were autonomous, too. In certain areas of Phnom Penh, remnants of this socio-politically gathered community can be found. In a second step, and with increasing immigration, secondary ksae (the mother’s cousin, the friend of a friend) proliferated and the city was being `filled up´. Today, the pattern of co-residence in technically secluded areas of Phnom Penh resembles the typical economical founded example of gated communities as neighbourhoods around the world: the rich and the better off separate from the rest. The once moral economy of the civil war and initial post-conflict years is dissolving. Regulation, commodification and the government’s efforts to demarcate public and private space is replacing/reducing the common good ‘public space’. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (1 UL)