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See detailExternal Relations of the European Union
Lickova, Magdalena UL

Speeches/Talks (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 UL)
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See detailExternal Representation of the European Union in the Conclusion of International Agreements
Gatti, Mauro UL; Manzini, Pietro

in Common Market Law Review (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (1 UL)
See detailExternal Sovereign Debt in a Monetary Union: Bailouts and the Role of Corruption
Achury, Carolina; Koulovatianos, Christos UL; Tsoukalas, John

Report (2011)

We build a tractable stylized model of external sovereign debt and endogenous international interest rates. In corrupt economies with rent-seeking groups stealing public resources, a politico-economic ... [more ▼]

We build a tractable stylized model of external sovereign debt and endogenous international interest rates. In corrupt economies with rent-seeking groups stealing public resources, a politico-economic equilibrium is characterized by permanent fiscal impatience which leads to excessive issuing of sovereign bonds. External creditors envision the corrupt economy’s fiscal impatience and buy its bonds at higher interest rates. In turn, this interest-rate increase exacerbates the problem of oversupplying debt, leading the economy to a perfect-foresight trap. In incorrupt countries which have entered a high-interest-rate/high debt-GDP-ratio trap because an immediately recent disaster has caused a sudden jump to a high outstanding debt-GDP ratio, we show that bailout plans with controlled interest rates can help in reducing debt-GDP ratios after some time. On the contrary, under corruption, we show that bailouts are ineffective unless rent-seeking groups are eradicated. [less ▲]

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See detailExternalisation de la politique migratoire et identité de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL; Gatti, Mauro UL

in Benlolo, Myriam (Ed.) L'Union européenne et les migrations (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (4 UL)
See detailExterne Evaluation als Impulsgeber für Schulentwicklung? Eine explorative Untersuchung
Weis, Daniel UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (5 UL)
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See detailExterne Sprachgeschichte des Französischen in Asien, im Indischen Ozean und im Pazifik
Ehrhart, Sabine UL

in Ernst, Gerhart Et Al (Ed.) Handbuch der Romanischen Sprachgeschichte (2003)

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See detailExterne Wirksamkeit literarischer Imagination. Überlegungen am Beispiel schweizerischer imagerie culturelle
Wiegmann, Eva UL

in KulturPoetik (2016), (1), 26-48

This article deals with the interactions of literary imagination, cultural identity for-mation processes and cultural policy strategies. Literature here is understood not just as a reflection of ... [more ▼]

This article deals with the interactions of literary imagination, cultural identity for-mation processes and cultural policy strategies. Literature here is understood not just as a reflection of collective memory, and it is not reduced to a representation of the col-lective mentality of a society at a particular moment in time. Instead, using the Swiss cultural imagination during the era of ›intellectual national defence‹ against Nazi Ger-many as an example, the influence of literary imaginings on the formation and trans-formation of models of collective identity models is examined. The analysis will focus on the specific potential of literary imagination, which, under certain conditions, can achieve a high level of effectiveness in the socio-political area. [less ▲]

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See detailExtinction of particles due to unstable combustion modes
Peters, Bernhard UL

in Fuel (2002), 81

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (4 UL)
See detailExtra Muros. Vorstädtische Räume in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit / Espaces suburbains au bas Moyen Âge et à l’époque moderne
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Thewes, Guy

Book published by Böhlau Verlag (2019)

Stadt und Umland sind auf vielfältige Weise miteinander vernetzt. Die durch den „Spatial Turn“ entstandenen Impulse, Geschichte wieder verstärkt in räumlichen Bedingungen zu denken und Veränderungen der ... [more ▼]

Stadt und Umland sind auf vielfältige Weise miteinander vernetzt. Die durch den „Spatial Turn“ entstandenen Impulse, Geschichte wieder verstärkt in räumlichen Bedingungen zu denken und Veränderungen der Raumwahrnehmung intensiver in den Blick zu nehmen, sind das Anliegen des vorliegenden Bandes. Im Fokus stehen u.a. Fragen zur kartographischen Repräsentation, zur Sozialtopographie, zu Inklusions- und Exklusionsprozessen, sowie zur unterschiedlich starken Ausprägung von Zonen städtischen Einflusses. In den Beiträgen werden ausgewählte Städte aus Mittel-, Süd- und Osteuropa beleuchtet, darunter auch Festungsstädte und die in diesem Kontext oft wenig beachteten "kleinen Städte“. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (7 UL)
See detailL’extra-territorialité de la saisie attribution
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (2008)

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See detailThe extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli
Ghosal, Anubrata UL; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu UL; Fritz, Joëlle UL et al

in MicrobiologyOpen (2015)

he secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but ... [more ▼]

he secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacte- ria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA comple- ment. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA com- plement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV- free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA- fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed char- acterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacte- rium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting chemical energy by growing disorder: efficiency at maximum power
Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian

in Journal of Statistical Mechanics : Theory and Experiment (2010)

We consider the efficiency of chemical energy extraction from the environment by the growth of a copolymer made of two constituent units in the entropy-driven regime. We show that the thermodynamic ... [more ▼]

We consider the efficiency of chemical energy extraction from the environment by the growth of a copolymer made of two constituent units in the entropy-driven regime. We show that the thermodynamic nonlinearity associated with the information processing aspect is responsible for a branching of the system properties such as power, speed of growth, entropy production, and efficiency, with varying affinity. The standard linear thermodynamics argument which predicts an efficiency of 1/2 at maximum power is inappropriate because the regime of maximum power is located either outside of the linear regime or on a separate bifurcated branch, and because the usual thermodynamic force is not the natural variable for this optimization. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting Domain Models from Natural-Language Requirements: Approach and Industrial Evaluation
Arora, Chetan UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 19th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, Saint-Malo 2-7 October 2016 (2016, October)

Domain modeling is an important step in the transition from natural-language requirements to precise specifications. For large systems, building a domain model manually is laborious. Several approaches ... [more ▼]

Domain modeling is an important step in the transition from natural-language requirements to precise specifications. For large systems, building a domain model manually is laborious. Several approaches exist to assist engineers with this task, where Natural Language Processing is employed for automated extraction of domain model elements. Despite the existing approaches, important facets remain under-explored. Notably, there is limited empirical evidence about the usefulness of existing extraction rules in industry. Furthermore, important opportunities for enhancing the extraction rules are yet to be exploited. We develop a domain model extractor by bringing together existing extraction rules and proposing important enhancements. We apply our model extractor to four industrial requirements documents, reporting on the frequency of different extraction rules being applied. We conduct an expert study over one of these documents, investigating the accuracy and overall effectiveness of our domain model extractor. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting Statistical Graph Features for Accurate and Efficient Time Series Classification
Li, Daoyuan UL; Lin, Jessica; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 21st International Conference on Extending Database Technology (2018, March)

This paper presents a multiscale visibility graph representation for time series as well as feature extraction methods for time series classification (TSC). Unlike traditional TSC approaches that seek to ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a multiscale visibility graph representation for time series as well as feature extraction methods for time series classification (TSC). Unlike traditional TSC approaches that seek to find global similarities in time series databases (eg., Nearest Neighbor with Dynamic Time Warping distance) or methods specializing in locating local patterns/subsequences (eg., shapelets), we extract solely statistical features from graphs that are generated from time series. Specifically, we augment time series by means of their multiscale approximations, which are further transformed into a set of visibility graphs. After extracting probability distributions of small motifs, density, assortativity, etc., these features are used for building highly accurate classification models using generic classifiers (eg., Support Vector Machine and eXtreme Gradient Boosting). Thanks to the way how we transform time series into graphs and extract features from them, we are able to capture both global and local features from time series. Based on extensive experiments on a large number of open datasets and comparison with five state-of-the-art TSC algorithms, our approach is shown to be both accurate and efficient: it is more accurate than Learning Shapelets and at the same time faster than Fast Shapelets. [less ▲]

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See detailExtraction and Analysis of RNA Isolated from Pure Bacteria-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles
Habier, Janine UL; May, Patrick UL; Heintz-Buschart, Anna et al

in Arluison, Véronique; Valverde, Claudio Valverde (Eds.) Bacterial Regulatory RNA (2018)

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released by commensal as well as pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. These vesicles contain numerous bacterial components, such as proteins, peptidoglycans ... [more ▼]

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released by commensal as well as pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. These vesicles contain numerous bacterial components, such as proteins, peptidoglycans, lipopolysaccharides, DNA, and RNA. To examine if OMV-associated RNA molecules are bacterial degradation products and/or are functionally active, it is necessary to extract RNA from pure OMVs for subsequent analysis. Therefore, we describe here an isolation method of ultrapure OMVs and the subsequent extraction of RNA and basic steps of RNA-Seq analysis. Bacterial culture, extracellular supernatant concentration, OMV purification, and the subsequent RNA extraction out of OMVs are described. Specific pitfalls within the protocol and RNA contamination sources are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracurricular sports in European schools: A descriptive study
Marques, Adilson; Holzweg, Martin; Scheuer, Claude UL et al

in International Sports Studies (2014), 36(1), 63-70

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See detailExtragradient methods and linesearch algorithms for solving Ky Fan inequalities and fixed point problems
Phan, Vuong UL; Jean Jacques, Strodiot; Nguyen, Van Hien

in Journal of Optimization Theory & Applications (2012)

In this paper, we introduce some new iterative methods for finding a common element of the set of points satisfying a Ky Fan inequality, and the set of fixed points of a contraction mapping in a Hilbert ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce some new iterative methods for finding a common element of the set of points satisfying a Ky Fan inequality, and the set of fixed points of a contraction mapping in a Hilbert space. The strong convergence of the iterates generated by each method is obtained thanks to a hybrid projection method, under the assumptions that the fixed-point mapping is a ξ-strict pseudocontraction, and the function associated with the Ky Fan inequality is pseudomonotone and weakly continuous. A Lipschitz-type condition is assumed to hold on this function when the basic iteration comes from the extragradient method. This assumption is unnecessary when an Armijo backtracking linesearch is incorporated in the extragradient method. The particular case of variational inequality problems is examined in a last section. [less ▲]

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See detailExtraposition of gerundial and infinitival subject: Factors and figures
Deroey, Katrien UL

in Studia Germanica Gandensia (1998), 44

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See detailExtrapyramidal motor signs in degenerative ataxias.
Schols, L.; Peters, S.; Szymanski, S. et al

in Archives of neurology (2000), 57(10), 1495-500

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized 311 patients with ataxia clinically and genetically. Course of the disease and EPS were investigated according to a standardized protocol. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of EPS in subtypes of ataxia was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Extrapyramidal motor signs occurred in all forms of ataxia, but frequency and type of EPS varied between genetically and clinically defined subtypes. Postural tremor in hereditary ataxias was typical for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Dystonia was generally rare in ataxias, but, if present, suggested SCA3. We observed a parkinsonian variant of SCA3 in which parkinsonism was present in the beginning of the disease and responded well to levodopa therapy, leading to diagnostic confusion. Parkinsonism in SCA3 was independent of CAG repeat length but ran in families, suggesting modifying genes. In idiopathic sporadic cerebellar ataxia (ISCA), EPS are more frequent in late-onset than in early-onset forms. In 50% of ISCA patients with parkinsonism, the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy remained questionable because of normal autonomic function. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapyramidal motor signs can help to predict the genetic subtype of ataxia. Extrapyramidal motor signs were more frequent in genetic subtypes in which basal ganglia affection has been demonstrated by postmortem studies. However, no type of EPS was specific for an underlying mutation. In ISCA, EPS are an adverse prognostic factor. Parkinsonism is especially associated with a more rapid course of the disease. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1495-1500 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 UL)