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See detailDutch peat dyke failure during the dry summer of 2003
Van Baars, Stefan UL

in Proc. International symposium Drougt and Construction SEC 2008 (2008, September)

ABSTRACT - In August 2003, after a once in a twenty years dry summer, one of the dykes along a canal in The Netherlands failed at night. Because of this dyke breach, the water in the canal started to run ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT - In August 2003, after a once in a twenty years dry summer, one of the dykes along a canal in The Netherlands failed at night. Because of this dyke breach, the water in the canal started to run into a housing quarter of the village Wilnis, which is about 30 km Southeast of Amsterdam. Like many other small dykes in The Netherlands, the complete dyke in Wilnis consists of peat. Since peat has a relatively low unit weight, a peat dyke has a higher risk of being pushed aside by water pressure than sand or clay dykes. Peat also has a much higher water content than clay and sand, which makes it more vulnerable to drought. When the stability of this dyke is checked, it becomes clear that failure of the dyke was a realistic threat. The dyke was far too light and the drought reduced this weight even a little bit more, which caused the failure. RÉSUMÉ – En août 2003, après une période de sècheresse bidécennale, une des digues le long d’un canal aux Pays-Bas a rompu durant une nuit. A cause de la rupture de cette digue, un quartier du village de Wilnis situé á 30 km au sud-est d’Amsterdam a été inondé. Comme beaucoup des petites digues aux Pays-Bas, cette digue est entièrement constituée de tourbe. Puisque la tourbe est très légère, une digue constituée de ce matériau a un risque plus important de glisser par rapport á une digue en sable ou en argile. De plus, la teneur en eau de la tourbe est beaucoup plus grande que pour un sable ou une argile ce qui la rend plus vulnérable au séchage. Si la stabilité de cette digue est contrôlée, il est clair que le risque de rupture de cette digue était très sérieux. Elle était beaucoup trop légère et la sècheresse a diminué un peu plus le poids ce qui a causé la rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailDutch–Chinese repertoires and language ausbau in superdiversity: A view from digital media
Juffermans, Kasper UL; Blommaert, Jan; Kroon, Sjaak et al

in Discourse, Context and Media (2014), 3(4-5), 48-61

The Chinese diaspora in the Netherlands is undergoing a dramatic diversification since the 1990s. This is manifested sociolinguistically in a shift from Cantonese and traditional character script to ... [more ▼]

The Chinese diaspora in the Netherlands is undergoing a dramatic diversification since the 1990s. This is manifested sociolinguistically in a shift from Cantonese and traditional character script to Mandarin and simplified characters as default registers of Chinese. Young people of Chinese heritage critically respond to and (re-) position themselves against these changes. This paper explores their identity work and language identifications and adopts a view from digital media to this end. Such a view provides insight into the unstable and shifting conditions and contexts of being, speaking and learning Chinese in the diaspora. Theoretically the paper builds on a view of language as practice, translanguaging, repertoires and linguistic citizenship, and revisits Heinz Kloss' notion of “ausbau” as a concept in language policy and planning. Applied to both language and identity, the revisited notion of ausbau is meant to capture the tension between language/identity as an individual, biographic project involving personal investment and planning, and language/identity as a social, historical project sponsored by nations and states (such as the PRC). In the discussion threads that are presented and analysed, both of these poles provoke critical reflection and stancetaking: critique and resistance to the hegemonic power of the PRC's language ausbau, and self-critique in the form of self-depreciating evaluation of personally accomplished language ausbau. This contribution draws on a recently completed two-year ethnographic study in and around a Chinese complementary school in the Netherlands as part of a larger funded project investigating discourses of inheritance and identities in four multilingual European settings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Duty of Care in EU Public Law - A Principle Between Discretion and Proportionality
Hofmann, Herwig UL

in Review of European Administrative Law (2020)

This article concentrates on the ‘duty of care’ or ‘diligence’, a principle that has become ubiquitous in CJEU case law due to its central role in calibrating the intensity of judicial review of EU acts ... [more ▼]

This article concentrates on the ‘duty of care’ or ‘diligence’, a principle that has become ubiquitous in CJEU case law due to its central role in calibrating the intensity of judicial review of EU acts on the legislative, regulatory and single-case decision-making levels. It explores the development of the principle and critically reviews its use as well as whether it actually achieves the demands placed on it. The article further examines the tools developed and the emergence of the duty of care as a principle conferring individual rights in various procedural contexts. It describes how the duty of care has become a central link between on the one hand, a separation of powers-inspired respect for discretion of the institutions and bodies of the EU and, on the other hand, ensuring a rule of law based effective review of the legality of acts – a central feature in the EU specific approach to developing proportionality. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Duty of Loyalty : Rethinking its Scope through its Application in the Field of EU External Relation
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Common Market Law Review (2010), 47(2), 323-359

The duty of loyalty and the effective implementation of common rules. Implementation of mixed agreements. The duty to facilitate the exercise of the external competence of the Union. The requirement of ... [more ▼]

The duty of loyalty and the effective implementation of common rules. Implementation of mixed agreements. The duty to facilitate the exercise of the external competence of the Union. The requirement of unity in the external representation of the Union and its Member States. [less ▲]

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See detailThe duty of loyalty: A Tool for Fundamental Rights Enforcement in the EU Legal System
Zinonos, Panagiotis UL

in Frenkel, David-Arie; Emilio Nunez, Jorge (Eds.) International Law and Social Justice (2020)

The effective enforcement of rights within the European Union, understood as a legal system overarched by the duty of loyalty, depends upon judicial independence. This chapter introduces some recent legal ... [more ▼]

The effective enforcement of rights within the European Union, understood as a legal system overarched by the duty of loyalty, depends upon judicial independence. This chapter introduces some recent legal developments pertaining to its double dimension as a fundamental right and as a structural duty of the Member states to discuss four enforcing tools that concretise the duty of loyalty: the self-standing right to an independent tribunal, the infringement procedure, the preliminary ruling procedure and the technique of exceptional circumstances. In that context, the chapter rejects the idea that the multifaceted configuration of the European Union is detrimental to fundamental rights protection and stresses the relevance of all the actors of the legal system for the effective enforcement of rights. [less ▲]

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See detailDVC‐based image subtraction to detect microcracking in lightweight concrete
Chateau, C.; Nguyen, Thanh Tung UL; Bornert, M. et al

in Strain (2018), 54

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See detailDwelling in (Un)Familiarity: Examples from the Luxembourg-German Borderland
Boesen, Elisabeth UL; Schnuer, Gregor

in Boesen, Elisabeth; Schnuer, Gregor (Eds.) European Borderlands. Living with Barriers and Bridges (Border Regions Series) (2017)

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See detailDwelling in border regions – discourse matters
Christmann, Nathalie UL

Scientific Conference (2015, June)

Effects of cross-border mobility resulting from uneven development in border regions can be perceived very differently by city councils or planners and the local population. This paper focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Effects of cross-border mobility resulting from uneven development in border regions can be perceived very differently by city councils or planners and the local population. This paper focuses on the consequences of the cross-border mobility in relation to housing markets in four cities in a transnational cross-border polycentric metropolitan region in Western Europe. It applies Clarke’s situational analysis and Keller’s sociology of knowledge approach to discourse, in order to represent the complexity and contradictions going along with this development. Until now, the study of cross-border mobility focused mainly on the motives of citizens that left their country of origin to dwell in the close by border regions, while the related impacts on neighbouring communities remain mostly unexplored. A quick review of recent media coverage could easily lead one to describe the situation as a sort of love-hate relationship. Analytic cartographies are employed to show that similar effects can be perceived quite differently. [less ▲]

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See detailDwelling trends in border regions - towards an inter-urban discourse analysis
Christmann, Nathalie UL

Scientific Conference (2015, June)

Effects of population mobility resulting from uneven development in border regions can be perceived very differently by city councils or planners and the local population. This paper focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Effects of population mobility resulting from uneven development in border regions can be perceived very differently by city councils or planners and the local population. This paper focuses on the perceptions of the effects of population mobility and dwelling in a transnational cross-border polycentric metropolitan region in Western Europe. The economic development of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg calls for a constant expansion of the labour market, attracting cross-border commuters and a ‘highly mobile elite’. The concomitant rise in property prices as well as the extreme housing shortages in Luxembourg have led to an expansion of the housing market into the border regions. So far studies have mostly dealt with the socio-demographic characteristics of the transmigrants. This research aims to detect people’s perceptions of the phenomenon by applying a discourse analysis, thus helping to trigger an increasing awareness for the emerging transnational housing market. [less ▲]

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See detailDwelling trends in border regions – towards an inter-urban discourse analysis
Christmann, Nathalie UL

Scientific Conference (2016, May)

Effects of population mobility resulting from uneven development in border regions can be perceived very differently by city councils or planners and the local population. This paper focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Effects of population mobility resulting from uneven development in border regions can be perceived very differently by city councils or planners and the local population. This paper focuses on the perceptions of population mobility and dwelling in the Greater Region, a transnational cross-border polycentric region in Western Europe. The economic development of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg calls for a constant expansion of the labour market, attracting cross-border commuters and a ‘highly mobile elite’. The concomitant rises in property prices as well as the extreme housing shortages in Luxembourg have led to an expansion of the housing market into the border regions. “Je t’aime, moi non plus” (I love you… nor do I): this is how the French newspaper L’Express (02.12.2011; N° 3152: II) summarises the transnational linkages of Luxembourg with its neighbouring countries. German media and urban planning documents refer to the ‚Luxembourg-effect’, summing up several developments such as cross-border commuting and related traffic collapses (short distance becomes relative in this concern, because travel time is increasing extremely in rush hours), the increase of housing costs but also cross-border shopping etc. On the one hand, the ‘economic engine’ Luxembourg offers workplaces for many commuters, positively affecting the development of this European cross-border polycentric region; on the other hand, negative consequences such as the overcrowded real estate market in Luxembourg continue beyond the national border and affect neighbouring housing markets. Some city development plans show that city councils perceive the proximity to Luxembourg as an opportunity for the development of the city. Simultaneously, locals that do not have their job in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg might feel displaced and develop resentment vis-à-vis their new neighbours from Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany, and France that moved to the border region to work in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. These labour migrants/highly mobile elite bring higher purchasing power and are driving increasing rental and housing prices. Depending on the context, similar effects can thus be perceived/constructed very differently by city councils or planners and the local population and even within the same social world/arena. Assuming that abstract societal processes become concrete and experienced at the local level, this paper interrogates the discursive framing of the consequences of the transnational linkages in regard to housing situations in the Greater Region. To distinct the formation and the operation of linguistic constructions about places and regions, and their amalgamation with the practices of actors and institutions, guiding principles of municipal policy, urban planning documents and the local media of three medium sized towns in the borderland Arlon in Belgium, Thionville in France and Trier in Germany are being analysed. Furthermore stakeholder interviews are conducted to gain deeper insights into individual perceptions. Even though their distance to Luxembourg is quite similar (30 to 50 km), these three cities have to be considered as single cases, with distinct developments. Whereas Thionville for example is often being considered as a dormitory town, this is not the case for Trier. Nevertheless, a review of recent media coverage reveals that the situation is characterized by a sort of lovehate relationship. A social constructionist approach is adopted to trigger an increasing awareness for the emerging transnational housing market. [less ▲]

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See detailA Dyadic Deontic Logic in HOL
Benzmüller, Christoph UL; Farjami, Ali UL; Parent, Xavier UL

in Broersen, Jan; Condoravdi, Cleo; Nair, Shyam (Eds.) et al Deontic Logic and Normative Systems --- 14th International Conference, DEON 2018, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 3-6 July, 2018 (2018, June 11)

A shallow semantical embedding of a dyadic deontic logic by Carmo and Jones in classical higher-order logic is presented. This embedding is proven sound and complete, that is, faithful. The work presented ... [more ▼]

A shallow semantical embedding of a dyadic deontic logic by Carmo and Jones in classical higher-order logic is presented. This embedding is proven sound and complete, that is, faithful. The work presented here provides the theoretical foundation for the implementation and automation of dyadic deontic logic within off-the-shelf higher-order theorem provers and proof assistants. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Adaptation Applied to Sabotage Tolerance
Guelton, S.; Gautier, T.; Pazat, J.-L. et al

in Proc. of the IEEE 17th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-Based Processing (PDP 2009) (2009)

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See detailDynamic Adaptation of Software-defined Networks for IoT Systems: A Search-based Approach
Shin, Seung Yeob UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS'20) (2020, May)

The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the development of many complex and critical systems such as smart emergency management systems. IoT-enabled applications typically depend on a ... [more ▼]

The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the development of many complex and critical systems such as smart emergency management systems. IoT-enabled applications typically depend on a communication network for transmitting large volumes of data in unpredictable and changing environments. These networks are prone to congestion when there is a burst in demand, e.g., as an emergency situation is unfolding, and therefore rely on configurable software-defined networks (SDN). In this paper, we propose a dynamic adaptive SDN configuration approach for IoT systems. The approach enables resolving congestion in real time while minimizing network utilization, data transmission delays and adaptation costs. Our approach builds on existing work in dynamic adaptive search-based software engineering (SBSE) to reconfigure an SDN while simultaneously ensuring multiple quality of service criteria. We evaluate our approach on an industrial national emergency management system, which is aimed at detecting disasters and emergencies, and facilitating recovery and rescue operations by providing first responders with a reliable communication infrastructure. Our results indicate that (1) our approach is able to efficiently and effectively adapt an SDN to dynamically resolve congestion, and (2) compared to two baseline data forwarding algorithms that are static and non-adaptive, our approach increases data transmission rate by a factor of at least 3 and decreases data loss by at least 70%. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic analysis of usage control policies.
Elrahaiby, Yehia; Pang, Jun UL

in Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Security and Cryptography (SECRPT) (2014)

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See detailDynamic and complex optical patterns from colloids of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets
Noh, Junghyun UL; Drevensek-Olenik, Irena; Yamamoto, Jun et al

in Proceedings of the SPIE (2015), 9384

Drops or shells of a planar-aligned short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal exhibit unique optical properties due to the combination of Bragg reflection in the cholesteric helix and a radial orientation of ... [more ▼]

Drops or shells of a planar-aligned short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal exhibit unique optical properties due to the combination of Bragg reflection in the cholesteric helix and a radial orientation of the helix axis. If such a droplet is illuminated from above, light is reflected into a continuous set of cones, the opening angles of which depend on where on the droplet the light hits its surface. For the wavelength that fulfills the Bragg condition the reflection is dramatically enhanced, yielding the light cones colored. A photonic cross communication scheme arises for certain angles, reflecting light back to the observer from a different droplet than the one originally illuminated. This gives rise to an intricate pattern of colored and circularly polarized spots. A number of interesting applications may be developed based on this pattern, e.g. in identification and authentication devices. We have carried out a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of the patterns, localized to individual spot maxima. A quantitative comparison between the measured spectra and the reflection wavelength expected from a model for the pattern generation allows us to conclude that the droplets are in fact not spherical but slightly ellipsoidal. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic and Partially Connected Ring Topologies for Evolutionary Algorithms with Structured Populations
Fernandes, Carlos; Jimenez Laredo, Juan Luis UL; Merelo, Juan Julian et al

in The European Conference on the Applications of Evolutionary Computation (2014)

This paper investigates dynamic and partially connected ring topologies for cellular Evolutionary Algorithms (cEA). We hypothesize that these structures maintain population diversity at a higher level and ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates dynamic and partially connected ring topologies for cellular Evolutionary Algorithms (cEA). We hypothesize that these structures maintain population diversity at a higher level and reduce the risk of premature convergence to local optima on deceptive, multimodal and NP-hard fitness landscapes. A general framework for modelling partially connected topologies is proposed and three different schemes are tested. The results show that the structures improve the rate of convergence to global optima when compared to cEAs with standard topologies (ring, rectangular and square) on quasi-deceptive, deceptive and NP-hard problems. Optimal population size tests demonstrate that the proposed topologies require smaller populations when compared to traditional cEAs. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic and structural properties of orthorhombic rare-earth manganites under high pressure
Mota, D. A.; Almeida, A.; Rodrigues, V. H. et al

in Physical Review B (2014), 90(5),

We report a high-pressure study of orthorhombic rare-earth manganites AMnO3 using Raman scattering (for A = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy) and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), for A = Pr, Sm, Eu, and Dy ... [more ▼]

We report a high-pressure study of orthorhombic rare-earth manganites AMnO3 using Raman scattering (for A = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy) and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), for A = Pr, Sm, Eu, and Dy. In all cases, a phase transition was evidenced by the disappearance of the Raman signal at a critical pressure that depends on the A cation. For the compounds with A = Pr, Sm, and Dy, XRD confirms the presence of a corresponding structural transition to a noncubic phase, so that the disappearance of the Raman spectrum can be interpreted as an insulator-to-metal transition. We analyze the compression mechanisms at work in the different manganites via the pressure dependence of the lattice parameters, the shear strain in the ac plane, and the Raman bands associated with out-of-phase MnO6 rotations and in-plane O2 symmetric stretching modes. Our data show a crossover across the rare-earth series between two different kinds of behavior. For the smaller A cations considered in this study (Dy and Tb), the compression is nearly isotropic in the ac plane, with only small evolutions of the tilt angles and cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion. As the radius of the A cation increases, the pressure-induced reduction of Jahn-Teller distortion becomes more pronounced and increasingly significant as a compression mechanism, while the pressure-induced tilting of octahedra chains becomes conversely less pronounced. We finally discuss our results in light of the notion of chemical pressure and show that the analogy with hydrostatic pressure works quite well for manganites with the smaller A cations considered in this paper but can be misleading with large A cations. [less ▲]

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See detailA Dynamic Approach for Combining Abstract Argumentation Semantics – Technical Report
Dauphin, Jérémie UL; Cramer, Marcos UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2018)

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise ... [more ▼]

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise update relations on argumentation frameworks whose fixpoints represent the labeling functions on the arguments. We make use of this dynamic approach in order to study novel ways of combining abstract argumentation semantics. In particular, we introduce the notion of a merge of two argumentation semantics, which is defined in such a way that the merge of the preferred and the grounded semantics is the complete semantics. Finally we consider how to define new semantics using the merge operator, in particular how meaningfully combine features of naive-based and complete-based semantics. [less ▲]

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See detailA dynamic approach for combining abstract argumentation semantics
Dauphin, Jérémie UL; Cramer, Marcos; van der Torre, Leon UL

in Dynamics, Uncertainty and Reasoning (2019)

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise ... [more ▼]

Abstract argumentation semantics provide a direct relation from an argumentation framework to corresponding sets of acceptable arguments, or equivalently to labeling functions. Instead, we study step-wise update relations on argumentation frameworks whose fixpoints represent the labeling functions on the arguments. We make use of this dynamic approach in order to study novel ways of combining abstract argumentation semantics. In particular, we introduce the notion of a merge of two argumentation semantics, which is defined in such a way that the merge of the preferred and the grounded semantics is the complete semantics. Finally we consider how to define new semantics using the merge operator, in particular how meaningfully combine features of naive-based and complete-based semantics. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (11 UL)