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See detailDynamic response functions and helical gaps in interacting Rashba nanowires with and without magnetic fields
Pedder, Christopher UL; Meng, Tobias; Tiwari, Rakesh et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 94(24), 245414

A partially gapped spectrum due to the application of a magnetic field is one of the main probes of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in nanowires. Such a ``helical gap'' manifests itself in the linear ... [more ▼]

A partially gapped spectrum due to the application of a magnetic field is one of the main probes of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in nanowires. Such a ``helical gap'' manifests itself in the linear conductance, as well as in dynamic response functions such as the spectral function, the structure factor, or the tunnelling density of states. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the signature of the helical gap in these observables with a particular focus on the interplay between Rashba spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions. We show that in a quasi-one-dimensional wire, interactions can open a helical gap even without magnetic field. We calculate the dynamic response functions using bosonization, a renormalization group analysis, and the exact form factors of the emerging sine-Gordon model. For special interaction strengths, we verify our results by refermionization. We show how the two types of helical gaps, caused by magnetic fields or interactions, can be distinguished in experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic RF Chain Selection for Energy Efficient and Low Complexity Hybrid Beamforming in Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems
Kaushik, Aryan; Thompson, John; Vlachos, Evangelos et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2019)

This paper proposes a novel architecture with a framework that dynamically activates the optimal number of radio frequency (RF) chains used to implement hybrid beamforming in a millimeter wave (mmWave ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel architecture with a framework that dynamically activates the optimal number of radio frequency (RF) chains used to implement hybrid beamforming in a millimeter wave (mmWave) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) system. We use fractional programming to solve an energy efficiency maximization problem and exploit the Dinkelbach method (DM)-based framework to optimize the number of active RF chains and data streams. This solution is updated dynamically based on the current channel conditions, where the analog/digital (A/D) hybrid precoder and combiner matrices at the transmitter and the receiver, respectively, are designed using a codebook-based fast approximation solution called gradient pursuit (GP). The GP algorithm shows less run time and complexity while compared to the state-of-the-art orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) solution. The energy and spectral efficiency performance of the proposed framework is compared with the existing state-of-the-art solutions, such as the brute force (BF), the digital beamformer, and the analog beamformer. The codebook-free approaches to design the precoders and combiners, such as alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMMs) and singular value decomposition (SVD)-based solution are also shown to be incorporated into the proposed framework to achieve better energy efficiency performance. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Risk Analyses and Dependency-Aware Root Cause Model for Critical Infrastructures
Muller, Steve UL; Harpes, Carlo; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (2016)

Critical Infrastructures are known for their complexity and the strong interdependencies between the various components. As a result, cascading effects can have devastating consequences, while foreseeing ... [more ▼]

Critical Infrastructures are known for their complexity and the strong interdependencies between the various components. As a result, cascading effects can have devastating consequences, while foreseeing the overall impact of a particular incident is not straight-forward at all and goes beyond performing a simple risk analysis. This work presents a graph-based approach for conducting dynamic risk analyses, which are programmatically generated from a threat model and an inventory of assets. In contrast to traditional risk analyses, they can be kept automatically up-to-date and show the risk currently faced by a system in real-time. The concepts are applied to and validated in the context of the smart grid infrastructure currently being deployed in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailA dynamic route swapping and control algorithm that maximises network capacity accounting for node constraints and blocking back
Viti, Francesco UL; Huang, Wei; Smith, Mike

Scientific Conference (2016, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (1 UL)
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See detailDynamic Sensory Probabilistic Maps for Mobile Robot Localization
Vlassis, Nikos UL; Papakonstantinou, G.; Tsanakas, P.

in Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (1998)

Detailed reference viewed: 78 (0 UL)
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See detailDynamic simulations to develop a natural ventilation concept for an office building
Thewes, Andreas UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in 8th International Conference on System Simulation in Buildings (2010)

The Sustainability Group of the University of Luxembourg defined for their new buildings a maximum thermal end-energy of 14 kWh/(m3a) and an electricity consumption for HVAC and lighting below 6 kWh/(m3a ... [more ▼]

The Sustainability Group of the University of Luxembourg defined for their new buildings a maximum thermal end-energy of 14 kWh/(m3a) and an electricity consumption for HVAC and lighting below 6 kWh/(m3a). Therefore it was necessary to avoid active cooling loads and mechanical ventilation in the offices and small lecture rooms. The well insulated and air-tight façade, including special outside shading elements which were designed as a grid over the complete building envelope, was an essential given architectural element of the building. Therefore further external shading devices were not applicable. The only possibility to have an influence on solar gains was to optimize the window size, the glazing type and potentially an internal shading device. Furthermore, to prevent the risk of overheating during the summer period, it was necessary to reduce the internal gains from lighting and IT-equipment. Hence detailed dynamic simulations using TRNSYS and TRNFLOW were done to evaluate the thermal comfort without air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation. The effects of optimizations like a state-of-the-art lighting control system or a window-based night ventilation, as well as the influence of the effective thermal inertia of the building were analyzed. The assumed natural ventilation rates were calculated by combining TRNFLOW and TRNSYS simulations and by the software LESOCOOL. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Sintering of a High Temperature Granular Material: Experiments and Simulations
Willivald, Carolin; Kabore, Brice Wendlassida UL; Szabó, Denes et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September 26)

Snow changes from a porous solid to a granular material during deformation with high strain rates. This transition occurs in many cases where snow is relevant to engineering problems (vehicle mobility ... [more ▼]

Snow changes from a porous solid to a granular material during deformation with high strain rates. This transition occurs in many cases where snow is relevant to engineering problems (vehicle mobility, avalanche formation and prevention, skiing etc.). For the description of the fast deformation of snow the discrete element method (DEM) is a valuable tool, as it is able to account for both states and the transition between them: the interaction of the loose and bonded particles. For the development of a physically relevant DEM snow model [1] we investigate experimentally along with simulations the basic processes of the granular behavior of snow. In the granular state, sintering plays an important role for the dynamics of the particles. Via sintering the high temperature ice particles (homologous temperature 0.95) bond together and change the structure and the physical properties of the material. This temperature dependent sintering process, which happens in the time range of milliseconds to hours, is in the focus of the present work. The fast sintering of ice in the range of milliseconds has scarcely been investigated. However, from sintering studies with ice cones (radius of 3 mm) we know, that the sintering force is closely related to the contact area of the particles [2]. As the contact area changes considerably for complicated shapes, exhibited by natural snow crystals, we consider different snow types (grain shape and size), besides ice beads as spherical model snow. The latter one is used to exclude shape effects and to directly compare experiments to simulations with spherical particles. To be able to take the effects of the grain shape into account and to examine sintering in the time range of interest (seconds), we perform angle of repose experiments and simulations. Snow is sieved to pile up on a flat base until an angle of equilibrium, the angle of repose, is formed. This angle increases with the sintering of the particles, but also with the inter-particle friction. To analyze the contribution of the friction and the grain shape without sintering, we perform the experiments at a low temperature °C ( 0.87), where sintering can be neglected; thus, the angle of repose is determined by inter-particle friction. With these measurements, we calibrate the simulations. At higher temperatures (up to °C) sintering changes the angle of repose, and a physically relevant sintering law for real snow is established in the simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Spectrum Sharing in 5G Wireless Networks with Full-Duplex Technology: Recent Advances and Research Challenges
Sharma; Bogale; Le et al

in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (2017)

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See detailDynamic Spectrum Sharing in 5G Wireless Networks With Full-Duplex Technology: Recent Advances and Research Challenges
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Bogale, Tadilo Endeshaw; le, Long Bao et al

in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (2018), 20(1), 674-707

Full-duplex (FD) wireless technology enables a radio to transmit and receive on the same frequency band at the same time, and it is considered to be one of the candidate technologies for the fifth ... [more ▼]

Full-duplex (FD) wireless technology enables a radio to transmit and receive on the same frequency band at the same time, and it is considered to be one of the candidate technologies for the fifth generation (5G) and beyond wireless communication systems due to its advantages, including potential doubling of the capacity and increased spectrum utilization efficiency. However, one of the main challenges of FD technology is the mitigation of strong self-interference (SI). Recent advances in different SI cancellation techniques, such as antenna cancellation, analog cancellation, and digital cancellation methods, have led to the feasibility of using FD technology in different wireless applications. Among potential applications, one important application area is dynamic spectrum sharing (DSS) in wireless systems particularly 5G networks, where FD can provide several benefits and possibilities such as concurrent sensing and transmission (CST), concurrent transmission and reception, improved sensing efficiency and secondary throughput, and the mitigation of the hidden terminal problem. In this direction, first, starting with a detailed overview of FD-enabled DSS, we provide a comprehensive survey of recent advances in this domain. We then highlight several potential techniques for enabling FD operation in DSS wireless systems. Subsequently, we propose a novel communication framework to enable CST in DSS systems by employing a power control-based SI mitigation scheme and carry out the throughput performance analysis of this proposed framework. Finally, we discuss some open research issues and future directions with the objective of stimulating future research efforts in the emerging FD-enabled DSS wireless systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Super Resolution of Depth Sequences with Non-Rigid Motions
Al Ismaeil, Kassem UL; Aouada, Djamila UL; Mirbach, Bruno et al

in 20th International Conference on Image Processing (2013, September)

We enhance the resolution of depth videos acquired with low resolution time-of-flight cameras. To that end, we propose a new dedicated dynamic super-resolution that is capable to accurately super-resolve a ... [more ▼]

We enhance the resolution of depth videos acquired with low resolution time-of-flight cameras. To that end, we propose a new dedicated dynamic super-resolution that is capable to accurately super-resolve a depth sequence containing one or multiple moving objects without strong constraints on their shape or motion, thus clearly outperforming any existing super-resolution techniques that perform poorly on depth data and are either restricted to global motions or not precise because of an implicit estimation of motion. Our proposed approach is based on a new data model that leads to a robust registration of all depth frames after a dense upsampling. The texture-less nature of depth images allows to robustly handle sequences with multiple moving objects as confirmed by our experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic systems and the theoretical concept of problem solving in PISA 2012
Greiff, Samuel UL; Funke, Joachim

Scientific Conference (2010, September 28)

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See detailDynamic systems and their importance in competence assessment of problem solving
Funke, Joachim; Greiff, Samuel UL

Scientific Conference (2012, April 26)

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See detailDynamic systems and their importance in competence assessment of problem solving
Funke, Joachim; Greiff, Samuel UL; Wüstenberg, Sascha UL

Scientific Conference (2011, September)

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See detailDynamic Thermal Simulations for Developing Early-Stage Assessments for Office Buildings
Degens, Anja; Scholzen, Frank UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL

in EPFL scientific publications (2015)

Office buildings account for a large portion of the total energy consumption in Europe because due to increased comfort requirements almost all recent buildings are air-conditioned. This project is ... [more ▼]

Office buildings account for a large portion of the total energy consumption in Europe because due to increased comfort requirements almost all recent buildings are air-conditioned. This project is focused on the influence of thermal storage capacity of commonly used structure types of office buildings and different technical strategies on energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The technical parameter ventilation strategy is essential compared to the parameters structure type or window-to-wall ratio. Additionally a lighting control system based on solar radiation shows a high influence on the internal gains and in consequence on the overheating hours. The slab type respectively the accessibiltiy of the thermal mass has a significantly higher influence than the differences of “massivity” between solid and light weight structures. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic tuning of the director field in liquid crystal shells using block copolymers
Noh, Junghyun; Wang, Yiwei; Liang, Hsin-Ling et al

in Physical Review Research (2020), 2(3), 033160

When an orientationally ordered system, like a nematic liquid crystal (LC), is confined on a self-closing spherical shell, topological constraints arise with intriguing consequences that depend critically ... [more ▼]

When an orientationally ordered system, like a nematic liquid crystal (LC), is confined on a self-closing spherical shell, topological constraints arise with intriguing consequences that depend critically on how the LC is aligned in the shell. We demonstrate reversible dynamic tuning of the alignment, and thereby the topology, of nematic LC shells stabilized by the nonionic amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic F127. Deep in the nematic phase, the director (the average molecule orientation) is tangential to the interface, but upon approaching the temperature TNI of the nematic-isotropic transition, the director realigns to normal. We link this to a delicate interplay between an interfacial tension that is nearly independent of director orientation, and the configuration-dependent elastic deformation energy of an LC confined in a shell. The process is primarily triggered by the heating-induced reduction of the nematic order parameter, hence realignment temperatures differ by several tens of degrees between LCs with high and low TNI, respectively. The temperature of realignment is always lower on the positive-curved shell outside than at the negative-curved inside, yielding a complex topological reconfiguration on heating. Complementing experimental investigations with mathematical modeling and computer simulations, we identify and investigate three different trajectories, distinguished by their configurations of topological defects in the initial tangential-aligned shell. Our results uncover a new aspect of the complex response of LCs to curved confinement, demonstrating that the order of the LC itself can influence the alignment and thereby the topology of the system. They also reveal the potential of amphiphilic block copolymer stabilizers for enabling continuous tunability of LC shell configuration, opening doors for in-depth studies of topological dynamics as well as novel applications in, e.g., sensing and programed soft actuators. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Vehicular Routing in Urban Environments
Codeca, Lara UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Traffic congestion is a persistent issue that most of the people living in a city have to face every day. Traffic density is constantly increasing and, in many metropolitan areas, the road network has ... [more ▼]

Traffic congestion is a persistent issue that most of the people living in a city have to face every day. Traffic density is constantly increasing and, in many metropolitan areas, the road network has reached its limits and cannot easily be extended to meet the growing traffic demand. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a world wide trend in traffic monitoring that uses technology and infrastructure improvements in advanced communication and sensors to tackle transportation issues such as mobility efficiency, safety, and traffic congestion. The purpose of ITS is to take advantage of all available technologies to improve every aspect of mobility and traffic. Our focus in this thesis is to use these advancements in technology and infrastructure to mitigate traffic congestion. We discuss the state of the art in traffic flow optimization methods, their limitations, and the benefits of a new point of view. The traffic monitoring mechanism that we propose uses vehicular telecommunication to gather the traffic information that is fundamental to the creation of a consistent overview of the traffic situation, to provision real-time information to drivers, and to optimizing their routes. In order to study the impact of dynamic rerouting on the traffic congestion experienced in the urban environment, we need a reliable representation of the traffic situation. In this thesis, traffic flow theory, together with mobility models and propagation models, are the basis to providing a simulation environment capable of providing a realistic and interactive urban mobility, which is used to test and validate our solution for mitigating traffic congestion. The topology of the urban environment plays a fundamental role in traffic optimization, not only in terms of mobility patterns, but also in the connectivity and infrastructure available. Given the complexity of the problem, we start by defining the main parameters we want to optimize, and the user interaction required, in order to achieve the goal. We aim to optimize the travel time from origin to destination with a selfish approach, focusing on each driver. We then evaluated constraints and added values of the proposed optimization, providing a preliminary study on its impact on a simple scenario. Our evaluation is made in a best-case scenario using complete information, then in a more realistic scenario with partial information on the global traffic situation, where connectivity and coverage play a major role. The lack of a general-purpose, freely-available, realistic and dependable scenario for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) creates many problems in the research community in providing and comparing realistic results. To address these issues, we implemented a synthetic traffic scenario, based on a real city, to evaluate dynamic routing in a realistic urban environment. The Luxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario is based on the mobility derived from the City of Luxembourg. The scenario is built for the Simulator of Urban MObiltiy (SUMO) and it is compatible with Vehicles in Network Simulation (VEINS) and Objective Modular Network Testbed in C++ (OMNet++), allowing it to be used in VANET simulations. In this thesis we present a selfish traffic optimization approach based on dynamic rerouting, able to mitigate the impact of traffic congestion in urban environments on a global scale. The general-purpose traffic scenario built to validate our results is already being used by the research community, and is freely-available under the MIT licence, and is hosted on GitHub. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical analysis of cellular networks based on the Green's function matrix
Perumal, Thanneer Malai UL; Wu, Yan; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

in Journal of Theoretical Biology (2009), 261(2), 248-59

The complexity of cellular networks often limits human intuition in understanding functional regulations in a cell from static network diagrams. To this end, mathematical models of ordinary differential ... [more ▼]

The complexity of cellular networks often limits human intuition in understanding functional regulations in a cell from static network diagrams. To this end, mathematical models of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) have commonly been used to simulate dynamical behavior of cellular networks, to which a quantitative model analysis can be applied in order to gain biological insights. In this paper, we introduce a dynamical analysis based on the use of Green's function matrix (GFM) as sensitivity coefficients with respect to initial concentrations. In contrast to the classical (parametric) sensitivity analysis, the GFM analysis gives a dynamical, molecule-by-molecule insight on how system behavior is accomplished and complementarily how (impulse) signal propagates through the network. The knowledge gained will have application from model reduction and validation to drug discovery research in identifying potential drug targets, studying drug efficacy and specificity, and optimizing drug dosing and timing. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated through applications to common network motifs and a Fas-induced programmed cell death model in Jurkat T cell line. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical binding of proline-rich peptides to their recognition domains
Gu, Wei UL; Helms, V.

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics (2005), 1754(1-2), 232-238

Recognition of proline-rich sequences plays an important role for the assembly of multi-protein complexes during the course of eukaryotic signal transduction and is mediated by a set of protein folds that ... [more ▼]

Recognition of proline-rich sequences plays an important role for the assembly of multi-protein complexes during the course of eukaryotic signal transduction and is mediated by a set of protein folds that share characteristic features. For many complex systems containing proline-rich sequences, multiple binding modes have been found by theoretical and/or experimental studies. In this review, we discuss the different binding modes as well as the correlated dynamics of the peptides and their recognition domains, and some implications to their biological functions. Further-more, we give an outlook of the systems in the context of systems biology. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical differential expression (DyDE) reveals the period control mechanisms of the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator
Mombaerts, Laurent UL; Carignano, Alberto; Robertson, Fiona et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2019)

The circadian oscillator, an internal time-keeping device found in most organisms, enables timely regulation of daily biological activities by maintaining synchrony with the external environment. The ... [more ▼]

The circadian oscillator, an internal time-keeping device found in most organisms, enables timely regulation of daily biological activities by maintaining synchrony with the external environment. The mechanistic basis underlying the adjustment of circadian rhythms to changing external conditions, however, has yet to be clearly elucidated. We explored the mechanism of action of nicotinamide in Arabidopsis thaliana, a metabolite that lengthens the period of circadian rhythms, to understand the regulation of circadian period. To identify the key mechanisms involved in the circadian response to nicotinamide, we developed a systematic and practical modeling framework based on the identification and comparison of gene regulatory dynamics. Our mathematical predictions, confirmed by experimentation, identified key transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of circadian period and uncovered the role of blue light in the response of the circadian oscillator to nicotinamide. We suggest that our methodology could be adapted to predict mechanisms of drug action in complex biological systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical fluctuations in a simple housing market model
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Bertin, Eric

in Journal of Statistical Mechanics : Theory and Experiment (2012)

We consider a simple stochastic model of an urban rental housing market, in which the interaction of tenants and landlords induces rent fluctuations. We simulate the model numerically and measure the ... [more ▼]

We consider a simple stochastic model of an urban rental housing market, in which the interaction of tenants and landlords induces rent fluctuations. We simulate the model numerically and measure the equilibrium rent distribution, which is found to be close to a lognormal law. We also study the influence of the density of agents (or equivalently, the vacancy rate) on the rent distribution. A simplified version of the model, amenable to analytical treatment, is studied and leads to a lognormal distribution of rents. The predicted equilibrium value agrees quantitatively with numerical simulations, while a qualitative agreement is obtained for the standard deviation. The connection with non-equilibrium statistical physics models such as ratchets is also emphasized. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (3 UL)