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See detailDo cognitive processes involved in solving reading comprehension items differ in students with differing language background?
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Wrobel, Gina UL; Reichert, Monique UL

Scientific Conference (2014, July)

One major global challenge of educational assessment that has to be addressed on a local level is the increasing number of students with immigration background usually speaking a different language at ... [more ▼]

One major global challenge of educational assessment that has to be addressed on a local level is the increasing number of students with immigration background usually speaking a different language at home compared to their native peers (OECD, 2012). Especially in large-scale contexts, however, individual and tailored testing responding to their specific (language) needs is not possible. Although DIF-analyses are common practice in current large-scale assessments, they only indicate whether and to what extent an item is biased but provide no information on which cognitive processes might cause that bias – crucial information when evaluating school systems. The current study goes beyond traditional DIF-analyses by using the IRT based linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973) that allows for modeling cognitive demands and therefore processes involved in each item. Specifically, we draw on a sample of more than 5000 Luxembourgish 3rd graders and analyze whether cognitive and linguistic item attributes (e.g., kind of inference that is needed to solve the item, textual coherence; Sonnleitner, 2008) of a large-scale reading comprehension test do possess different difficulty for students with varying language background. We do this by determining a cognitive model including such attributes that adequately describe item difficulty parameters in native students. Subsequently, we will cross validate this model in several sub-samples with varying language background. Results not only show if cognitive and linguistic item attributes do differ with regard to difficulty in the different samples but also if some cognitive processes do compensate each other in certain samples. It will be discussed how these results can be used to complement common DIF-analyses and to obtain more fine-grained information on students’ performance differences in reading comprehension. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Demographics Prevent Consumption Aggregates From Reflecting Micro-Level Preferences?
Koulovatianos, Christos UL; Carsten, Schroeder; Ulrich, Schmidt

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Most simulated micro-founded macro models use solely consumer-demand aggregates in order to estimate preference parameters of a representative consumer, for use in policy evaluation. Focusing on dynamic ... [more ▼]

Most simulated micro-founded macro models use solely consumer-demand aggregates in order to estimate preference parameters of a representative consumer, for use in policy evaluation. Focusing on dynamic models with time-separable preferences, we show that aggregation holds if, and only if, momentary utility functions fall in the Identical-Shape Harmonic Absolute-Risk Aversion (ISHARA) utility class, identifying which parameters of ISHARA utility functions are allowed to vary over time. Given this theoretical result, it should be easy to empirically reject the aggregation properties that the macroeconomic representative-consumer identification approach requires: it suffices to show that permanent incomes guaranteeing the same living standard across households of different size violate an affine relationship. In order to test the validity of this affine equation, we develop a vignette survey that produces appropriate data without demand-estimation restrictions imposed by models. Surprisingly, in six countries, this equation is not rejected, lending support to using consumer-demand aggregates. [less ▲]

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See detailDo demographics prevent consumption aggregates from reflecting micro-level preferences?
Koulovatianos, Christos UL; Schroeder, Carsten; Schmidt, Ulrich

in European Economic Review (2019), 111(C),

Most simulated micro-founded macro models use solely consumer-demand aggregates in order to estimate preference parameters of a representative consumer, for use in policy evaluation. Focusing on dynamic ... [more ▼]

Most simulated micro-founded macro models use solely consumer-demand aggregates in order to estimate preference parameters of a representative consumer, for use in policy evaluation. Focusing on dynamic models with time-separable preferences, we show that aggregation holds if, and only if, momentary utility functions fall in the Identical-Shape Harmonic Absolute-Risk Aversion (ISHARA) utility class, identifying which parameters of ISHARA utility functions are allowed to vary over time. Given this theoretical result, it should be easy to empirically reject the aggregation properties that the macroeconomic representative-consumer identification approach requires: it suffices to show that permanent incomes guaranteeing the same living standard across households of different size violate an affine relationship. In order to test the validity of this affine equation, we develop a vignette survey that produces appropriate data without demand-estimation restrictions imposed by models. Surprisingly, in six countries, this equation is not rejected, lending support to using consumer-demand aggregates. [less ▲]

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See detailDo eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group and the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study.
Due, Pernille; De Beaufort, Carine UL; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab et al

in Pediatric diabetes (2013), 14(8), 554-561

BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) has demonstrated major differences in glycemic control between pediatric diabetes centers which remain largely unexplained. This study investigates whether these ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) has demonstrated major differences in glycemic control between pediatric diabetes centers which remain largely unexplained. This study investigates whether these differences are partly attributable to healthy eating norms in the background population. METHODS: The study involved adolescents from 18 countries from (i) the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study (HBSC) and (ii) the HSG. There were 94 387 participants from representative HBSC samples of 11-, 13- and 15-yr-olds and 1483 11- to 15-yr-old adolescents with diabetes from the HSG. The frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, sweets, sugary soft drinks, and daily breakfast was compared between the two groups. The glycemic control of the adolescents in the HSG cohort was determined by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: Across countries in the HSBC survey, there was substantial variation in prevalence of healthy eating behavior and even greater variation between adolescents from the HSG centers. In all countries more adolescents with diabetes reported healthy eating behavior compared to national norms. In individuals healthy eating behavior had a significant effect on the individual level HbA1c. There was no significant correlation between the frequencies of these healthy eating behaviors at (i) the national level and (ii) diabetes center level and the center mean HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Although individual healthy eating behavior is associated with better glycemic control at the individual level, such eating behavior does not explain the center differences in HbA1c. Similarly, the reported healthy eating norm of the background populations does not explain the variation in glycemic control among centers. [less ▲]

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See detailDo economic recessions during early and mid-adulthood influence cognitive function in older age?
Leist, Anja UL; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (2014), 68

Background. Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic ... [more ▼]

Background. Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. [less ▲]

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See detailDo emotional stimuli interfere with two distinct components of inhibition?
Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Cognition and Emotion (2015), 29(3), 559-67

Emotions have recently been shown to interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding their impact requires taking into account that inhibition is not a unitary construct, but ... [more ▼]

Emotions have recently been shown to interfere with the efficacy of inhibitory control. However, understanding their impact requires taking into account that inhibition is not a unitary construct, but consists of distinct functions underlain by specific mechanisms. In this study, 88 participants performed two emotional versions of classic laboratory tasks designed to assess (1) the ability to inhibit a prepotent response (a stop-signal task using faces with different emotional expressions) and (2) the capacity to resist the effect of proactive interference (PI; a recent negative task that included emotional words). Overall results showed that emotional stimuli interfered with inhibition capacities in both tasks. Although tending in the same direction, these results suggest that different underlying mechanisms (e.g., top-down vs. bottom-up processes) or consecutive differences in emotional processing (e.g., different interactions with stimulus/task properties, processing stages or motivational aspects) are at play in these two inhibition-related functions. [less ▲]

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See detailDo executive functions predict binge-drinking patterns? Evidence from a longitudinal study in young adulthood
Bø, Ragnhild; Billieux, Joël UL; Gjerde, Line C. et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is ... [more ▼]

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is therefore to investigate the association between various EFs and later severity of, and change in, binge drinking over a prolonged period during young adulthood. Methods: At baseline, 121 students reported on their alcohol habits (the Alcohol use disorder identification test; Alcohol use questionnaire). Concurrently, EFs (working memory, reversal, set-shifting, response inhibition, response monitoring and decision-making (with ambiguity and implicit risk)) were assessed. Eighteen months later, information on alcohol habits for 103 of the participants were gathered. Data were analyzed by means of multilevel regression modeling. Results: Future severity of binge drinking was uniquely predicted by performance on the Information sampling task, assessing risky decision-making (β = -1.86, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.04). None of the study variables predicted severity or change in binge drinking. Conclusion: Future severity of binge was associated with making risky decisions in the prospect for gain, suggesting reward hypersensitivity. Future studies should aim at clarifying whether there is a causal association between decision-making style and binge drinking. Performance on all executive tasks was unrelated to change in binge drinking patterns; however, the finding was limited by overall small changes, and needs to be confirmed with longer follow-up periods. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Fund Investors Know that Risk is Sometimes Not Priced
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2012)

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See detailDo Fund Investors Know that Risk is Sometimes not Priced?
Irek, Fabian UL; Lehnert, Thorsten UL

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Previous research suggests that investor sentiment has an influence on the market's risk-return trade-off. Noise tradersídemand for assets is considered to be risk independent and, as a result, risky ... [more ▼]

Previous research suggests that investor sentiment has an influence on the market's risk-return trade-off. Noise tradersídemand for assets is considered to be risk independent and, as a result, risky assets do not offer a risk premium when demand is high. We show that market risk is only a priced factor of expected fund returns when investor sentiment is low. Furthermore, fund investors seem aware that risk is sometimes not priced. During high sentiment periods, "smart" investors buy safe funds that subsequently outperform and sell risky funds that subsequently underperform. Our results are statistically and economically significant. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Genome-scale Models Need Exact Solvers or Clearer Standards?
Ebrahim, Ali; Almaas, Eivind; Bauer, Eugen UL et al

in Molecular Systems Biology (2015), 11(10), 1

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See detailDo graphical cues effectively inform users? A Socio-Technical Security Study in Accessing Wifi Networks
Ferreira, Ana; Huynen, Jean-Louis; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proc. of the International Conference on Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust (2015, July 21)

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not ... [more ▼]

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not, finding the answer is not obvious; in our study we clarify whether the problem lies in uninformative and ambiguous cues or in the user who, despite understanding the cues, chooses otherwise. This paper describes experiments and comments the results that bring evidence to our study [less ▲]

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See detailDo graphical cues effectively inform users? A socio-technical security study in accessing wifi networks.
Ferreira, Ana UL; Huynen, Jean-Louis UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2015), 9190

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not ... [more ▼]

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not, finding the answer is not obvious; in our study we clarify whether the problem lies in uninformative and ambiguous cues or in the user who, despite understanding the cues, chooses otherwise. This paper describes experiments and comments the results that bring evidence to our study. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Hedge Funds Supply or Demand Immediacy?
Jylhä, Petri; Rinne, Kalle UL; Suominen, Matti

Scientific Conference (2012)

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See detailDo Hedge Funds Supply or Demand Liquidity?
Jylhä, Petri; Rinne, Kalle UL; Suominen, Matti UL

in Review of Finance (2014), 18(4), 1259-1298

Regressing hedge funds’ returns on returns to a long–short contrarian trading strategy, a measure of the returns from providing liquidity, we find that hedge funds typically supply liquidity in the stock ... [more ▼]

Regressing hedge funds’ returns on returns to a long–short contrarian trading strategy, a measure of the returns from providing liquidity, we find that hedge funds typically supply liquidity in the stock market. In the cross-section, strict redemption restrictions and large fund size increase funds’ propensity to supply liquidity. In time series, poor market liquidity and good funding conditions increase funds’ propensity to supply liquidity. Although the hedge funds typically supply liquidity, during crises they demand liquidity. We also find that increases in the amount of speculative capital improve market liquidity and reduce the amount of short-term return reversals and volatility. [less ▲]

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See detail"do huet dann dacks e Lämmchen mer Läif a Séil gelooss"
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2016)

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See detailDo humans prefer similar or dissimilar mates? Facial self-resemblance influences physiological reactions but not subjective ratings to erotic stimuli
Lass-Hennemann, J.; Deuter, C. E.; Kuehl, L. K. et al

in Psychophysiology (2009), 46(Supplement 1), 77-77

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See detailDo Inada conditions imply that production function must be asymptotically Cobb–Douglas? A comment
Litina, Anastasia UL; Palivos, Theodore

in Economics Letters (2008), 99

We correct an intermediate mistake in Barelli and Pessôa [Barelli P. and Pessôa S. de A., 2003, “Inada conditions imply that production function must be asymptotically Cobb–Douglas,” Economics Letters 81 ... [more ▼]

We correct an intermediate mistake in Barelli and Pessôa [Barelli P. and Pessôa S. de A., 2003, “Inada conditions imply that production function must be asymptotically Cobb–Douglas,” Economics Letters 81, 361–363] and show that the main result is still valid. We also show that Barelli and Pessôa wrongly identified the class of functions with elasticity of substitution asymptotically equal to one as the Cobb–Douglas class. [less ▲]

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See detailDo interoceptive deficits contribute to decision-making problems in academic procrastination
Breden, I.-H.; Dincher, K.; Pereira Pedrosa, R. et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Interoception plays an important role for intuitive decision-making. One possible explanation is that the perception of somatic markers when simulating the outcome of different action alternatives guides ... [more ▼]

Interoception plays an important role for intuitive decision-making. One possible explanation is that the perception of somatic markers when simulating the outcome of different action alternatives guides the selection for the potentially best option. In the present study, we aimed at investigating if chronically procrastinating individuals show interoceptive deficits, which may explain poor decision-making performance. We tested 19 chronic procrastinators (14 females) and 22 nonprocrastinating control individuals (14 females), recruited from students and staff of the University of Luxembourg. This study consisted of a laboratory experiment including questionnaires assessing procrastinating behavior and two separate behavioral paradigms. Using the Schandry Heartbeat Perception Task as an indicator for interoceptive accuracy and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) for the assessment of decision-making performance. Questionnaire data confirmed significantly higher procrastination scores in that group. While male participants showed a significantly higher interoceptive accuracy score than their female counterparts, procrastinators and non-procrastinators did not differ significantly in interoception. Furthermore, no differences in the choice of deck selections were found between procrastinators and non-procrastinators. Interoceptive accuracy was unrelated to decision-making performance. No significant group differences were found for either analysis regarding the performance development as well as sex differences in the IGT. We observed a learning effect in the IGT, with choices for profitable decks increasing over time and poor choices declining. The current study did neither support reduced decision-making problems, nor interoceptive deficits in procrastination. Future studies should incorporate interoceptive indicators of other organ systems and self-report measures to elucidate possible alterations in procrastination. [less ▲]

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See detailDo male and female adolescents differ in the effect of individual and family characteristics on their use of psychotropic drugs?
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, E.; Predine, R. et al

in European Journal of Pediatrics (2007), 166(1), 29-35

This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two ... [more ▼]

This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, selfreported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logistic models. The prevalence of frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia) was 43.0% overall; twice as high among girls than boys. Among the girls, frequent psychotropic drug use was associated with frequent tiredness during the daytime (adjusted odds ratio OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.61–2.57), smoking(2.02, 1.50–2.71), alcohol use (1.34, 1.04–1.74), higher body mass index (>18 kg/m2, 1.54, 1.16–2.04), poor family atmosphere (1.33, 1.03–1.72), and being worried (1.93, 1.53–2.43) or easily becoming irritable (1.28, 1.01–1.62). In boys the factors with significant ORs were frequent tiredness during the daytime (2.21, 1.67–2.93), alcohol use (1.52, 1.15–2.01), and being worried (1.70, 1.28–2.26) or easily becoming irritable (1.42, 1.06–1.89); univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship with smoking and family atmosphere. An association was also observed for illicit drugs in both sexes and for age≥17 years in girls. Individual and family characteristics have marked influence on psychotropic drug use among both male and female adolescents. Preventive measures should be taken to make adolescents and their parents more aware of the risks and to improve their living conditions. [less ▲]

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