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Peer Reviewed
See detailDielectric investigations of a chiral monomer and side chain polymer
Gouda, F.; Kutub, Abdul A; Fodor-csorba, K. et al

in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals (2000), 352

The dynamics of different collective and non-collective modes in a chiral liquid crystalline monomer and its side-chain polymer have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The monomer system enabled us ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of different collective and non-collective modes in a chiral liquid crystalline monomer and its side-chain polymer have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The monomer system enabled us to study the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity when crossing the transition from the SmA* phase directly to the crystal phase. Although the polymer system has a SmA* to SmC* transition, we found that the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is radically different from the normally observed behaviour in these phases. The contributions from the soft and Goldstone modes, respectively, are extremely low, a result which is related to the very low value of the spontaneous polarization of the material. At lower temperatures in the SmC* phase, a very weak dielectric absorption located around 50 kHz is observed and discussed in terms of the liberational motion of side chains around the polymer main chain. [less ▲]

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See detailDielectric screening of the Kohn anomaly of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride
Forster, F.; Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro UL; Engels, S. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2013), 88

Detailed reference viewed: 189 (8 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDiener
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Heinen, Heinz (Ed.) Handwörterbuch der antiken Sklaverei (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (2 UL)
See detailDiener zweier Herren
Mustafic, Maida UL

in Nikitin, Jana; Hennecke, Marie (Eds.) 100 psychologische Denkfallen: Warum wir hinterher meinen, es vorher besser gewusst zu haben (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDienstleistungsfreiheit brutto oder netto? Probleme der europäischen Sprachenvielfalt am Beispiel der EG-Fernsehrichtlinie
Cole, Mark UL; Haus, Florian C.

in Juristische Schulung : Zeitschrift für Studium und Referendariat (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (0 UL)
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See detailDiet and Public Health Campaigns: Implementation and Appropriation of Nutritional Recommendations in France and Luxembourg
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Régnier, Faustine

in Appetite (2017), 112

Based on two surveys e a French and a Luxembourgish one e with in-depth-interviews, this article examines the implementation of nutritional recommendations in two European countries. Each of them has ... [more ▼]

Based on two surveys e a French and a Luxembourgish one e with in-depth-interviews, this article examines the implementation of nutritional recommendations in two European countries. Each of them has promoted at governmental level a public health campaign regarding food consumption and daily diet. In which way e and by which social categories e are the recommendations taken in and put into practice, and if so, which appropriation processes and interpretations occur? Do the social, societal and cultural differences between Luxembourg and France (as well as within them), in terms of standard of living and dissemination of norms account for differentiated appropriations of dietary incentives? We will first compare the overarching goals as well as the dietary norms these two programs promote, in terms of similarities versus particularities both of the recommendations' content and of the way they are communicated. We will then examine the perception of these norms. The comparison France / Luxembourg shows that socio-cultural logics override national ones: the way in which individuals perceive the recommendations and appropriate them reflect more the social affiliation than the national one; gender and the events of the life cycle, particularly parentality, are also relevant to the reception of dietary recommendations. Transversal to all social milieus and in both national contexts, interviewees operate a selective internalisation of the perceived recommendations in a proactive yet pragmatic posture of personal responsibility. Ultimately, public dietary recommendations are only appropriated if they match people's daily priorities and constraints, as well as the general cultural values of their social milieu. This allows us to conclude to transnational, transversal, plural and distinctive everyday-cultural models of food consumption and differing notions of a “proper” diet. [less ▲]

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See detailDiet and Public Health Campaigns: Implementation and Appropriation of Nutritional Recommendations in France and Luxembourg
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Régnier, Faustine

Scientific Conference (2017, August 30)

Based on two surveys – a French and a Luxembourgish one – with in-depth-interviews, this paper examines the implementation of nutritional recommendations in two European countries. Each of them has ... [more ▼]

Based on two surveys – a French and a Luxembourgish one – with in-depth-interviews, this paper examines the implementation of nutritional recommendations in two European countries. Each of them has promoted at governmental level a public health campaign regarding food consumption and daily diet. In which way – and by which social categories – are the recommendations taken in and put into practice, and if so, which appropriation processes and interpretations occur? Do the social, societal and cultural differences between Luxembourg and France, in terms of standard of living and dissemination of norms account for differentiated appropriations of dietary incentives? We will first compare the overarching goals as well as the dietary norms these two programs promote, in terms of similarities versus particularities both of the recommendations’ content and of the way they are communicated. We will then examine the perception of these norms. The comparison France / Luxembourg shows that socio-cultural logics override national ones: the way in which individuals perceive the recommendations and appropriate them reflect more the social affiliation than the national one; gender and the events of the life cycle, particularly parentality, are also relevant to the reception of dietary recommendations. Transversal to all social milieus and in both national contexts, interviewees operate a selective internalisation of the perceived recommendations in a proactive yet pragmatic posture of personal responsibility. Ultimately, public dietary recommendations are only appropriated if they match people’s daily priorities and constraints, as well as the general cultural values of their social milieu. This allows us to conclude to transnational, transversal, plural and distinctive everyday-cultural models of food consumption and differing notions of a “proper” diet. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (5 UL)
See detailDiet for the Debauched: Preventive Medicine in the Eighteenth-Century Tropics
Takats, Sean UL

Scientific Conference (2012, May 31)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
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See detailDiet modulates cecum bacterial diversity and physiological phenotypes across the BXD mouse genetic reference population.
Perez-Munoz, Maria Elisa; McKnite, Autumn M.; Williams, Evan UL et al

in PloS one (2019), 14(10), 0224100

The BXD family has become one of the preeminent genetic reference populations to understand the genetic and environmental control of phenotypic variation. Here we evaluate the responses to different ... [more ▼]

The BXD family has become one of the preeminent genetic reference populations to understand the genetic and environmental control of phenotypic variation. Here we evaluate the responses to different levels of fat in the diet using both chow diet (CD, 13-18% fat) and a high-fat diet (HFD, 45-60% fat). We studied cohorts of BXD strains, both inbred parents C57BL/6J and DBA/2J (commonly known as B6 and D2, respectively), as well as B6D2 and D2B6 reciprocal F1 hybrids. The comparative impact of genetic and dietary factors was analyzed by profiling a range of phenotypes, most prominently their cecum bacterial composition. The parents of the BXDs and F1 hybrids express limited differences in terms of weight and body fat gain on CD. In contrast, the strain differences on HFD are substantial for percent body fat, with DBA/2J accumulating 12.5% more fat than C57BL/6J (P < 0.0001). The F1 hybrids born to DBA/2J dams (D2B6F1) have 10.6% more body fat (P < 0.001) than those born to C57BL/6J dams. Sequence analysis of the cecum microbiota reveals important differences in bacterial composition among BXD family members with a substantial shift in composition caused by HFD. Relative to CD, the HFD induces a decline in diversity at the phylum level with a substantial increase in Firmicutes (+13.8%) and a reduction in Actinobacteria (-7.9%). In the majority of BXD strains, the HFD also increases cecal sIgA (P < 0.0001)-an important component of the adaptive immunity response against microbial pathogens. Host genetics modulates variation in cecum bacterial composition at the genus level in CD, with significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Oscillibacter mapped to Chr 3 (18.7-19.2 Mb, LRS = 21.4) and for Bifidobacterium mapped to Chr 6 (89.21-89.37 Mb, LRS = 19.4). Introduction of HFD served as an environmental suppressor of these QTLs due to a reduction in the contribution of both genera (P < 0.001). Relations among liver metabolites and cecum bacterial composition were predominant in CD cohort, but these correlations do not persist following the shift to HFD. Overall, these findings demonstrate the important impact of environmental/dietary manipulation on the relationships between host genetics, gastrointestinal bacterial composition, immunological parameters, and metabolites-knowledge that will help in the understanding of the causal sources of metabolic disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailA Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.
Desai, Mahesh S.; Seekatz, Anna M.; Koropatkin, Nicole M. et al

in Cell (2016), 167(5), 1339-135321

Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic ... [more ▼]

Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women
Vögele, Claus UL; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

in Physiology and Behavior (2009), 98

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and ... [more ▼]

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical pro!le indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical pro!le within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum pro!le (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results con!rm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the speci!city of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (1 UL)
See detailDiet–gut microbiota interactions in immune homeostasis and food allergy
Parrish, Amy UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

Studies during the past decade have identified correlations between abundance of certain gut microbial taxa and disease, which further stress the need to better understand the mechanistic details of the ... [more ▼]

Studies during the past decade have identified correlations between abundance of certain gut microbial taxa and disease, which further stress the need to better understand the mechanistic details of the role of the microbota in health and disease. The gut microbiome and its metabolic output is heavily influenced by environmental triggers, most notably, diet. Among various dietary components, dietary fiber is non-digestible by the host and fermentation of soluble fibers occurs in the large intestine by fiber-degrading members of the microbiome. The primary byproducts of fiber fermentation include short-chain fatty acids, which have been extensively studied in the context of immune regulation and various diseases. Nevertheless, there is an unmet need to identify additional metabolites produced by a fiber-fermenting microbiome, as this knowledge will contribute toward better unravelling the mechanistic details of the microbiome’s role in disease. Moreover, little is known about the immunological consequences of removing or limiting dietary fiber – a phenomenon that has been common in the Western world for the past decades – and its impact on both gut microbial metabolism and host immunity. In this PhD thesis, I investigated the role of dietary fiber on gut microbial metabolism and its effect on the host immunophenotype at homeostasis. I employed distinct commerical and customized rodent diets with varying sources and content of dietary fiber, in mice with both conventional and humanized gut microbiomes to better understand how fibers alter microbial metabolism and host immunity. Using broad-scale capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based microbial metabolomics, I identified a suit of microbial metabolites whose abudance is modulated by the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber. The main finding of this first project was that fiber deprivation leads the gut microbiome to decrease production of B vitamin synthesis and alter bile acid metabolism. This was associated with an increased immune activation in the colonic lamina propria as identified by broad immunophenotyping using time-of-flight mass cytometry of host local and systemic organs. My data show that a variety of immune cell populations are differentially affected by fiber sources and content. In the second project of this thesis, I applied the findings that fiber deprivation induces a proinflammatory environment, which was type 2 skewed, to a disease model. Here, I evaluated the role of microbiome-mediated barrier dysfunction due to fiber deprivation in a food allergic mouse model. In mice colonized with both a conventional and artificially colonized synthetic human gut microbiota, I identified that fiber deprivation induces a colonic mucus barrier dysfunction, which led to the discovery of IgE-coated bacteria in the feces as a consequence, prior to allergic sensitization. Upon sensitization and subsequent allergen challenge, these mice exhibited more severe clinical symptoms compared to mice fed a standard laboratory chow. In a gnotobiotic model, I found that the removal of the mucin-specialist, Akkermansia muciniphila, was able to improve symptoms, and eliminate the diet effect observed in mice with a conventional as well as synthetic microbiota. This was associated with a stark decrease in type 2 inflammatory immune cell subsets within the colonic lamina propria. These novel findings arising from my PhD thesis will help the scientific community to enhance our understanding of the functional role of the gut microbiome in modulating the immune system. The links made in the first project connecting dietary fiber and B vitamins and its role in maintaining immune homeostasis provide an additional critical factor to be considered in personalized dietary interventions. In the second project, I identify that barrier dysfunction led to the activation of an atopic environment, without any additional immunological stimulus. This generated an IgE-mediated response towards commensal bacteria. Importantly, my experiments show a clear immunomodulatory role of a mucin-specialist bacterium, A. muciniphila, in allergic disease, which provides a functional link of the gut microbial composition and physiology to food allergy sensitization [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (3 UL)
See detailDifesa dell'Adone di Giovan Pietro d'Alessandro. Edizione critica
Cicotti, Claudio UL

Book published by Peter Lang (2003)

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (0 UL)
See detail"Differdange, terres rouges ou l'ancrage identitaire chez Jean Portante"
Raus, Tonia

in Mutations. Mémoires et perspectives du Bassin minier (2010), 1

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 UL)
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See detailDifférence de genre en mathématiques chez les élèves de 3ème et 9ème année d’étude : Etude à grande échelle au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Gamo, Sylvie UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Poster (2014, June)

ÉpStan (Épreuves Standardisées) est une étude annuelle à grande échelle réalisée à Luxembourg depuis 2009. Les ÉpStan ont pour objectif d’évaluer le système éducatif luxembourgeois, en particulier le ... [more ▼]

ÉpStan (Épreuves Standardisées) est une étude annuelle à grande échelle réalisée à Luxembourg depuis 2009. Les ÉpStan ont pour objectif d’évaluer le système éducatif luxembourgeois, en particulier le niveau de compétences atteint en mathématiques des élèves de 3ème et de 9ème année d’étude (âgés en moyenne de 8 ans vs. 14 ans). A partir des résultats mathématiques ÉpStan 2013 du primaire et du secondaire, cette recherche vise d’une part, à examiner si l’écart de performance mathématique entre les sexes constaté par PISA 2012 chez les élèves de 15 ans luxembourgeois est confirmé chez les élèves de 14 ans et chez les élèves plus jeunes (8 ans), (Robinson, & Theule Lubienski, 2011) et d’autre part, à tester si les écarts de performance entre les sexes reflètent des différences de motivation et de confiance en soi et d’anxiété. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (12 UL)