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See detailDispute Settlement in the Area of Space Communication
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

Book published by Nomos (2015)

Space communication is connected with numerous situations where mechanisms for dispute settlement are needed. The book analyses these mechanisms, including those used by the ITU.

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See detailDISPUTool -- A tool for the Argumentative Analysis of Political Debates
Haddadan, Shohreh UL; Villata, Serena; Cabrio, Elena

in Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, {IJCAI-19} (2019, August 14)

Political debates are the means used by political candidates to put forward and justify their positions in front of the electors with respect to the issues at stake. Argument mining is a novel research ... [more ▼]

Political debates are the means used by political candidates to put forward and justify their positions in front of the electors with respect to the issues at stake. Argument mining is a novel research area in Artificial Intelligence, aiming at analyzing dis-course on the pragmatics level and applying a certain argumentation theory to model and automatically analyze textual data. In this paper, we present DISPUTool, a tool designed to ease the work of historians and social science scholars in analyzing the argumentative content of political speeches. More precisely, DISPUTool allows to explore and automatically identify argumentative components over the 39 political debates from the last 50 years of US presidential campaigns (1960-2016). [less ▲]

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See detailDisrupted Fear and Sadness Recognition in Binge Drinking: A Combined Group and Individual Analysis
Lannoy, Severine; Benzerouk, Farid; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research (2019), 43(9), 1978-1985

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, associated with cognitive and cerebral impairments. Indeed, various cognitive processes have been identified as disrupted in binge ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, associated with cognitive and cerebral impairments. Indeed, various cognitive processes have been identified as disrupted in binge drinking, ranging from perceptive to executive functions, but emotional processes have conversely been little investigated. Particularly, it is unclear to what extent binge drinkers (BD) present difficulties to recognize and categorize the emotions expressed by other individuals. Such an exploration would, however, offer a more comprehensive view of the deficits associated with alcohol-related disorders and potentially involved in the maintenance of this harmful habit. METHODS: Fifty-two BD and 42 control participants performed an emotional task assessing the ability to recognize 6 basic emotions (i.e., anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness). Accuracy score and detection threshold were collected for each emotion. To explore the extent of emotion recognition difficulties, 2 analyses were conducted: (i) classical repeated measures analyses of variance, to compare groups' performance, and (ii) multiple single-case analyses (i.e., Crawford's t-tests), to determine the percentage of BD presenting genuine emotion recognition deficits. Correlations were also performed between alcohol consumption characteristics and emotional recognition scores. RESULTS: BD presented reduced performance for the recognition of fear and sadness. Multiple single cases highlighted that these deficits respectively concerned 21.15 and 15.38% of the binge drinking sample, and the relation between binge drinking and reduced sadness detection was supported by correlational analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that binge drinking is associated with a disrupted processing of emotional stimuli. By identifying heterogeneity in the impairments presented by BD, the present results also underline the usefulness of a combined group and individual approach. [less ▲]

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See detailDisruption in the Arts. Prologue
Koch, Lars; Nanz, Tobias; Pause, Johannes UL

in Koch, Lars; Nanz, Tobias; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Disruption in the Arts. Textual, Visual, and Performative Strategies for Analyzing Societal Self-Descriptions (2018)

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See detailDisruption of Electrospinning due to Water Condensation into the Taylor Cone.
Reyes, C. G.; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2020), 12(23), 26566--26576

The well-known problems of electrospinning hygroscopic polymer fibers in humid air are usually attributed to water condensing onto the jet mid-flight: water enters the jet as an additional solvent ... [more ▼]

The well-known problems of electrospinning hygroscopic polymer fibers in humid air are usually attributed to water condensing onto the jet mid-flight: water enters the jet as an additional solvent, hindering solidification into well-defined fibers. Here, we show that fiber fusion and shape loss seen at the end of the process may actually stem from water already condensing into the Taylor cone from where the jet ejects, if the solvent is volatile and miscible with water, for example, ethanol. The addition of water can radically change the solvent character from good to poor, even if water on its own is an acceptable solvent. Moreover, and counterintuitively, the water condensation promotes solvent evaporation because of the release of heat through the phase transition as well as from the exothermic mixing process. The overall result is that the polymer solution develops a gel-like skin around the Taylor cone. The situation is significantly aggravated in the case of coaxial electrospinning to make functional composite fibers if the injected core fluid forms a complex phase diagram with miscibility gaps together with the polymer sheath solvent and the water condensing from the air. The resulting phase separation coagulates the polymer throughout the Taylor cone, as liquid droplets with different compositions nucleate and spread, setting up strong internal flows and concentration gradients. We demonstrate that these cases of uncontrolled polymer coagulation cause rapid Taylor cone deformation, multiple jet ejection, and the inability to spin coaxial fiber mats, illustrated by the example of coaxial electrospinning of an ethanolic polyvinylpyrrolidone solution with a thermotropic liquid crystal core, at varying humidities. [less ▲]

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See detailDisruption of the interaction between PMCA2 and calcineurin triggers apoptosis and enhances paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.
Baggott, Rhiannon R.; Mohamed, Tamer M. A.; Oceandy, Delvac et al

in Carcinogenesis (2012), 33(12), 2362-8

Cancer is caused by defects in the signalling mechanisms that govern cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is well known that calcium-dependent signalling pathways play a critical role in cell regulation ... [more ▼]

Cancer is caused by defects in the signalling mechanisms that govern cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is well known that calcium-dependent signalling pathways play a critical role in cell regulation. A tight control of calcium homeostasis by transporters and channel proteins is required to assure a proper functioning of the calcium-sensitive signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and apoptosis. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2) has been recently identified as a negative regulator of apoptosis that can play a significant role in cancer progression by conferring cells resistance to apoptosis. We have previously reported an inhibitory interaction between PMCA2 and the calcium-activated signalling molecule calcineurin in breast cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of the PMCA2/calcineurin interaction in a variety of human breast cancer cells results in activation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway, upregulation in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Fas Ligand and in a concomitant loss of cell viability. Reduction in cell viability is the consequence of an increase in cell apoptosis. Impairment of the PMCA2/calcineurin interaction enhances paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity of breast tumoral cells. Our results suggest that therapeutic modulation of the PMCA2/calcineurin interaction might have important clinical applications to improve current treatments for breast cancer patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDisruptions in the Arts. Textual, Visual, and Performative Strategies for Analyzing Societal Self-Descriptions
Koch, Lars; Nanz, Tobias; Pause, Johannes UL

Book published by de Gruyter (2018)

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See detailDissecting Android Cryptocurrency Miners
Dashevskyi, Stanislav UL; Zhauniarovich, Yury; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL et al

in CODASPY '20: Tenth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy, New Orleans LA USA, March 2020 (2020, March)

Cryptojacking applications pose a serious threat to mobile devices. Due to the extensive computations, they deplete the battery fast and can even damage the device. In this work we make a step towards ... [more ▼]

Cryptojacking applications pose a serious threat to mobile devices. Due to the extensive computations, they deplete the battery fast and can even damage the device. In this work we make a step towards combating this threat. We collected and manually verified a large dataset of Android mining apps. In this paper, we analyze the gathered miners and identify how they work, what are the most popular libraries and APIs used to facilitate their development, and what static features are typical for this class of applications. Further, we analyzed our dataset using VirusTotal. The majority of our samples is considered malicious by at least one VirusTotal scanner, but 16 apps are not detected by any engine; and at least 5 apks were not seen previously by the service. Mining code could be obfuscated or fetched at runtime, and there are many confusing miner-related apps that actually do not mine. Thus, static features alone are not sufficient for miner detection.We have collected a feature set of dynamic metrics both for miners and unrelated benign apps, and built a machine learning-based tool for dynamic detection. Our BrenntDroid tool is able to detect miners with 95% of accuracy on our dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting functions of the N-terminal domain and GAS-site recognition in STAT3
Martincuks, Antons; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Haan, Serge UL et al

in Cellular Signalling (2016), 28(8), 810-25

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, inflammation and cancer progression ... [more ▼]

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, inflammation and cancer progression. Cytokine-induced gene transcription greatly depends on tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 on a single tyrosine residue with subsequent nuclear accumulation and specific DNA sequence (GAS) recognition. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the conserved STAT3 N-terminal domain (NTD) and GAS-element binding ability of STAT3 in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Our results demonstrate the nonessential role of GAS-element recognition for both cytokine-induced and basal nuclear import of STAT3. Substitution of five key amino acids within the DNA-binding domain rendered STAT3 unable to bind to GAS-elements while still maintaining the ability for nuclear localization. In turn, deletion of the NTD markedly decreased nuclear accumulation upon IL-6 treatment resulting in a prolonged accumulation of phosphorylated dimers in the cytoplasm, at the same time preserving specific DNA recognition ability of the truncation mutant. Observed defect in nuclear localization could not be explained by flawed importin-α binding, since both wild-type and NTD deletion mutant of STAT3 could precipitate both full-length and autoinhibitory domain (∆ IBB) deletion mutants of importin-α5, as well as ∆ IBB-α3 and ∆ IBB-α7 isoforms independently of IL-6 stimulation. Despite its inability to translocate to the nucleus upon IL-6 stimulation, the NTD lacking mutant still showed nuclear accumulation in resting cells similar to wild-type upon inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B. At the same time, blocking the nuclear export pathway could not rescue cytoplasmic trapping of phosphorylated STAT3 molecules without NTD. Moreover, STAT3 mutant with dysfunctional SH2 domain (R609Q) also localized in the nucleus of unstimulated cells after nuclear export blocking, while upon cytokine treatment the subcellular localization of this mutant had not changed. Our findings support the concept that basal nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of STAT3 is different from active cytokine-induced nuclear import and does not require conserved N- or SH2-terminal domains, preformed dimer formation and GAS-element-specific DNA recognition. [less ▲]

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See detailDISSECTING GENETIC EPISTASIS IN FAMILIAL PARKINSON’S DISEASE USING A DIGENIC PATIENT-DERIVED STEM CELL MODEL
Hanss, Zoé UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. 10% of PD patients present a familial form of the disease implicating genetic mutations. A variability in terms of ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. 10% of PD patients present a familial form of the disease implicating genetic mutations. A variability in terms of disease expressivity, severity and penetrance can be observed among familial cases. The idea that the classical one-gene one-trait model may not catch the full picture of genetic contribution to PD pathophysiology is increasingly recognized. Therefore, a polygenic model where multiple genes would influence the disease risk and the phenotypic traits in PD should be investigated. Mutations in PRKN, encoding the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin, cause young onset autosomal recessive forms of PD. A variability in terms of clinical presentation and neuropathology have been observed in PD patients carrying mutations in Parkin. On the other hand, mutations in GBA were recently recognized as the most common genetic risk factor for developing PD. The incomplete penetrance of the disease in patients with GBA mutations may implicate other genetic factors. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the interactions between common PD genes like PRKN and GBA can contribute to the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in PD cases. To explore this hypothesis, we generated patient-derived cellular models from several PD patients carrying pathogenic mutations in either both PRKN and GBA (triallelic models) or in only one of them (bi- or monoallelic models). We developed a novel strategy to gene edit the N370S mutation in GBA via CRISPR-Cas9, without interference with its respective pseudogene, which allows for the dissection of the role of GBA in the context of a PRKN mutation on an isogenic background. We identified a specific α-synuclein homeostasis in the triallelic model. The genetic and pharmacological rescue of GBA in the triallelic model modified the observed α-synuclein phenotype, proving the contribution of GBA to the observed phenotype. We then investigated whether Parkin was contributing to the phenotype. The modulation of Parkin function in the context of a GBA mutation induced a modification of the α-synuclein homeostasis. We therefore concluded that both PRKN and GBA are influencing α-synuclein homeostasis in the triallelic model. Nevertheless, the phenotypic outcome of the co-occurrence of these mutations was not additive nor synergistic. We therefore suggest the existence of an epistatic interaction between mutant GCase and Parkin that would underlie the clinical heterogeneity observed in PD patients carrying these mutations. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting Network externalities in International Migration
Beine, Michel UL; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

in Journal of Demographic Economics (2015), 81(4), 379-408

Migrant networks play an important role in explaining the size and structure of migration flows. They affect the private costs and benefits of migration (assimilation channel) and lower legal entry ... [more ▼]

Migrant networks play an important role in explaining the size and structure of migration flows. They affect the private costs and benefits of migration (assimilation channel) and lower legal entry barriers through family reunification programs (policy channel). This paper presents a microfounded identification strategy allowing to disentangle the relative importance of these two channels. Our empirical analysis exploits U.S. immigration data by metropolitan area and country of origin. We first confirm that the overall network externality is strong (the elasticity of migration flows to network size is around one). More interestingly, we show that only a quarter of this elasticity is accounted for by the policy channel for the 1990-2000 period, and the magnitudes of the total network effect and the policy channel are greater for low-skilled migrants. Our results are strongly robust to sample selection, identification assumptions, and treatment for unobserved bilateral heterogeneity. Finally, the policy channel was stronger in the 1990s than in the 1980s, possibly reflecting the changes in the U.S. family reunification policy. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting the Act of God: An Exploration of the Effect of Religion on Economic Activity
Litina, Anastasia UL; Carpantier, Jean-Francois UL

Scientific Conference (2015, December)

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long ... [more ▼]

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long lasting effect on the religiosity of migrants. Second, exploiting variations in the inherited component of religiosity of migrants, our analysis uncovers the causal effect of religiosity on economic activity using a panel of countries for the period 1935-2000. The empirical findings suggest that i) church attendance has a positive impact on economic outcomes; ii) religious beliefs in the existence of god, hell, heaven and miracles have no systematic effect on economic outcomes, and iii) stronger faith is associated with prosperity. Moreover we extend our analysis to uncover the channels via which religiosity operates. Notably, the positive effect of religious participation and of stronger faith on economic outcomes operates via the creation of social capital and the development of traits, such as hard work and thrift, that are conducive to growth. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting the Act of God: An Exploration of the effect of Religion on Economic Activity
Carpantier, Jean-Francois UL; Litina, Anastasia UL

E-print/Working paper (2014)

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long ... [more ▼]

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long lasting effect on the religiosity of migrants. Second, exploiting variations in the inherited component of religiosity of migrants, our analysis uncovers the causal effect of religiosity on economic activity using a panel of countries for the period 1935-2000. The empirical findings suggest that i) church attendance has a positive impact on economic outcomes; ii) religious beliefs in the existence of god, hell, heaven and miracles have no systematic effect on economic outcomes, and iii) stronger faith is associated with prosperity. Moreover we extend our analysis to uncover the channels via which religiosity operates. Notably, the positive effect of religious participation and of stronger faith on economic outcomes operates via the creation of social capital and the development of traits, such as hard work and thrift, that are conducive to growth. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting the Act of God: An Exploration of the Effect of Religion on Economic Activity
Litina, Anastasia UL; Carpantier, Jean-Francois UL

Presentation (2014)

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long ... [more ▼]

This research establishes that religiosity has a persistent effect on economic outcomes. First we use a sample of migrants in the US to establish that religiosity at the country of origin has a long lasting effect on the religiosity of migrants. Second, exploiting variations in the inherited component of religiosity of migrants, our analysis uncovers the causal effect of religiosity on economic activity using a panel of countries for the period 1935-2000. The empirical findings suggest that i) church attendance has a positive impact on economic outcomes; ii) religious beliefs in the existence of god, hell, heaven and miracles have no systematic effect on economic outcomes, and iii) stronger faith is associated with prosperity. Moreover we extend our analysis to uncover the channels via which religiosity operates. Notably, the positive effect of religious participation and of stronger faith on economic outcomes operates via the creation of social capital and the development of traits, such as hard work and thrift, that are conducive to growth. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting the role of the mitochondrial chaperone mortalin in Parkinson's disease: functional impact of disease-related variants on mitochondrial homeostasis.
Burbulla, Lena F.; Schelling, Carina; Kato, Hiroki et al

in Human molecular genetics (2010), 19(22), 4437-52

The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) based on reduced protein levels in affected brain regions of PD patients and its interaction with the ... [more ▼]

The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) based on reduced protein levels in affected brain regions of PD patients and its interaction with the PD-associated protein DJ-1. Recently, two amino acid exchanges in the ATPase domain (R126W) and the substrate-binding domain (P509S) of mortalin were identified in Spanish PD patients. Here, we identified a separate and novel variant (A476T) in the substrate-binding domain of mortalin in German PD patients. To define a potential role as a susceptibility factor in PD, we characterized the functions of all three variants in different cellular models. In vitro import assays revealed normal targeting of all mortalin variants. In neuronal and non-neuronal human cell lines, the disease-associated variants caused a mitochondrial phenotype of increased reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which were exacerbated upon proteolytic stress. These functional impairments correspond with characteristic alterations of the mitochondrial network in cells overexpressing mutant mortalin compared with wild-type (wt), which were confirmed in fibroblasts from a carrier of the A476T variant. In line with a loss of function hypothesis, knockdown of mortalin in human cells caused impaired mitochondrial function that was rescued by wt mortalin, but not by the variants. Our genetic and functional studies of novel disease-associated variants in the mortalin gene define a loss of mortalin function, which causes impaired mitochondrial function and dynamics. Our results support the role of this mitochondrial chaperone in neurodegeneration and underscore the concept of impaired mitochondrial protein quality control in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailDissemination of information on voluntary return: How to reach irregular migrants not in contact with the authorities - Luxembourg
Li, Lisa UL; Petry, David UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2015)

The focus of this study lies with irregular migrants who are not in contact with the authorities. Due to their irregular situation, it is difficult to provide information on the numbers of persons that ... [more ▼]

The focus of this study lies with irregular migrants who are not in contact with the authorities. Due to their irregular situation, it is difficult to provide information on the numbers of persons that are irregularly staying in Luxembourg. Several actors were able to provide some estimations on the scale of irregular migrants, but these estimations can only ever be partial. Statistics are available concerning the assisted voluntary return and reintegration from Luxembourg programme that is operated by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) as well as concerning the counselling services offered by different non-governmental organisations and associations. However, most of these numbers refer to migrants that are known to the authorities, mainly because they are rejected applicants for international protection. [less ▲]

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See detailDissimilar Laser Micro-Welding of Nickel Wire to CuSn6 Bronze Terminal
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals (2018)

In the present study, the laser welding of wire to flat geometry for miniature electromechanical hybrid components has been investigated. Considering the geometry of parts to be welded and also ... [more ▼]

In the present study, the laser welding of wire to flat geometry for miniature electromechanical hybrid components has been investigated. Considering the geometry of parts to be welded and also requirement of mechanical properties, spatial modulation of the laser beam was needed to be implemented to achieve a sound joint. Tensile-shear test and optical microscopy were employed to represent the mechanical properties and melt pool geometry of the joints. All welds were done by power modulation of the laser beam to better control the energy input at several feed rates and three different beam trajectories. Results showed that the shear load of the joint could be controlled by feed rate and the trajectory of the laser beam. Considering the material combination of the study that were nickel and CuSn6 bronze, which represented solubility in solid state, a joint stronger than base wire metal was achieved by defining a proper spatial modulation and feed rate of the laser beam. [less ▲]

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See detailDissipation by a crystallization process
Dorosz, Sven UL; Voigtmann, Thomas; Schilling, Tanja UL

in Europhysics Letters (2016), 113(10004),

We discuss crystallization as a non-equilibrium process. In a system of hard spheres under compression at a constant rate, we quantify the amount of heat that is dissipated during the crystallization ... [more ▼]

We discuss crystallization as a non-equilibrium process. In a system of hard spheres under compression at a constant rate, we quantify the amount of heat that is dissipated during the crystallization process. We interpret the dissipation as arising from the resistance of the system against phase transformation. An intrinsic compression rate is identified that separates a quasistatic regime from one of rapidly driven crystallization. In the latter regime the system crystallizes more easily, because new relaxation channels are opened, at the cost of forming a higher fraction of non-equilibrium crystal structures. We rationalize the change in the crystallization mechanism by analogy with shear thinning, in terms of a kinetic competition between near-equilibrium relaxation and external driving. [less ▲]

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See detailDissipation controls transport and phase transitions in active fluids: mobility, diffusion and biased ensembles
Fodor, Etienne UL; Nemoto, Takahiro; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

in NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS (2020), 22(1),

Active fluids operate by constantly dissipating energy at the particle level to perform a directed motion, yielding dynamics and phases without any equilibrium equivalent. The emerging behaviors have been ... [more ▼]

Active fluids operate by constantly dissipating energy at the particle level to perform a directed motion, yielding dynamics and phases without any equilibrium equivalent. The emerging behaviors have been studied extensively, yet deciphering how local energy fluxes control the collective phenomena is still largely an open challenge. We provide generic relations between the activity-induced dissipation and the transport properties of an internal tracer. By exploiting a mapping between active fluctuations and disordered driving, our results reveal how the local dissipation, at the basis of self-propulsion, constrains internal transport by reducing the mobility and the diffusion of particles. Then, we employ techniques of large deviations to investigate how interactions are affected when varying dissipation. This leads us to shed light on a microscopic mechanism to promote clustering at low dissipation, and we also show the existence of collective motion at high dissipation. Overall, these results illustrate how tuning dissipation provides an alternative route to phase transitions in active fluids. [less ▲]

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