References of "Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy"
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See detailEffects of expertise on football betting.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy (2012), 7

BACKGROUND: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. RESULTS: The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). CONCLUSIONS: Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. [less ▲]

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See detailArabic validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Atwi, Khodor et al

in Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy (2011), 6

BACKGROUND: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). METHODS: The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed. RESULTS: As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, Elisabeth

in Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2007), 2(21), 21-31

There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and ... [more ▼]

There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives: This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods: Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 thirdyear psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a selfadministered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results: MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion: Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues. [less ▲]

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