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See detailHow microbial community composition, sorption and simultaneous application of six pharmaceuticals affect their dissipation in soils
Kodesova, Radka; Chronakova, Alica; Grabicova, Katerina et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2020), 746

Pharmaceuticals may enter soils due to the application of treated wastewater or biosolids. Their leakage from soils towards the groundwater, and their uptake by plants is largely controlled by sorption ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceuticals may enter soils due to the application of treated wastewater or biosolids. Their leakage from soils towards the groundwater, and their uptake by plants is largely controlled by sorption and degradation of those compounds in soils. Standard laboratory batch degradation and sorption experiments were performed using soil samples obtained from the top horizons of seven different soil types and 6 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, irbesartan, fexofenadine, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole), which were applied either as single-solute solutions or as mixtures (not for sorption). The highest dissipation half-lives were observed for citalopram (average DT50,S for a single compound of 152 ± 53.5 days) followed by carbamazepine (106.0 ± 17.5 days), irbesartan (24.4 ± 3.5 days), fexofenadine (23.5 ± 20.9 days), clindamycin (10.8 ± 4.2 days) and sulfamethoxazole (9.6 ± 2.0 days). The simultaneous application of all compounds increased the half-lives (DT50,M) of all compounds (particularly carbamazepine, citalopram, fexofenadine and irbesartan), which is likely explained by the negative impact of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin) on soil microbial community. However, this trend was not consistent in all soils. In several cases, the DT50,S values were even higher than the DT50,M values. Principal component analyses showed that while knowledge of basic soil properties determines grouping of soils according sorption behavior, knowledge of the microbial community structure could be used to group soils according to the dissipation behavior of tested compounds in these soils. The derived multiple linear regression models for estimating dissipation half-lives (DT50,S) for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine, irbesartan and sulfamethoxazole always included at least one microbial factor (either amount of phosphorus in microbial biomass or microbial biomarkers derived from phospholipid fatty acids) that deceased half-lives (i.e., enhanced dissipations). Equations for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine and sulfamethoxazole included the Freundlich sorption coefficient, which likely increased half-lives (i.e., prolonged dissipations). [less ▲]

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See detailBinding of iodinated contrast media (ICM) and their transformation products with hormone receptors: Are ICM the new EDCs?
Singh, Randolph UL; Rajnarayanan, Rajendram; Aga, Diana

in Science of the Total Environment (2019)

Iodinated contrast media (ICM) have been detected at high concentrations (as high as about 3 μg/L) in surface water systems, and recently in fish brains and gonad. The mismatch between the polarity of ICM ... [more ▼]

Iodinated contrast media (ICM) have been detected at high concentrations (as high as about 3 μg/L) in surface water systems, and recently in fish brains and gonad. The mismatch between the polarity of ICM and the high lipid content of brain raises questions on whether their bioaccumulation is receptor-mediated. Furthermore, the structural similarity of ICM to the natural thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine suggest potential binding of ICM to nuclear receptors in the endocrine system. Therefore, an in silico approach based on Surflex-Dock module of SYBYL was used to investigate the molecular docking of selected ICM (diatrizoic acid, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide). These ICM showed interaction with nuclear receptors that play key roles in endocrine regulation, including the androgen and estrogen receptors. Furthermore, the results indicate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) as one of the viable targets in the endocrine disrupting potential of ICM with higher Cscores for the ICM and iopromide transformation products than the reference ligand for the receptor. The data obtained from in silico calculations showed stronger binding of iohexol to the transthyretin-binding pocket compared to the natural hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, suggesting the potential of ICM to act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailEcological deficit and use of natural capital in Luxembourg from 1995 to 2009
Rugani, Benedetto; Roviani, Davide; Hild, Paula UL et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 468-469

Scarcity of natural resources and productive land is a global issue affecting the provision of goods and services at the country scale. This is particularly true for small regions with highly developed ... [more ▼]

Scarcity of natural resources and productive land is a global issue affecting the provision of goods and services at the country scale. This is particularly true for small regions with highly developed economies such as Luxembourg, which usually balance the chronic unavailability of resources (in particular with regard to fossil fuels) with an increasing demand of imported raw materials, energy and manufactured commodities. Based on historical time-series analysis (from 1995 to 2009), this paper determines the state of natural capital (NC) utilization in Luxembourg and estimates its ecological deficit (ED). Accordingly, solar energy demand (SED) and ecological footprint (EF) for Luxembourg have been initially calculated based on a recently developed country-specific environmentally extended input–output model. Thereafter, these indicators have been compared to the corresponding annual trends of potential NC (estimated using the emergy concept) and biocapacity, respectively. Results show that the trends in ED and in the use of NC in Luxembourg have not increased substantially during the years surveyed. However, the estimates also highlight that the NC of Luxembourg is directly and indirectly overused by a factor higher than 20, while circa 9 additional ‘Luxembourg states' would be ideally necessary to satisfy the current land's requirements of the country and thus balance the impact induced by the EF. An in-depth analysis of the methodological advantages and limitations behind our modelling approach has been performed to validate our findings and propose a road map to improve the environmental accounting for NC and biocapacity in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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