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See detailDEM simulation of dense granular flows in a vane shear cell: Kinematics and rheological laws
Qi, Fenglei UL; Kiesgen de Richter, Sebastien; Jenny, Mathieu et al

in Powder Technology (2020)

The rheology of dense granular flows is investigated through discrete element method (DEM) simulation of a vane shear cell. From the simulation, profiles of shear stress, shear rate, and velocity are ... [more ▼]

The rheology of dense granular flows is investigated through discrete element method (DEM) simulation of a vane shear cell. From the simulation, profiles of shear stress, shear rate, and velocity are obtained, which demonstrates that the flow features in the vane shear cell are equivalent to those in the classic annular Couette cell. A novel correlation for the shear viscosity is formulated and leads to a new expression for μKT in the kinetic theory analysis. The μKT formulation is able to qualitatively capture the μ-I relation in the shear cell. A correlation length is added in the energy dissipation term to account for the effects of the particle motion correlation. A simplified correlation length model is derived based on DEM results and is compared with the literature. The modified granular kinetic energy equation is able to correctly predict the granular temperature profiles in the shear cell. [less ▲]

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See detailA Forcing Fictitious Domain Method to Simulate Fluid-particle Interaction of Particles with Super-quadric Shape
Wu, Mingqiu UL; Peters, Bernhard UL; Rosemann, Tony et al

in Powder Technology (2019), 360(15/January 2020), 264-277

In this work, we develop a new framework to directly simulate super-quadric (SQ) particles in fluid flows based on a forcing fictitious domain method. Specifically, a super-quadric particle function is ... [more ▼]

In this work, we develop a new framework to directly simulate super-quadric (SQ) particles in fluid flows based on a forcing fictitious domain method. Specifically, a super-quadric particle function is used to represent the particle shape of different types in a flexible manner. The immersion of particles in the fluid is handled by imposing rigid solid body motion in the particle domain, as well as adding a local forcing term to the Navier-Stokes equations by calculating the integral of both the pressure gradient and the particle velocity over the whole particle domain. Particle shapes are varied by changing the five super-quadric parameters of the SQ equation. We validate our approach by performing simulations of flow around a fixed particle and sedimentation of a particle in a channel in 2D and 3D. The validation results indicate that the current simulation results show a good agreement with experimental data. Moreover, our method is used to study the flow around fixed non-spherical particles with different orientations and particle Reynolds numbers. The particle Reynolds numbers vary from 0.1 to 3000. The super-quadric particles exemplarily considered in the current study are an ellipsoidal particle and fibre-like particles. We present the results for drag and lift coefficients at different particle orientations and different particle Reynolds numbers. The obtained results lay the foundation to apply the framework to flown through multi-particle systems in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of numerical schemes for 3D Lattice Boltzmann simulations of moving rigid particles in thermal fluid flows
Rosemann, T; Kruggel-Emden, H; Wu, Mingqiu UL et al

in Powder Technology (2019), 356(3), 528-546

The Lattice Boltzmann method is an efficient numerical method for direct numerical simulations of particulate flows. For a variety of applications not only the flow but also the heat transfer between ... [more ▼]

The Lattice Boltzmann method is an efficient numerical method for direct numerical simulations of particulate flows. For a variety of applications not only the flow but also the heat transfer between particle and fluid plays an important role. While for non-thermal flows numerous techniques to handle the moving boundaries of particles have been developed, appropriate techniques for the thermal Lattice Boltzmann method are still lacking. The following three issues are of special importance. First, the thermal boundary conditions (Dirichlet or Neumann) have to be fulfilled on the particle surface. Second, reasonable values have to be found for temperature distributions in grid nodes that are uncovered by moving particles. Third, the heat transfer between particulate and fluid phase has to be evaluated in many application, since it is an essential quantity of interest. In this work, we present new numerical schemes for all of these three key aspects. They rely to a great degree on existing schemes for the non-thermal Lattice Botzmann method. In four benchmark cases we assess which of them are the most favourable and we also show to what extend schemes based on the same principles behave similarly or differently in the flow and heat transfer simulation. The results demonstrate that the proposed techniques deliver accurate results and allow us to recommend the most advantageous approach. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational Study of the Industrial Synthesis of Tungsten Powders
Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio UL

in Powder Technology (2019)

Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a highly employed Lagrangian technique to represent particulate systems. When DEM techniques are extended by adding thermochemical conversion of solid particles as well as ... [more ▼]

Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a highly employed Lagrangian technique to represent particulate systems. When DEM techniques are extended by adding thermochemical conversion of solid particles as well as their interaction with the surrounding fluid, numerous challenging applications can be numerically studied. Nevertheless, industrial applications with large number of particles, such as powder synthesis or blast furnaces, are often time or size limited due to the high computational efforts that these simulations demand. This contribution introduces the Agglomerated Particle Method (APM) as a numerical technique aiming to reduce the computational costs of coupled Discrete Element Method and Computational Fluid Dynamics (DEM-CFD) approaches for the thermochemical conversion of powder beds. From experimental and numerical investigation on thermochemical conversion of packed beds has been observed that the temperature or composition of particles in a small spatial domain do not vary significantly. Consequently, one single numerical solution may be representative for all the particles on such a domain. Thus, a collection of neighbor particles are represented by one single agglomerated particle solved by eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) techniques. The proposed model is firstly assessed with classic benchmark problems for heating and drying of packed beds. Later, the model approach is employed for predicting the industrial synthesis of metallic tungsten powder. The comparison of APM predictions with resolved XDEM predictions and experimental data shows the proposed model as a viable technique to solve large scale powder applications, such as tungsten powder production, at feasible time. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and numerical investigation into the softening Behavior of a packed bed of iron ore pellets
Baniasadi, Mehdi UL; Peters, Bernhard UL

in Powder Technology (2018), 339

In this contribution, the softening process of a packed bed of pre-reduced pellets is investigated numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, pellets were reduced to different reduction degrees in ... [more ▼]

In this contribution, the softening process of a packed bed of pre-reduced pellets is investigated numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, pellets were reduced to different reduction degrees in a reduction apparatus. The range of reduction degree (RD) was selected 50 − 80%, which is an acceptable range for iron-bearing materials reaching the cohesive zone. Then, softening experiments under load for a packed bed of pre-reduced pellets in a lab-scale furnace at a temperature range of 800oC to initial melt formation point were carried out. For the modeling part, the newly developed eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is used. This method is able to predict the deformation of particles over temperature which needs an extension to include heat transfer to DEM. Heat transfer between particle-particle, particle-wall, and particle-gas is considered. To validate the XDEM results with the measurements, an appropriate relationship between Young's modulus of the pellet versus temperature has been estimated. The effect of load on the bed shrinkage is also discussed. FactSage version 7.0 software was used to compute the initial melt point with the phase equilibrium for a 5-component FeO − SiO2 − CaO − MgO − Al2O3 system. [less ▲]

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See detailA Numerical approach for the evaluation of particle-induced erosion in an Abrasive Waterjet focusing tube
Pozzetti, Gabriele UL; Peters, Bernhard UL

in Powder Technology (2018)

In this work, a numerical approach to study erosion phenomena inside a focusing tube for Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) is presented. The goal of this approach is to capture the erosive action of the particle ... [more ▼]

In this work, a numerical approach to study erosion phenomena inside a focusing tube for Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) is presented. The goal of this approach is to capture the erosive action of the particle-laden flow developing inside the focusing tube as a result of cumulated impact phenomena. This is fundamental in the research and development of this sector in order to optimize cost and reliability of the AWJ system. With this purpose, a multiscale algorithm for CFD-DEM is used in combination with erosion models presented in the literature so to retrieve erosion profiles comparable to the one obtained by the most common experiments in this field. The approach is shown to provide insight into the process of wear development as the identification of areas characterized by brittle and cut phenomena. Preliminary parametric studies on the influence of impact models and particle diameters are proposed to show the potentialities of the method in describing the physics of the nozzle. [less ▲]

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See detailParticle scale modeling of heat transfer in granular flows in a double screw reactor
Qi, Fenglei UL; Wright, Mark

in Powder Technology (2018), 335

Heat transfer in granular flows plays an important role in particulate material processing such as food production, pharmaceuticals and biorenewable energy production. Better understanding of the ... [more ▼]

Heat transfer in granular flows plays an important role in particulate material processing such as food production, pharmaceuticals and biorenewable energy production. Better understanding of the thermodynamics in granular flows is essential for equipment design and product quality control. In this research, a particle-scale heat transfer model was developed within the frame of traditional Discrete Element Method (DEM), which considers both conductive heat transfer and radiative heat transfer among particles. A particle-wall heat transfer model was also proposed for resolving particle-wall conductive and radiative heat transfer. The developed thermal DEM model was validated by modeling heat transfer in packed beds and comparing simulation predictions with experimental measurements. The thermal DEM model was successfully applied to the simulation of heat transfer in binary component granular flows in a double screw reactor designed for biomass fast pyrolysis to gain better understanding of the heat transfer in the system. The existence of both spatial and temporal temperature oscillations is observed in the double screw reactor. The effects of the operating conditions on the average temperature profile, biomass particle temperature probability distribution, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed. Results indicate that the particle-fluid-particle conductive heat transfer pathways are the dominant contributors to the total heat flux, which accounts for approximately 70%–80% in the total heat flux. Radiative heat transfer contributes 14%–26% to the total heat flux and the conductive heat transfer through contact surface takes only 1%–5% in the total heat flux. The total heat transfer coefficient in the double screw reactor is also reported, which varies from 70 to 110 W / (m 2 • K) depending on the operating conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailLiquid transport rates during binary collisions of unequally-sized particles
Wu, Mingqiu UL; Johannes, Johannes; Radl, Stefan

in Powder Technology (2017), 309(1), 95-109

In this paper, we study the liquid transport between particles of different sizes, as well as build a dynamic liquid bridge model to predict liquid transport between these two particles. Specifically, the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the liquid transport between particles of different sizes, as well as build a dynamic liquid bridge model to predict liquid transport between these two particles. Specifically, the drainage process of liquid adhering to two unequally-sized, non-porous wet particles is simulated using direct numerical simulations (DNS). Same as in our previous work (Wu et al., AIChE Journal, 2016, 62:1877–1897), we first provide an analytical solution of a proposed dynamic liquid bridge model. We find that such an analytical solution also describes liquid transport during collisions of unequally-sized particles very well. Finally, we show that our proposed model structure is sufficient to collapse all our direct numerical simulation data. Our model is hence able to predict liquid transport rates in size-polydisperse systems for a wide range of parameters [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical study of particle mixing in a lab-scale screw mixer using the discrete element metod
Qi, Fenglei UL; Heindel, Theodore; Wright, Mark

in Powder Technology (2017), 308

This study employs the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate particulate flow and investigate mixing performance of a lab-scale double screw mixer. The simulation employs polydispersed biomass and ... [more ▼]

This study employs the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate particulate flow and investigate mixing performance of a lab-scale double screw mixer. The simulation employs polydispersed biomass and glass bead particles based on experiments conducted in previous studies. Visual examination of particle distribution and statistical analysis of particle residence times of experimental data served as model validation. Statistical analysis indicates a maximum 9.8% difference between the experimental and simulated biomass particle mean residence time, and visual observations suggest the simulation captures the particle mixing trends observed in the experiments. Results indicate that the particle mean mixing time, non-dimensionalized by ideal flow time in the plug flow reactor, varies between 1.008 and 1.172, and it approaches 1 with increasing biomass feed rate. The mixing index profile in the axial direction shows a mixing-demixing-mixing oscillation pattern. Increasing screw pitch length is detrimental to mixing performance; decreasing the solid particle feed rate reduces the mixing degree; and increasing the biomass to glass bead size ratio decreases mixing performance. A comparison of a binary, single-sized biomass and glass particles mixture to a multicomponent mixture indicates that the binary system has similar mixing pattern as a multicomponent system. These findings demonstrate that DEM is a valuable tool for the design and simulation of double screw mixing systems. [less ▲]

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See detailA discrete-continuous approach to describe CaCO3 decarbonation in non-steady thermal conditions
Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio UL; Peters, Bernhard UL; Copertaro, Edoardo et al

in Powder Technology (2015), 275

In cement production, direct measurements of thermal and chemical variables are often unfeasible as a consequence of aggressive environments, moving parts and physical inaccessibility, and therefore ... [more ▼]

In cement production, direct measurements of thermal and chemical variables are often unfeasible as a consequence of aggressive environments, moving parts and physical inaccessibility, and therefore prediction models are essential tools in these types of industrial applications. This article addresses the problem of the numerical prediction of the CaCO3 calcination process, which is the first and the most energy expensive process in clinker production. This study was conducted using the Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM), a framework which allows a Eulerian approach for the gas phase to be combined with a Lagrange one for the powder phase. A detailed validation of the numerical model was performed by comparison to non-isothermal TG curves for mass loss during the CaCO3 decarbonation process. The complex three-dimensional predictions for solid and gas phases are believed to represent a first step towards a new insight into the cement production process. Thus, the high accuracy and detailed description of the problem addressed, serve as a basis to assess the uncertainty of more simplified models such as those used in soft sensors. [less ▲]

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See detailA discrete-continuous approach to describe CaCO3 decarbonation in non-steady thermal conditions
Copertaro, Edoardo UL; Chiariotti, Paolo; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio et al

in Powder Technology (2015), 275

In cement production, direct measurements of thermal and chemical variables are often unfeasible as a consequence of aggressive environments, moving parts and physical inaccessibility, and therefore ... [more ▼]

In cement production, direct measurements of thermal and chemical variables are often unfeasible as a consequence of aggressive environments, moving parts and physical inaccessibility, and therefore prediction models are essential tools in these types of industrial applications. This article addresses the problem of the numerical prediction of the CaCO3 calcination process, which is the first and the most energy expensive process in clinker production. This study was conducted using the Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM), a framework which allows a Eulerian approach for the gas phase to be combined with a Lagrange one for the powder phase. A detailed validation of the numerical model was performed by comparison to non-isothermal TG curves for mass loss during the CaCO3 decarbonation process. The complex three-dimensional predictions for solid and gas phases are believed to represent a first step towards a new insight into the cement production process. Thus, the high accuracy and detailed description of the problem addressed, serve as a basis to assess the uncertainty of more simplified models such as those used in soft sensors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (11 UL)