References of "Physiology and Behavior"
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See detailModulation of startle and heart rate responses by fear of physical activity in patients with heart failure and in healthy adults
Hoffmann, Jeremia Mark; Finke, Johannes B.; Schächinger, Hartmut et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2020), 225(1), 113044

Fear of physical activity (FoPA) is prevalent in patients with heart failure and associated with lower physical activity despite medical exercise prescriptions. The present study examined physiological ... [more ▼]

Fear of physical activity (FoPA) is prevalent in patients with heart failure and associated with lower physical activity despite medical exercise prescriptions. The present study examined physiological indicators of FoPA by assessing startle modulation and heart rate responses after affective priming with lexical stimuli of positive, neutral, and negative valence, as well as words related to physical activity as potentially phobic cues. After screening for FoPA in patients with heart failure and healthy adults, twenty participants each were assigned to one of three subsamples: a healthy control group and two cardiac patient groups scoring either low or high on FoPA. The high-FoPA group showed more pronounced startle potentiation and heart rate acceleration (i.e., mobilization of defensive behavior) in the phobic prime condition compared to controls. Differences in FoPA accounted for 30% of the startle potentiation by phobic priming, whereas general anxiety, depression, and disease severity were no significant predictors in patients with heart failure. These findings suggest that heart failure-associated FoPA elicits avoidance behavior at a largely automatic level, and might thereby contribute to low adherence to exercise regimen. Thus, FoPA should be addressed in the design of psychological interventions for cardiac patients to foster physical activity. [less ▲]

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See detailCortisol rapidly increases baroreflex sensitivity of heart rate control, but does not affect cardiac modulation of startle
Schulz, André UL; Richter, Steffen; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S. et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2020), 215(1), 112792

Cortisol, the final product of human HPA axis activation, rapidly modulates the cortical processing of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. While peripheral effects have been ... [more ▼]

Cortisol, the final product of human HPA axis activation, rapidly modulates the cortical processing of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. While peripheral effects have been excluded, it remains unclear whether this effect is mediated by cortical or subcortical (e.g. brainstem) CNS mechanisms. Cardiac modulation of startle (CMS) has been proposed as a method to reflect cardio-afferent signals at subcortical (potentially brainstem-) level. Using a single blind, randomized controlled design, the cortisol group (n = 16 volunteers) received 1 mg cortisol intravenously, while the control group (n = 16) received a placebo substance. The CMS procedure involved the assessment of eye blink responses to acoustic startle stimuli elicited at six different latencies to ECG-recorded R-waves (R + 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ms). CMS was assessed at four measurement points: baseline, -16 min, +0 min, and +16 min relative to substance application. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) of heart rate (HR) control was measured non-invasively based on spontaneous beat-to-beat HR and systolic blood pressure changes. In the cortisol group, salivary cortisol concentration increased after IV cortisol administration, indicating effective distribution of the substance throughout the body. Furthermore, BRS increased in the cortisol group after cortisol infusion. There was no effect of cortisol on the CMS effect, however. These results suggest that low doses of cortisol do not affect baro-afferent signals, but central or efferent components of the arterial baroreflex circuit presumably via rapid, non-genomic mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailVisceral-afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not urinary urge, affect startle eye blink
Schulz, André UL; Schilling, Thomas M.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2019), 199(1), 165-172

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid until 80% of the subjective urge to micturate was reached. EMG responses to acoustic startle stimuli were assessed before and after micturition, as well as in the early and late cardiac cycle phases (230 vs. 530 ms after a cardiac R-wave). Sonographic assessment confirmed bladder-filling status. Emotional arousal, stress, urge and unpleasantness ratings, as well as mean blood pressure were higher before than after micturition. Startle eye blink responses were lower during the early than during the late cardiac cycle phase, but were not affected by bladder filling status. We conclude that startle methodology is suitable for the investigation of afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not to reflect urinary urgency. This result may be due to different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying afferent signals from the bladder compared to other visceral organs or interference with affective states or sympathetic activation associated with bladder filling. Notwithstanding, the present research protocol of fluid intake, sonographic assessment of the bladder, and subjective reports, can be applied to examine visceral-afferent signals from the bladder. [less ▲]

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See detailOf larks and hearts – morningness/eveningness, heart rate variability and cardiovascular stress response at different times of the day
Roeser, Karolin; Obergfell, Friederike; Meule, Adrian et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2012), 106 (2)

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that ... [more ▼]

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that eveningness is related to greater impulsivity and susceptibility to stress than morningness. Heart rate variability (HRV) serves as a physiological correlate of self- and emotional regulation and has not yet been investigated in relation to chronotypes. The study explores differences in HRV and other cardiovascular measures in morning- and evening-types at rest and under stress at different times of day (8-11 a.m. or 4-7 p.m.). Students (N = 471) were screened for chronotype and n = 55 females (27 morning- and 28 evening-types) were recruited for testing. These participants performed a mental arithmetic task while heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Spectral components and a time-domain measure of HRV were calculated on HR data from resting and mental stress periods. Evening-types had significantly higher HR and systolic BP, but lower HRV than morning-types both at baseline and during stress. Stress induced in the evening had a significantly stronger impact on absolute and baseline corrected physiological measures in both chronotypes. The interaction of chronotype and testing time did not reach the level of significance for any of the dependent variables. The enhanced physiological arousal in evening-types might contribute to increased vulnerability to psychological distress. Hence, previous behavioral findings are supported by the physiological data of this study. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychophysiological responses to idiosyncratic stress in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder.
Hilbert, Anja; Vögele, Claus UL; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2011), 104

This study examined psychophysiological stress responses to idiosyncratically relevant stress in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), in relation to autonomic cardiac control and ... [more ▼]

This study examined psychophysiological stress responses to idiosyncratically relevant stress in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), in relation to autonomic cardiac control and nutritional status. A total of 81 women with BN, BED and healthy controls (HC) took part in an in sensu exposure to idiosyncratic stress. Psychological and peripheral physiological parameters were measured, and tonic heart rate variability, nutritional status, and types of stress were determined. In response to stress exposure, both eating disordered groups showed a stronger reactivity of sadness, and the BED group showed a stronger reactivity of insecurity than the HC group. Desire to binge was increased in the context of interpersonal stress. Stress exposure led to increased cardiovascular activity and reduced electrodermal activity that did not differ by group. The BN-specific symptomatology moderated the association between autonomic cardiac control and psychophysiological stress responses. The results suggest common and specific psychophysiological processes in symptom maintenance through life stress in BN and BED. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiopulmonary baroreceptors affect reflexive startle eye blink
Richter, S.; Schulz, André UL; Port, J. et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2009), 98(5), 587-593

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See detailDietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women
Vögele, Claus UL; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

in Physiology and Behavior (2009), 98

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and ... [more ▼]

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical pro!le indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical pro!le within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum pro!le (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results con!rm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the speci!city of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. [less ▲]

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